Laos is a country in Asia. It is located in the south-east of the continent. This country is bordered by Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia. Laos does not have a coastline. The River Mekong flows through Laos. For a stretch it forms the border between Laos and Vietnam. This country has a climate that is warm to hot. The nation is within the tropical zone. Much of the country is rainforest. The rest of the land is mostly rice padis or mountains.

Laos was an independent country for centuries. At times it was united with Thailand. The Lao language is related to Thai. In the 1850s the French annexed Vietnam and Cambodia. The French then threatened the Thais to hand over Laos. The Thais complied.

The French built roads and railways. They disseminated the French language. Their legal system was also introduced. Modern medicine saved countless lives.

After the Second World War the French reformed their rule in Laos. Laos became a self-governing country within the French Union. Communists rejected this as bogus.

In the 1950s a separatist rebellion began against the French. In 1954 the French withdrew from Laos.

In about 1960 a communist revolt began in South Vietnam. The communist government of North Vietnam assisted this. The conflict spilt over into Laos. The Pathet Lao were the communists in Lao. The communists finally won in Laos too.

In the 1990s the communist system was dismantled in Laos. There is now free trade and a modicum of free expression.

Vientiane is the capital city. Luang Prabang is the second city.

The currency of Laos is Kip. The value of Kip is very low indeed.

The Flag of Lao has a red stripe at the top a blue one in the middle and a red one at the bottom. There is a white elephant symbol in the middle.


  1. Which continent is Laos in?
  2. Name three neighbours of Laos. Three marks.
  3. What is the climate like?
  4. What is the landscape like?
  5. Is this a landlocked continent?
  6. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  7. What is the capital city?
  8. Name the second city?
  9. What is the longest river in the country?
  10. Name the currency.






Libya is a country in Africa. This nation is beside the Mediterranean Sea. The section of the Mediterranean that is Libya’s coast is called the Gulf of Sirte. The neighbours of Libya are Tunisia, Algeria, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan and Egypt. Libya is on the northern edge of Africa. The climate is warm to hot all year. There are very strong winds sometimes. The country’s biome is almost entirely desert.

The ANCIENT Greeks founded three cities in Libya. They called them ‘tripolis’ as in ”three cities.” This is not called Tripoli. It is the capital of Libya.

The Romans conquered this country two millennia ago. There are Roman ruins such as at Leptis Major.

The Arabs brought Islam to Egypt in the 7th century AD. They also brought the Arabic language. This is the official language of Libya. SOme people speak Berber too. Libya was part of the Muslim Empire. In turn it became part of the Ottoman Empire.

Libya split into different provinces – Tripolitania was one around Tripoli. Cyrenaica was the other which is western Libya. Then there is the Fezzan which is southern Libya.

Barbary pirates based in Libya raided ships in the Mediterranean and the coast of Europe. They kidnapped people and took them into servitude. The United States sent a military mission to suppress these pirates. There is a song ‘The Shores of Tripoli’ describes this mission by the US Marines. The US Government asked the local ruler why he took Americans as slaves. He said that his faith entitled him to do so.

By the late 19th century Ottoman rule was solely nominal. Although the Sultan in Istanbul was the titular ruler of Libya the Dey of Tripoli was effectively an independent monarch. This title was held by the Senussi family.

In 1911 Italy declared war on the Ottomans. They annexed Libya as well as the Dodecanese Islands. The Ottomans were given short shrift. The Ottomans ceded Libya as they had no control over it anyway. The Libyans fought at little. They did not perceive themselves to be Libyans. The Italians controlled the coast but had difficulty pacifying the hinterland. They wrote a song ”A Tripoli” to hail their victory but it was a damp squib.

The Senussi family fled to Egypt which was under the British aegis. Guerrilla fighting in Libya continued inexorably.

Italians came to settle in Libya. In 1922 Mussolini became Prime Minister of Italy. His fascists government looked back into the annals to see what these provinces had been called in Roman times. They revived the name Libya which had been forgotten for centuries. Mussolini was a Christian but said he was a friend of Islam.

In the Second World War some crucial battles were fought here. The Allies prevailed. After the war Italy renounced any claim to extra-metropolitan territory. The Senussis came back. Libya became a kingdom. The king Idris has British troops for a while. The Soviets agitated for a naval base there but they were not given one.

In 1970 King Idris was overthrown by a 27 year old colonel called Mummar Al Gadaffi. The man proclaimed himself Brotherly Guide of the Revolution. Gadaffi was the dictator. He claimed to live simply. He made the country the Great Libyan Arab People’s Socialist Islamic Jumuhuriya. Jumuhuriya is literally ‘mass state’ but this is usually translated ‘republic’. However, the government insisted on using the word Jumuhuriya even in English.

Under Gadaffi there was much development. He built a man made river in the desert. He also outlawed servants. The country became a Soviet ally. Soviet experts moved there.

Gadaffi invade a few of his neighbours. He was repulsed. He launched terrorist attacks on US targets. The US launched air raids on Libya.

Gadaffi had a  ridiculous cult of the personality. He  had female bodyguards and drank camel’s milk while living in a tent. The Brotherly Guide would not allow free expression. He kept thousands of political prisoners. Torture as widely used. Hundreds of people were executed without trial in 1998.

In the late 1990s he reformed. He met Blair and dismantled his nuclear arms programme in 2003. Sanctions had forced this.

In 2011 a revolt began in Libya. This was part of the Arab Spring. The UN authorised air strikes to prevent Gadaffi’s army from massacring civilians. NATO acted as the air force of the insurgents. Gadaffi’s forces were smashed. Gadaffi was finally cornered and summarily executed.

The Flag of Libya is black, red and green horizontal bars. There is a white crescent moon and star on the central bar.

The capital city is Tripoli. It is on the coast. Benghazi is the second city.

The Libyans are a Semitic people and partly black too. There has been significant immigration from Subsaharan Africa.


  1. Which continent is Libya in?
  2. Name five neighbours of Libya? Five marks.
  3. Which sea is Libya beside?
  4. What is the climate like?
  5. What is the landscape like?
  6. Which culture founded Tripoli?
  7. What does Tripolis mean?
  8. What is the main religion of Libya?
  9. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  10. Which European country conquered Libya in 1911?
  11. Name the three provinces of Libya. Three marks.
  12. In what year was the Libyan Revolution?
  13. Who was the Brotherly Guide of the Revolution?
  14. What was the constitutional title of Libya under Gaddafi?
  15. In which year did the Arab Spring occur?

What causes mass shootings>? ===============


white supremacy


mental illness?

economically motivated crime.?

religious mania?

notoriety? do not name killers. A cooper

knives kill but not many arm’s reach.wrestle or run. throwing knives

guns are weapon f choce for mass killers

we cannt ban everytug. we can ban some things. we cannot ban hands.

not left right.


gun nuts ditsrarc things. look to revolution,

false tales. many killers. FBI did it.

most right wingers awant gun control

trump does not want gun contrl. wo by 77 000 votes in three states. his name is more imortat to him than the klvies of children.

if there is gu control trump will lose NRA votes ad tye all vote republican

how do we make it less likely?





Lithuania is a country in Europe. This nation is situated in the north-east of the continent. It is mild in summer and cold in winter. Lithuania is mostly flat and wooded. It is located beside the Baltic Sea. The neighbours of this country are Latvia, Russia and Poland.

At times Lithuania was independent. It was a pagan country until the Middle Ages. Lithuania was a commonwealth united with Poland in the late Middle Ages. Jagellonia was the Duchess of Lithuania. She wed the King of Poland.

The Russian Empire absorbed Lithuania in the 18th century. In the First World War the German Army took Lithuania. Lithuania then became independent. In 1940 Lithuania became part of the Soviet Union. Lithuania left the USSR in 1991.

The population of Lithuania is about 3 000 000. There is a significant Russian minority.

Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania. This city has a well preserved historic centre. It is popular with stag groups. A river runs through it.

The Flag of Lithuania is a tricolour. The horizontal lines are yellow, green and red. That is top to bottom.

Lithuania is a member of NATO and the European Union. The currency is the Lit. This country is due to scrap its currency and adopt the Euro as its currency.


  1. Which continent is Lithuania in?
  2. Name three neighbours of this country. Three marks.
  3. What sea is Lithuania beside?
  4. Which country was Lithuania part of a Commonwealth with?
  5. Which enormous empire absorbed Lithuania?
  6. What is the climate like?
  7. Name the capital of the nation.
  8. What is the currency.
  9. Draw the flag of Lithuania.
  10. In which year did the country most recently become independent?


keep the Charlottesville statute =============


robert e lee. he opposed memorialisation. we do not respect his views – he wanted to keep slavery

I am not white supremacist

at was confederacy.

like Hirohito in pearl harbour

like bin laden at new york world trade centre

history art

not terrible to remove statue

balance statue with signs about evil of slavery

heritage is not always good

because my ancestor did something does not make it good

probably no statues on bicentenary of confederacy

other president were slave holders.

#people centuries ago did things we consider wicked.