Monthly Archives: February 2019

Western Art. Felicity lesson 8 =======================


Western Art. Felicity lesson 8

Art is the range of art forms. They are about expressing things and representing things outside themselves. The word ‘art’ usually refers to visual arts which we sometimes call plastic arts. ‘Plastic’ arts do not involve plastic! These arts involve materials such a paper, paint, ink, charcoal, metal, wood, stone etc…. The visual arts include painting, drawing, print making , sculpture and so forth.

Art has been around as long as humans have. There were paintings on the walls of caves tens of thousands of years ago. People drew themselves and the beasts that they were hunting. They represented the natural world and mankind’s struggle in it.

Civilisation is about 5000 years old. This is when writing began in Ancient Iraq. Many forms of art exist from that time. People made sculptures and dolls from clay and cloth. Their writing was about the same themes as their artwork. Writing grew out of drawing. People drew pictures to represent things – and these came to be words. Some of these pictures we call ‘ideograms’.

The Ancient Egyptians had a form of writing called hieroglyphs. This was somewhere between writing and drawing. Drawing pictures was too time consuming. So a system of writing was invented that was based on representing sound rather than ideas or things.

Art in the Ancient World tended to be realistic. However, people had some fantasies. They drew, painted and made sculptures of imaginary beings. These creatures were partly human and partly animal. The Ancient Egyptians had gods and goddesses who had human bodies but the heads of jackals, crocodiles and cows etc…

Architecture can be a form of art. Architecture can be completely functional – simply building a house or bridge that is as easy as possible to build and not at all fancy. But soon people added flourishes to make buildings more alluring. Art is about aesthetics – making things visually attractive.

In Ancient Greece they believed that beauty could be expressed as a ratio. It was 3:8. A building should be 8 units wide and 3 units high. So it could be 8 metres wide and 3 metres high. Or it could be 16 metres wide and 6 metres high or anything that kept the ratio 3:8.

Corinthian architecture was the most popular form or architecture from Ancient Greece. It takes its name from the city of Corinth. They built columns on their temples and had a portico at the front. Roofs were triangular. You can see Corinthian architecture in many famous buildings in the west even today.

The Ancient Romans continued the Ancient Greek traditions and extrapolated from them.  They produced many statues and sculptures of nudes. The Romans and Greeks claimed that the Philistine people were unappreciative of the arts. This is why the word ‘Philistine’ means someone who does not have any artistic refinement.

Christianity began in the 1st century AD. Christianity became the dominant religion in Western Europe after the 4th century AD. The bulk of art was Christian inspired thereafter. Its imagery became increasingly stylized. This means there was little individual choice for the artist. He or she was supposed to follow set patterns. Images became less lifelike.

Stained glass was a popular art form at the time. They used wax to make colourful images in glass. These illustrated religious stories.

El Greco was a famous Greek artist in the 16th century. He lived in Spain and they called him ‘El Greco’ meaning ‘the Greek’. He was known for returning art to producing very lifelike images of people. However, they tended to be shown with rather long, thin faces like El Greco himself.

In the 15th century the Renaissance started. ‘Renaissance’ means ‘rebirth’ in French. This was the rediscovery of classical learning. European artists began to copy old Greek and Roman styles of art. They started to depict scenes from Ancient Greek and Roman myths. No one believed in the gods and goddesses of the ancient pantheon but they were shown anyway.

Some aristocrats became ‘patrons of the arts’. A patron (a man) or patroness (a woman) would have a salon. A salon is literally a ‘room’ for artists. The patron or patroness would give money to poor struggling artists whether painters, drawers, sculptors, musicians, composers, poets or whatever. The artists would then produce work that the patron or patroness found pleasing. This would sometimes be flattering images of the patron or patroness ; painting, drawing or statues. It might be a panegyric  – a poem of praise. Sometimes the artists would produce something laudatory about the ancestors and ancestresses of the patron or patroness.

Italy was the centre of European art from the 15th century to 18th century. Many famous artists were Italians such as Caravaggio, Galileo, Michelangelo, Rafael and Titian. Michelangelo made a sculpture of David for Florence Cathedral. The statue is 5 metres high and was supposed to be 100 metres up on the cathedral. It was so magnificent it was decided to keep it on the ground. Up high people would not be able to appreciate the detail.

In the Renaissance a popular theme was pastoralism. This is related to the Latin word for shepherd. Pastoral scenes would be idyllic images of the countryside – of farms, of hills, forests and rivers. They would also show flocks of sheep or herds of cows. The shepherd and the shepherdess would feature. So would the herdsman and the milkmaid.

Milkmaids were women who milked cows. Milking a cow by hand is laborious and takes half an hour. Milkmaids were always depicted as exceptionally beautiful. They had radiant healthy skin. Poets as well as painters described these woman this way – as having a youthful and flawless complexion. Why was it that milkmaids had a reputation for such lustrous skin?

There was a disease called smallpox that ravaged Europe. This was a contagious disease that caused people to get pox – ugly growths on their skin. Smallpox killed some people. Those who survived it were permanently scarred with pockmarks. In the late 18th century it was discovered that milkmaids were protected from getting smallpox. They caught cowpox from cows. Cowpox is a much less serious condition – it does not kill people.

Some arts are not visual as such. Poetry, prose, theatre and music are also arts.

Art can be in things like wallpaper, carpets and interior design. It can also include fashion design especially haute couture. ‘Haute couture’ is French for ‘high tailoring’. Haute couture is treating clothes as an art form. It means designing clothes that are incredibly extravagant and eye catching. They are very expensive and impractical – they cannot be worn on a day to day basis.

Some artistic terminology applies to all art forms. This includes ‘leitmotiv’. This is a pattern that keeps repeating. If there is a symbol on a carpet that is seen many times on the carpet that is an example of leitmotiv. If there is a certain rhyme which is used again and again in a poem that is leitmotiv. If in a piece of music there are a few bars that are repeated several times that is leitmotiv.


  1. What are plastic arts?
  2. What are arts other than the plastic arts?
  3.  Do plastic arts always involve plastic?
  4. What are the first examples of art?
  5.  What are hieroglyphs?
  6.  Why did we invent writing?
  7. What was the ideal ratio in Ancient Greece?
  8.  What is a popular Ancient Greek style of architecture?
  9. What did the gods of Ancient Egypt look like?
  10. Who was El Greco?
  11. What was the Renaissance?
  12. Name three Italian Renaissance artists.
  13. What is pastoralism?
  14. Why were milkmaids thought to be beautiful?
  15. What is a patron of the arts?
  16. What is leitmotiv?
  17. What is a panegyric?
  18. What is haute couture?
  19. What does it mean if an image is stylized?
  20. What is your favourite form of art and why? Five marks.



A dream of hobgoblin


she was in her gestation. we met a pakistani woman – maybe and ISI one. I had seen a bit of ek tha tiger which is it came up. Katina keif? This female was youngish and lubricious and pale s o probably katrina.

this woman said that hobgoblin shoudl have a termination.  was horrifed at this ghastly suggetion. so was hibgoblin. she was ending the secont trimisnter. maybe me think that was when hpv manifested.

had been speaking to geek about isi yesterday as he asked about indo pak siutation.

cannot remember what else was in the revery.

Felicity lesson 5. Oxford and Cambridge



Oxford and Cambridge


Oxford and Cambridge are usually mentioned in the same breath. These two splendid universities are the most outstanding universities in the United Kingdom. They are among the top ten universities in the world. Oxford and Cambridge are perhaps eclipsed by some American universities but only because the American ones have far more money.

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in the English-speaking world. Oxford University’s origins are obscure but it certainly existed in some form in the 12th century. In 1355 there was the St Scholastica’s Day Riot. There was much friction between undergraduates and those people in the town who were not connected to the university. On 10 February 1355 an argument over beer started in a pub called Swindlestock Tavern. This devolved into a general brawl. The haughty students were widely hated by the much put upon townsfolk. In the end 66 students were stabbed to death and several townsfolk were also slain. Students and lecturers fled for their lives into the countryside. The King totally took the side of the university. He dispatched soldiers to restore order and protect the students when they returned to Oxford. The mayor of Oxford was compelled to apologise for the behavior of the people of the city and pay reparations. The City of Oxford was oblige plead for forgiveness from the University of Oxford for the St Scholastica’s Day Riot and pay compensation every year for the next 470 years.

Some Oxford undergraduates and lecturers never felt safe in Oxford again. They moved off to a swap called Cambridge. Cambridge University was founded in a town 150 kilometres east of Oxford.

In Oxford and Cambridge they talk of ”town and gown.” The town means those people who live in that place but are not part of the university in any way. The gown refers to students and lecturers because they wear gowns on ceremonial occasions.

Oxford may refer to the University of Oxford or the City of Oxford. In an academic context is plainly means the university. Likewise Cambridge may be used to indicate the University of Cambridge or indeed the City of Cambridge. In a scholastic context it signifies the university.

In Oxford and Cambridge you will hear much talk of ‘dons’. A don is someone who teaches at the university. Don is a slang word but it is respectful. Only a few academicians in the United Kingdom attain the lofty title ‘professor’. No one had this title until the 18 century in the United Kingdom. It is possible for an academic to lecture in a university for their entire career and never gain this high and unusual title ‘professor.’ The other dons have lower titles such as ‘lecturer’.



Oxford is about 70 km from London. The city is slightly bigger than Cambridge. It is perhaps a little more political and more cosmopolitan than Cambridge.

Cambridge is a smaller town. Its colleges are more resplendent than those of Oxford. Cambridge sis sometimes said to be a bit better at Science and Oxford is thought to have the edge in the Humanities. Oxford has the largest History Faculty in the world with over 100 academics. You are more likely to find a scholar with an enthusiasm in your favourite topic in History here than at any other university on the planet.

The two universities are really on a par. There is a friendly rivalry between them. They compete in sports against each other. There is much exchange between them. An academic at Oxford might have been an undergraduate at Cambridge. Someone who does  Bachelor’s degree at oxford often goes on to do a Master’s degree at Cambridge.

Visit both universities and form an opinion. Seek guidance from a superb educational consultant.

Take notice of the fact that for undergraduate application you are only allowed to apply  to either Cambridge or Oxford in any single year. However, supposing you apply to Cambridge and are rejected this year then you are permitted to apply to Oxford next year (or Cambridge again if you wish). This article shall focus on undergraduate admissions.



Oxford is divided into about 40 colleges. Cambridge is also divided into about 40 colleges. A college is like a fraternity or a hall of residence. Each college has its own history, coat of arms, sports teams, chapel, dining hall and so forth. Most colleges do most subject. It is not the case that each college does a different subject. It is a federal system. A college is like a region and the university is like the federal government.

Colleges do not matter enormously. An undergraduate can make the college matter if he or she wants to. It can be the centre of one’s social life.

Undergraduates are required to live in college accommodation for their first year. Thereafter they can continue to live in college accommodation or rent privately. Not all college accommodation is on the main site. Colleges own buildings around the city.

Some colleges are huge with 600 students. They can have ancient and beautiful buildings. Others are quite small with as few as 50 students and modern with unimpressive buildings. The most magnificent colleges are harder to get into since more people apply. The most opulent colleges in Cambridge are King’s and Trinity. At Oxford the most fantastic colleges are Magdalen ( pronounced ‘Maudlin’) and Christ Church.

Lectures and exams are organized centrally. Supposing someone is read Geography at St Peter’s College, Oxford. He attends the same lectures as someone reading Geography at Hertford College, Oxford. They sit the same examinations. They are awarded a degree by Oxford University rather than the college. The same is true for the colleges of Cambridge University.

College and subject selection greatly influences one’s chances of getting in. St John’s College, Oxford typically has ten applicants per place. Jesus College, Cambridge usually has around nine applicants per place. Bear in mind that most of these applicants are brilliant. There are certain colleges with have rather fewer applicants such as St Benet’s Hall, Oxford or Murray Edward’s College, Cambridge.

Classics only has about three applicants per place likewise Theology does not have many applicants whereas Business normally has twelve applicants per place. Thus a candidate can greatly increase his or her chances of securing a place at one of these illustrious university by applying to an unpopular college for an unpopular subject. Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic is offered at Cambridge. It has poor job prospects so not many applicants. It is a lot easier to get in for therefore. Law, Economics and Medicine all have superb job prospects so there are many applicants for these subjects. That makes them fiendishly difficult to get in for.

Each college has a number of fellows. A fellow is usually a lecturer at that college. The fellows are part of the governing body of the college. They have a few meetings a year to discuss important matters. Some of the fellows will be the accountant of the college and perhaps some very distinguished alumni. Typically a college will have 500 students and about 50 fellows.

Although every college has a chapel most students are not religious. These colleges were originally religious foundations. The colleges all have a Christian affiliation – mostly Church of England but a few are Roman Catholics. There is no obligation or even pressure to even attend chapel. But the chapel is there with worship at least twice a week for those who wish to attend. There is a chaplain in each college. There is an Orthodox Church in Oxford but it is not connected to the university. Non-Christians have been welcome at both universities since the 1870s. There are Muslims, Hindus, Jews and Atheists in these universities.

There is a friendly rivalry between Oxford and Cambridge. They play sports against each other. The colour of Oxford is dark blue – it is like the blue on the French Flag. The colour of Cambridge is a very light blue – almost turquoise. A match between Oxford and Cambridge is called a ‘blues match’. Someone who represented Oxford or Cambridge at a sport is called a ‘blue’. The top team in any sport for Oxford is called ‘the blues’ likewise at Cambridge their best team in any sport is called ‘the blues’. That is because Oxford will have several teams at rugby, several in tennis, several teams in football etc…

The Varsity Match is a rugby match in December. It is just after the Christmas holidays start. It is played at Twickenham Stadium in London. This is the English national rugby stadium. It is called ‘varsity’ because that is an old slang word for ‘university’. This match is Oxford versus Cambridge.

The University Boat Race takes place on Palm Sunday. That is the Sunday before Easter. This boat race has been going since 1829. It was started by Charles Wordsworth – nephew of the renowned poet William Wordsworth. The race is rowed on the river Thames. They start at Putney Bridge. They row to the west – they are rowing inland. The River Thames is tidal. That means that seawater is coming in. They time the race to start near high tide – the boats are rowing with the flow of the water. This race has been rowed every year except during the First World War and Second World War. Cambridge has won more than Oxford. There was one dead heat in the 19th century – it was a draw because both boats were judged to have crossed the finish line at the same time.

There are eight rowers in a rowing boat. The crew is called and VIII (pronounced ‘eight’). There is also a coxswain. He or she steers the boat and does not row. The coxswain is very small and light. The rowers are very tall, slim and strong. The Oxford 1st VIII is Oxford’s best crew. People called it ‘the blue boat.’ Likewise Cambridge’s 1st VIII is also called the blue boat.

There is a men’s race and there is a women’s race.


  1. Which country are Oxford and Cambridge in?
  2.  Which university is older?
  3.  What happened in the St Scholastica’s Day Riot?
  4. What do ‘town and gown’ mean?
  5. What is a don?
  6. What is so special about the History Faculty at Oxford?
  7. Which subjects have the best job prospects?
  8. What is the religious affiliation of most of these colleges?
  9. What is a ‘fellow’ in relation to these colleges?
  10.  Do you have to be a Christian to go to one of these colleges?
  11. What is the colour of Oxford?
  12.  What is the colour of Cambridge?
  13. What is a blues match?
  14. What is the blue boat?
  15. How many rowers are there in a rowing boat?
  16. What is a coxswain?
  17. When did the University Boat Race begin?
  18. Who was Charles Wordsworth?
  19. What is the Varsity Match?
  20. Where does the University Boat Race start?
  21. Why are these universities so well known? Five marks.

a dream of bill clinton


chattung to him. maybe because of univ. reminiscing a lot of late. introduce dby someone. was it lord butler? cannot remember what I duscussed with the ex pres but we spoke for a long while. he was tranquil, affabel and paid full attention

saw nude females too. chatting to zhanna – sweet nothings.

THB that technology has gone too far====================================================



we are not total luddites. no technophobes

physical health. locomotion. lazy, obese. no sports. no games.  headaches.

socially disconnected. phones. FB. birthday drink. ‘the net’ film

addicted online. not speaking in hostel. buying more expensive tech. drugs and slaves.

mental health. fantasy world. believing lies. porn. online gambling. dark web.

no nature. concrete over. pollution. bad for environment. fossil fuels. wear clothes.



tech svaes lives. emergency. healthcare. heating. trasnport.. hygiene/

improve quality. travel to work. holidays. houses. clothes. electricyt . running water.

true we need to cut down on phnes. save energy.

communication. friends across the world. jobs. work online. info. education. mooc. PASSING of remoteness.

we had drugs porn and cultes before internet.

we can still do sport. technology can help you drive to the gym and count steps, music as you run.

other side is anti progressive. live in a cave, some do so.