Monthly Archives: September 2017

Unit 1 lesson 5

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What would be a fair Brexit deal?

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The United Kingdom is leaving the EU. To paraphrase Grdono Brown  none but those on the political extremes fail to accept this. The question is what will be the UKs terms of departure?

It is possible for a mutually satisfactory agreement to be reached whereby there are no tariffs on goods and services. Even if tariffs were imposed these could be equal in both directions and down to a reasonable level.

The vexed issue is who would adjudicate disputes. The EU wants it to be the Court of Justice of the European Union.  The UK will no longer be part of the EU so being under the jurisdiction of this court seems wrong. The UK could have a judge on it for these cases only. But issues could be referred to the International Court of Justice instead.

Free movement of people will come to an end. Ending unrestricted immigration was a key plank of the Leave Campaign. The UK could have a quota of 100 000 a year from the EU. It is true that half immigration is not from the EU. Moreover, there are British people moving to the EU. Another possibility would be for the UK Government to auction work permits for EU people. This means that the highest skilled people could buy their way in. There could be exemptions for shortage professions such as teacher, doctors and nurses. People from the Republic of Ireland could get a dispensation since even UKIP says we are a sister nation.

Eurocrats stil need their pensions. In principle the UK should not pay the EU anything beyond that. The UK has always been a massive net contributor. If anything it should get a share of the assets which often happens when unions split.  However, in order to secure a good trade deal it might be wise to pay something.

The EU has refused to accept linkage. They want the British to agree to pay 50 billion euros without knowing anything about trade terms offered. 50 billion s far, far too much. The EU knows it. They invented that number as a figure from which to haggle down.

The UK has got to come up with a plan B. The United Kingdom needs to be able to walk away if no decent terms are offered. If Brussels knows that London is willing to leave without an agreement then this strengthens the Briitsh hand.

Theresa May came up with generous spirited proposals on EU migrants in the UK being able to gain permanent residency and still citizenship. The EU rejected these out of hand. Eurocrats have spoken contemptuously of any terms proposed. They have been abetted by euro fanatics in the British Labour and Lib Dem parties. This undermines the UKs negotiating position. It also allows EU people to imagine that if they can delay the UK leaving then Labour and the Lib Dems might win office and reverse Brexit. This is why some Euro extremists pin their hopes on a transitional deal with means that the UK never really leaves.

A transitional period might be wise. On the other hand it merely prolongs the uncertainly which has a deleterious impact on business. If Her Majesty s Government has got its skates on then the UK would have left within six months of the referendum. The UK should also looks at simply trading according to wORLD tRADE Organisation rules. It is possible to do commerce that way as many countries do.

It appears to be the EU strategy to dismiss any British suggestion as being grossly inadequate. They want to waste time. The objective is to go down to the wire. Then they believe that the British will panic and accept an unfavourable treaty. This is why no progress is being made by parleying. The EU is petrified that Brexit will be a resounding success. If this is so other affluent EU member states will decide to go it alone. If Den;ark, the Netherlands and even France leave then the whole thing will come crashing down. That is why EU fanatics believe that the UK must be made an example of. They want the UK to suffer severely. There is no need for such acrimony and malice. There are reasonable people on the EU side.

Cheap quips!!

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How do you wish a Happy B day to someone with diarrhoea?

Happy Bidet!

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What is the point of those plastic bags for 100 ml of liquid in airports>? Terrorists can mix chemicals together to make them explode on a plane. Does an explosive not explode  if it is only 100 ml? Even if that were so could they not bring several bottles of 100 ml?

I am glad ther e is a bit of proportionality to these rules. Where would we be if people could not take any medicine on a 14 hour flight?

What good does the plastic bag do? Did you ever hear this on the news? Some terrorists planned to mix chemicals together to make a plane blow up. Luckily we had sealed it in an easily openable plastic bag first so the terrorists were not able to get their chemicals out,

Genius! Next time there is a bomb do not send a robot to defuse it or evacuate the area. Just put a plastic sheet over it. Yeah . that will stop it!

Assignment 1 , textbook analysis. MA.

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AL7711: Core Features of Language: Assignment 70% of assessment for module Task: Analyse the three texts (scanned copies in assignment folder) from the *New Headway English language series, aimed at Common European Framework (CEF) levels A1/A2; B1; C1, respectively. Specific focus on core features of language:

Compare the texts according to the following features:

1. The differing levels of complexity and variation in morphology across the three levels of text: e.g. use of free and bound morphemes; use of lexeme ‘paradigms’ (i.e forms taken by a single word) for different word classes etc.

2. The differing levels of complexity and variation in word relations across the three levels of text: i.e. semantic relations e.g. polysemy, metaphor etc.; syntactic relations e.g. collocation, idiomatic language, chunks etc.

3. The differing range of word classes across the three levels of text: e.g. use of adjectives, adverbs; use of nouns (countable/uncountable; abstract/concrete etc), verbs (multi-word, auxiliary etc) etc.

4. The differing levels of complexity and variation of types of phrases: types and construction of phrases used e.g. verb phrase (simple or complex), noun phrases and their dependent words (determiners, pre-modifiers , complements, postmodifiers etc), constructions of prepositional phrases ( e.g. preposition +ing clause) etc.

5. The differing types of clauses across the three levels: Use of main and subordinate clauses, numbers of clauses in sentences, use of finite and non-finite clauses, use of relative clauses, use of different clause types- declarative, imperative etc.

6. The differences in tense, voice and mood across the three texts: range of tenses used, use of active and passive voice, use of mood e.g. indicative, subjunctive.

7. The degree of use of modality across the three levels of text: e.g. use of core modal verbs: must, shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, and might..

There are two stages to this assignment: Stage 1 (55%) – due 23.59 on 02/10/17: Upload your analysis to the Discussion Forum (DF) as a word document, commenting on how the competence of the learner is developed across the 3 levels in terms of the 7 features listed above (and giving examples from the texts). You will not see anyone else’s post on the DF until you have made your posting

(Word limit
2,000 but this is not a target. i.e. You may be able to complete this task in fewer words). (Words in tables may be excluded from the word count) Stage 2 – (15%) – due 23.59 on 09/10/17: Read the posts made by your fellow students and make any revisions to your own analysis and conclusions based on these contributions and re-upload your word document. Briefly summarise the main changes you have made on the DF.

NOTE: You might want to use references from the lectures in some instances e.g. Vocabulary Matrix and English Grammar Today etc. but this assignment does not require extra reading.

Format: See guidelines on MAAL Landing page on Moodle. Assessment criteria: 30% – evidence of understanding of the core features listed above. 25% – level and range of detail of analysis of the three texts 15% – evidence of learning and critical reflection in relation to work of fellow-students (i.e. how much you have engaged with the redrafting / revising in stage 2) *Texts from: Soars, Liz. and Soars, John. New Headway Elementary Student’s Book. (3rd ed) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Soars, Liz. and Soars, John. New Headway Intermediate Student’s Book. (4th ed) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Soars, Liz. and Soars, John. New Headway Advanced Student’s Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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  1. Morphology varies widely between the three text. However, some morpehmes are common to all of them. For example in Greenland largest island in the world the bound morpheme “est” is used in “largest” since there is no other way to say this except biggest which would also be using the self same bound morpheme “est” for a superlative. In the second text Daniella from Australia says “I like summer best”. Again this is using the same bound morpheme. This is the “est” suffix which is a bound morpheme. Again the use thereof is unavoidable since the superlative in relation to what one likes cannot be expressed without it. Even if one were to use other words having the same effect one would be obliged to say “I like summer the most.”

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2. The second text has an example of what one student cited in a webinar that is the omission of “that” from a sentence where it might have been included. “My cousins in England think this is very funny.” The word “that” could have been inserted after the word “England” in the foregoing sentence.  This is a new idiom. Some claim that the word “that” is being dropped from colloquial conversations with ever increasing frequency. This assertion was challenged by the lecturer. The evidence from corpora is mixed. The vocabulary in the second text is from a low register. The second text (i.e. the one beginning with Daniella from Australia) has no metaphor in it. The first text “Greenland is the largest island” has a conditional in it “the sea level would rise by six or seven metres”. This is the se of a modal tense. One does not find this in the simpler text “Daniella from Australia”. The “bare haunting landscape” in “Greenland is the largest island” is a usage of metaphor. This would tax the imagination of some readers. Those who do not understand this English metaphor would be flummoxed. “Pockets of greenery” in “Greenland” is yet another example of metaphor. Another very vivid and gruesome case of metaphor in this text is “bloodthirsty”. This word is also a compound word since both blood and thirsty are capable of an independent signification. These words combine their meanings to create a new word.  There is also a compound word in “Daniella from Australia” where the text mentions “sunbathing”. These are free morphemes but have been put together to create a compound word that blends their meanings t  make a new word.

The Daniella from Australia text is a little informal because it uses elision repeatedly as in “it s” rather than “it is”. The same goes for “here s”.

The text about Greenland uses and idiomatic phrase ‘died out suddenly’.  ‘Anything but’ is another example of this. It also uses the collocation ‘from north to south’. Th ‘greyness’ of Greenland is an example of polysemy. The country is literally grey but it also suggests that it is bland. This added to the preceding word ‘desolate’ so it was almost tautological.

There is an ironic use of inverted commas in the text about Thailand. The putative speaker says ” “Winter” ” as if ti imply disagreement since there is no real winter in that country. This feature is not found in the Greenland text.

There is also a simile here “as a natural refrigerator”. This text is particularly rich in literary language. It uses a very advanced metaphor “the embodiment of human spirit”. There is also the use of personificiation “the Danish taxpayer” is used to stand in for all individuals who pay tax in Denmark. The writer could have chosen to say “Danish taxpayers” but has decided to let a fictive single taxpayer be used to represent all people who are Danish taxpayer. This figurative use of the definite article would be too confusing for some readers.

The Galileo text is the most formal. It uses slightly antiquated expressions such as “once daily” whereas “once a day” would have been contemporary usage. Another example of this from the same text is, “imprisoned in his own home”. The words in the other two texts are up to date. The vocabulary used here is much higher register than in Daniella from Australia. Words such as “heresy, heretical, proposition and absurd” would not be known even by some native speakers.

Father of modern science is a metaphor.  The verb “to undermine” is used here and it too is a metaphor with a meaning that provides and image. However, it is so commonly said that many no longer relate it to its literal meaning. There is a simile here “the mind is like an iceberg” since one thing is likened to another.

The use of the verb “to mesmerize” is no literal either but metaphorical.

This texts uses bound morphemes such as “un” to distinguish conscious from unconscious.

“We are not here because we are lawbreakers but because we want to be law makers” is an example of an oratorical device called contrapuntalism, The very same one was later used by Neil Kinnock. This text is aimed as a high ability reader.

” Heaven help us” is a figure of speech. It is now considered anachronistic. This quotation is from before 1914 which explains its inclusion.

The third text is by far the most advanced. Nonethless is deploys some colloquialisms. This is because it quotes people speaking in informal contexts and saying “that s” and “can t”.

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3.

All three texts use adjectives. The text on Greenland uses a superlative adjective ‘largest’. The determiners such as ‘the’ are used in all texts. They can scarcely be avoided! These closed word classes are used peppered throughout all the articles. The Greenland text uses lots of nouns both countable and uncountable. The former includes ‘temperatures’. Concrete nouns such as ‘ice’ are used. There are some abstract nouns too.

 

Nouns belong to the open word classes since more words can be added thereto.

Adjectives such as ‘cunningly’ are used to indicate in what manner a verb was done.

A multi word verb is used in the Greenland text ‘made up’. This then becomes a well known verb phrase ‘made up of’.

‘If this were to melt…’ in the Greenland text is an example of using an auxiliary verb to make the sentence conditional.

The text in Daniella from Australia uses concrete nouns such as ‘beach’ and abstract nouns such as ‘sometimes.’ There are countable nouns such as family. It also uses determiners such as ‘the’ for ‘the summer’. There are auxiliary verbs such as ‘dont’ in ‘don’t have’. There are adjectives such as ‘red’. This belongs to an open word class. There is also a multi word verb ‘to go skiing.’

The text on Freud and others uses verb such as ‘spent’ in relation to time not money. This text uses the abstract noun ‘heresy’. The concrete noun ‘sun’ is used. Nouns are one of the open word classes. This text also used double nouns such as ‘principal fighter’.

Interestingly the page on Freud and others uses an unusual construction ‘travelled round’ not ‘travelled around’. Moreover, it is notable that they have chosen to spell travelled with a double L.

The page on Freud and others uses lots of determiners.

The text on Freud and others uses some advanced adjectives such as ‘incapable’ and ‘rational’. The range in this text is very wide as the lexis is rather challenging.

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4. The text Daniella from Australia has verb phrases such as ‘I live’. The phraseology in this text tends to be simple. Things are listed but beyond that there is little punctuation. There is a little alliteration there ‘beautiful, blue’. There is a prepositional phrase ‘for skiing’ in this text. There are some uses of pre modifiers and post modifiers. The verb phrases tend to be simple,

The text on Freud has long and complex phrases. The same goes for its clauses. There are subordinate clauses here. ‘  Galileo believed, as Copernicus had done earlier, that the sun revolved… ‘ this is a case in point. Note the sentence changes from simple past to past perfect and then back to simple past. This text includes both noun phrases and verb phrases. There are a few pre modifiers and post modifiers. It has some prepositional phrases such as ‘for attracting’.

The text on Greenland has a prepositional phrase ‘to seal hunting.’ Seal hunting is a double noun. Both words are nouns and they need each other for the full meaning. Hunting is a gerund here.

The phrases in the Greenland text are mostly simple. There is not much punctuation. There are verb phrases and of course noun phrases with a few dependent words. There are several complements too.

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5. There is a considerable range of finite and non-finite clauses in the three texts. The Greenland text has plenty of non-finite clauses. That means verbs with non-finite verbs or sometimes without a verb at all. One example would ‘with tiny pockets of greenery.’

The text beginning with Daniella from Australia has plenty of finite clauses. Here is a case in point ”There’s a joke about my country.”

In the text about Freud and others there are plenty of finite clauses. Here is an example where the verb is the predicate ”Nothing really affected me until I heard Elvis.”

There are main clauses in all the texts. Daniella from Australia does not have many subordinate clauses. The other texts have more as they have lengthier sentences. There are lots of declarative clauses because these texts are informative. There are not many imperative ones since we are not being ordered to do things. There are up to five clauses in a sentence. The text on Freud and others has these five clauses sentences.

 

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6. Several of the past and present the tenses are used. There is simple past; ”Galileo was born…” There is past continuous ”He spent years observing”. There is present simple ”Elvis is known as simply the King.” There is past perfect ” was sent to prison.” There are no examples of present continuous here.

The grammatical mood varies too. Sometimes present simple alludes to things that are generally true such as ”regional boundaries divide the country…” Perhaps curiously present simple is not used here for things that are occurring at the moment. Therefore there are lots of examples of the indicative being used but very few of the subjunctive being used.

There are very few examples of future tenses in these text.

Both the active and passive voices are used. ”These dangerous animals are feared.” That is passive rather than ”People fear these dangerous animals” which would be active. The text on Greenland uses the passive voice more than the active one. This is how people tend to write about countries. ”Eric cunningly named the island…” is an example of the active voice. The text on Daniella from Australia uses the active voice much more.

 

People find the active voice more engaging, personal and easier to comprehend.

 

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7. Modal verbs are used in these texts but unevenly. The modal verbs are little used in the Greenland text.

There are very few modal verbs in Daniella from Australia. One of the few is when Axel says ”you can go skiing.”

The text on Freud and others uses very few modal verbs. This is partly because modal verbs are usually about future tense or conditionals. Neither of these apply here. This text is giving the reader information which is why the text is very declaratory and there is little uncertainty or speculation. This lack of modality is very striking.

 

Phonetics and phonology by Graham , Unit 3 lesson 1

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Phonetics is the body part of sound making.

what body part are involve din speech? Lungs, trachea, soft palate, hard plate, lips, , throat, tongue, nasal cavity.

explain difference between phonetics and phonology

look at consonant and vowel sounds

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phonetics is physical, This is not language specific.

phonology =

speech is about manipulating the air breathed out. Larynx and pharynx, vocal folds , oesophagus and teeth

phonation is making vocal folds move

speech organs piggyback on the primary use of organs for respiratory and other purposes

French can say yes by sucking air in.

glottis is used

the aritinoids open and close stuff

when speaking we use aritinoids to hold vocal folds together = they are not too tight, air can pass through and the vocal folds vibrate

aritinoids make a difference between a voiced and unvoiced consonant sound

do the vocal folds vibrate for these sounds?

 

aaaa * no

zzzzzzzz yes

sssssss ==  no

ffffffffffffffff   =  no

vvvvvvvvvv = yes

mmmmmm  = yes

sssssssssssshhhhhhhh = no

one modifies the airflow from the larynx up

soft palate is right at the back it is also called the

tongue goes very far back

labial sounds rely on the tongue

consonants rely on

put lips tpgether for mmm

touch lower lip to teeth for ff

 

touch to

#touch tongue to alvelolar ridge

sss

 

she is further back than sss

touch tongue to soft palate for  hard G and K

touching things together in different areas of the mouth to produce certain sounds

vowel soinds depend on tongue

think about sound

book and car. where is the tongue higher for these vowels? It is higher for the a in car

end and eat. tongue is hugher for eat

hot and choose. higher for choose.

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three sets of organs involved in speech

respitatory

phonatory and

articulatory

consonants  involve place of articulation

vowels are about tongue position.

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PHONOLOGY

this is psychological. it relates to the brain not the body.

this is language specific.

this is WHY we produce speech sounds. The HOW is phonetics.

phonology is about accents etc…

a sound us a physical event but it is also a part of a symbolic system

three issues> three consonant clusters

“str, st ” and ” ftr”

think about st

“st” can be at the start middle or end of a word

tere is also the “sh” sound

str   is in structure

ashtray so there is shtr in the middle

shtr does not exist at the start of a word

str is in German strasse

is it at the start of a word in other languages?

Strasbourg. it is physically possible. it is simple for Anglophones to produce this sound but we must have a rule telling us not to make that sound at the outset for a word.

prepsotion. in

is the pronunciation always in or can it change.

in court

in hospital

in prison

in hospital = the H is sometimes dropped from hospital

that is not a change with the word in.

in court = people sometimes say it as Ink ourt. The K sound attaches to the in word

the n in in becomes more of an ng ans in ing sound.

in stop and top is the “t” the same?

the difference is that the “t” is aspirated in top but not in stop

Aspirated means it is blown out = emphatic. air comes out.

a pphoneme is a contrastive unit of sound

the two ways of pronouncing the “t” sound do not affect meaning

therefore theses are not phonemes

allophones are variations on the pronunciation of phonemes

allophones are physical they are not in the mind since they do not alter signification

phonology is very much in the head.

draw a rainbow. there is red but there are many shades or red. it is true that  there are endless shades but we ave to perceive red as one. that s the same with phonemes

transcribing speech. phonetic transcription. are we trying to convey sound or signification?

we do phonemic transcription to render significance into symbols and not actual sounds

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speech sounds prodced by three sets of organs

consonant sounds are produce in many ways

vowel sounds are produced by the tongue

phonetics describes physical events

phonology tells us why we produce such sounds

tonsils are not used in any languages

these clause = however, as a result etc… are these subordinate caluses?

“I emailed everybody about the meeting. However , only two people came.”

try to subsistitute a simpler word for however to see if the cause changes.

“only two people came to the meeting. As a result, it was not very productive.”

“His phone rang. At the same time, someone came to the door.”

these are a particular type of a clause .

“However” , “as a result” , “unfortunately” these are averbal phrases

adjunct

“their tactics for attracting attention included burning down buildings, smashing shops windows, slashing paintings, chaining themselves to railings, organising marches and,  … ”

 

these are phrases and not clauses since it does not have a verb of its own. These are noun phrases.

people often misuse the word clause>#

are the phrases in the text all finite clauses

how do we identify  the dropped “that”

” The house that I told you about yesterday.” People often omit “that” from such a sentence

there are two places to look for “that” after a verb

in an informal context it is used a lot>

“that” is used after “think” and “said ”

that is commonly used in a relative clause when it is the object of the verb

“the woman that I love”

In a relative clause we cannot omit “that”

some people say that the word “that” is being left out more frequently these days

all clauses must contain a verb, Does a verb to be with an adjective and a noun count ?

is this a clause = “Greenland is the largest island.”

yes it does because it has a tense or an imperative ) or a subjunctive.

do not confuse passives with intransitive verbs

“be!” as an imperative is a clause. It is like God creating the world.

“I was” is a clause

“the format has changed”

“the mens mass has ended”

It is hard to identify passive in English because it is used so much>

to be plus past participle = passive.

“He is boring” adjective is boring.

“he is boring me with questions” here boring is a verb.

 

PASSIVES

Think of positive reasons for using them = what it does rather than wahat is avoids doing

the concept of aboutness is useful as a starting point.

“the Beatles wrote Yesterday in 1965”

“Yesterday was written by the Beatles in 1965”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who will be the next Tory leader?

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Theresa May has voiced her desire to remain Prime Minister until the next General Election and indeed lead the Conservative Party into this election. Is it dubious as to whether she really believed this. Then again her body language suggested that she spoke in earnest. Her eyes supported her words. Yet had she said that she would not lead the party into another Westminster election then she would have cut herself off at the knees.

Brexit negotiations have a year and a half left to run. It is conceivable that the United Kingdom will leave the European Union even before the deadline for thrashing out a deal. The Conservative and Unionist Party had a mediocre performance in the recent election. But there having been an early election there is no appetite for another early election. This is especially so in the Conservative Party. They called a snap election and it did very badly for them. Labour has wind in its sails so the Tories do not want to give Labour a chance to win office any time soon. This is also why there is no wish for an early Conservative leadership campaign. The Conservative parliamentary party wants Theresa May to get the realm through Brexit. Initially it seemed that there was a truce within the Tory party until such time as Brexit was complete. AFter that, all bets are off.

Then again there have been rumblings in the Conservative Party that there may be a putsch sooner than March next year. BoJo seems to be a standard bearer for the hardline Brexiteers. This is puzzling since he kept everyone guessing as to which way he would ump on Brexit until the very last minute before the referendum. Mays position on the EU seems to be too conciliatory for the ardent Leavers. Her claim that she shall stay on for five years or more may have raised rather than diminished the desire to be shot of her.

Mays standing is diminished because she is not strong or stable. She is perceived as being weak and unstable. There have been no catastrophes on her watch. Terrorist attacks occur under all Prime Ministers. Austerity is being eased off because of public anger at it after nine years. There is a honeymoon after this election. Ironically it is for Labour. Gone are the days when Labour parliamentarians openly denounced Corbyn as unelectable. Now it is the Tory Party that is riven by dissent and open bad mouthing of the leader.

Who are the runners and the riders?

BoJo is clearly one. He has name recognition. He  is liked well beyond politics. On the other hand he is a busted flush. He chickened out of the leadership contest when Gove betrayed him. No one trusts Boris and he keeps openly contradicting the Prime Ministe ron Brexit. As Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary he ought to be at the forefront of Brexit. In fact he has little visibility except when he wants to undermine May.  As he is such a loose cannon and so disloyal its seems bizarre that May has him in the cabinet. It must be on the principle that it is better to have him inside the tent pissing out…. If he were sacked he would be a potent enemy. The media would lap up his anti May quips.

Philip Hammond is another obvious candidate. He has over twenty years experience in Parliament. He is Chancellor of the Exchequer and therefore he holds one of the great offices of state. He has been fairly successful in this most challenging role. He has no foes but it seems no proselytes. Hammond is a grey man but that can redound to ones advantage. May is unshowy and indeed bland.  Some people prefer that the to messianic complex of someone like Thatcher or Blair.

David Davis is blatantly a front runner. In fact I tip him to win it. He has been in Parliament for thirty years. He has the right back story and cannot be accused of being born with a silver spoon in his mouth. Davis resigned on principle over the proposed 90 day detention. He has stood for the leadership before and won. As he was a Leaver he had more credibility in terms of completing Brexit. He is Brexit Secretary which makes him popular with the rank and file. Davis is a bit vanilla but not as dull as Hammond.

Amber Rudd has been tipped as leader. She is experienced but not too old, Her problem is that her majority in her constituency is wafer thin. People like being represented by famous MPs so well known MPs usually increase their majority. Still the party might not want to risk the PM losing her seat. She could be immediately elevated to the peerage if that were to occur. But is it possible in these days of vetting committees to raise someone to the House of Peers instantly? Rudd would also be good for the Torys feminist credentials. Two women leaders in a row would dish Labour.

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RIDERS

Michael Goves enemies are legion. He is seen as slimy and pseudo intellectual. His back stabbing of Boris did not go down well.

Stephen Crabb stood last time. It was a long shot and he is a virtual unknown. Davis has the state school boy mantle.

Andrea Leadsom is seen as inept. She has her chance and blew it. She has been sidelined by being given minor office. If she were on the backbenches she could make more noise.

Jacob Rees Mogg. He is just too risible and antiquated. This last Victorian will not play well with modern Britain. His pro Life advocacy has sunk him further due to modern intolerance. Even the man himself says he does not want to the top job and people saying that they want him is a protest vote.

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THEN AGAIN

What if Brexit works out wonderfully? What if the economy continues to grow? Supposing public services improve? What if Corbyn sinks bad into unpopularity and the Lib Dems are going nowhere? It is just possible that May could hang on. She is not liked now but she may be able to tough it out. Weathering the storm as seen leaders with woeful ratings improve their standing dramatically over time. Surviving these current travails will strengthen her. She is experienced and has not made any major mistakes. She did after all win an election however narrowly. It is possible that May will grow into an elder stateswoman. She may grow in gravitas and could even lead the Conservative and Unionist Party to victory in 2020. I do not see it myself. I see Davis as being PM in 18 months time. This is not a prospect I welcome.

 

 

Present tense = Anne O Keefe

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present can  mean something that is generally true

I am alive

water freewes at zero degre

present conthinuous is the same as present progressive

present simpleis pronoun plus verb

present simple and present progressive different structurtally and in signification

#present progssive uses an auxiliary vern and an ing form

there qre qffirmqitve ngative and interrogative forms of these tenses