communication lesson 4
time conjunctions; if, unless, when , until, as soon as
verbs as prepositions
first conditionals- if unless
Some people like the idea of living forever. Religious people often believe that after they die they will go to heaven if they have been good.
In Ancient Greece there was a myth about someone who asked the gods for eternal life. This was granted. However, this person became decrepit and lived to the age of hundreds of years. Eventually this person asked to be released from this suffering and his wish was granted. Eternal youth was said to be more desirable than eternal life. The Greeks believed that there was a special potion called elixir which ensured a person would stay young forever.
The Bible has a story of Methusaleh living to the age of 800. In recent times scientists have been able to manipulate the genes of mice and feed them a healthy diet to make them live several times longer than normal. They were called Methusaleh mice.
A Frenchwoman lived to the age of 122. There are tales of people living to fabulous figures of hundreds of years. But this woman had a birth certificate and there is no doubt that she really was 122 when she died.
In highly developed countries women live longer than men. This is because men tend not to take care of their health so well and they do dangerous things. In less developed countries the men usually live longer than women. This is because women there tend to have several children and it is a strain on their health.
Countries with very long life expectancy include Denmark, Norway and Japan. Superb healthcare, a seafood diet and plenty of exercise help increase longevity. The Mediterranean diet is said to be the best in the world for this – fish, olive oil, fresh fruit and vegetables every day. Having a loving family and plenty of friends also extend lifespan.
In the most advanced countries life expectancy is 81. This does not mean that everybody dies in their 81st birthdays! The average is affected by a few infants dying. There are plenty people who live much longer than 81. Some people live to over 100. In Denmark becoming a centenarian is a banality. In the United Kingdom anyone who reaches 100 will receive a telegram from the Queen. The Queen no longer signs them personally because there are so many of them.
- What do religious people believe will happen to them once they die if they have been good?
- Who was Methusaleh?
- What is the Mediterranean diet?
- What is elixir?
- What was the nationality of a woman who lived to 122?
- Name three countries with a very long life span.
- What do British people receive on their 100th birthday?
- In advanced countries do women live longer than men?
- Would you like to live forever if it were possible? (Five sentences)
‘If’ is a conjunction and it relates to conditionals. The word ‘if’ precedes a condition to be fulfilled. Here are some examples:
‘If you eat well you will live long.’
‘I would not go there if I were you.’
‘If she studies hard she will pass.’
‘Have some fruit if you like’
Write four more ‘if’ sentences.
‘Unless’ is also for conditionals but it is about saying that a certain condition needs to be satisfied for else something else shall occur. Here are some examples:
‘Come here unless you want trouble’
‘Do not turn on the alarm unless there is a fire.’
‘Do not buy it unless you need it.’
‘You must be on time unless you have a good excuse.’
Write four more sentences with unless.
‘When’ is about the time that something occurs. Here are examples:
When I was young I was good looking.
When it was his birthday he received a gift.
When the plane took off I was relieved.
When did you last meet him?
Write four more ‘when’ sentences?
‘Until’ means ‘up to that time.’ Here are some examples
You must stay at school until you are 16.
I did not learn Spanish until I went to Spain.
Until you behave you will get no pocket money.
I could talk until the cows come home.
Write four more until sentences.
‘As soon as’ means ‘when a condition is fulfilled another thing will happen immediately.’ Here are examples:
As soon as you hear the alarm evacuate the building.
As soon as my dad comes home I hug him.
I will buy a car as soon as I can.
I will lose weight as soon as I can afford to join the gym.
VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions are words about position or place.
Some examples are; under, over, above, through, to from and beside. These do not have to be physical positions or places but sometimes they are physical. There are well over 100 prepositions.
Here are sentences using verbs with prepositions.
Go over there.
Come up here.
She is reading a book by Mike Hazelhurst.
He is with his aunt.
Write four more preposition sentences including a verb.
Future conditionals are about ‘if’ something happens later then another thing will happen as a result of that first happening. It is about a condition being fulfilled in future.
“First conditional” refers to predictive conditional sentences (see above section); here, normally, the condition is expressed using the present tense and the consequence using the future:
If you make a mistake, someone will let you know.
if + present tense + future tense
If she gets it wrong she will be upset.
If Hector is petulant he will regret it.
If the princess is petulant I shan’t be surprised.
If Mehetabel gets married I shall be elated.
Write four more sentences using this grammatical structure.
“Third conditional” is the pattern where the condition clause is in the past subjunctive form of the present perfect (now identical with the past perfect even for the verb “be”), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional perfect. This is used to refer to hypothetical, counterfactual (or believed likely to be counterfactual) situations in the past
if + had + would have + 3rd form of verb
If you had called me, I would have come.
Here are examples
If she had been wiser she would not have got into trouble.
If he had been cautious he would not have been caught.
If they had been another race the police would not have shot them.
If he had not gone to the hospital he would have been fatally ill.
Write four more sentences like these ones.