The United Kingdom is leaving the EU. To paraphrase Grdono Brown none but those on the political extremes fail to accept this. The question is what will be the UKs terms of departure?
It is possible for a mutually satisfactory agreement to be reached whereby there are no tariffs on goods and services. Even if tariffs were imposed these could be equal in both directions and down to a reasonable level.
The vexed issue is who would adjudicate disputes. The EU wants it to be the Court of Justice of the European Union. The UK will no longer be part of the EU so being under the jurisdiction of this court seems wrong. The UK could have a judge on it for these cases only. But issues could be referred to the International Court of Justice instead.
Free movement of people will come to an end. Ending unrestricted immigration was a key plank of the Leave Campaign. The UK could have a quota of 100 000 a year from the EU. It is true that half immigration is not from the EU. Moreover, there are British people moving to the EU. Another possibility would be for the UK Government to auction work permits for EU people. This means that the highest skilled people could buy their way in. There could be exemptions for shortage professions such as teacher, doctors and nurses. People from the Republic of Ireland could get a dispensation since even UKIP says we are a sister nation.
Eurocrats stil need their pensions. In principle the UK should not pay the EU anything beyond that. The UK has always been a massive net contributor. If anything it should get a share of the assets which often happens when unions split. However, in order to secure a good trade deal it might be wise to pay something.
The EU has refused to accept linkage. They want the British to agree to pay 50 billion euros without knowing anything about trade terms offered. 50 billion s far, far too much. The EU knows it. They invented that number as a figure from which to haggle down.
The UK has got to come up with a plan B. The United Kingdom needs to be able to walk away if no decent terms are offered. If Brussels knows that London is willing to leave without an agreement then this strengthens the Briitsh hand.
Theresa May came up with generous spirited proposals on EU migrants in the UK being able to gain permanent residency and still citizenship. The EU rejected these out of hand. Eurocrats have spoken contemptuously of any terms proposed. They have been abetted by euro fanatics in the British Labour and Lib Dem parties. This undermines the UKs negotiating position. It also allows EU people to imagine that if they can delay the UK leaving then Labour and the Lib Dems might win office and reverse Brexit. This is why some Euro extremists pin their hopes on a transitional deal with means that the UK never really leaves.
A transitional period might be wise. On the other hand it merely prolongs the uncertainly which has a deleterious impact on business. If Her Majesty s Government has got its skates on then the UK would have left within six months of the referendum. The UK should also looks at simply trading according to wORLD tRADE Organisation rules. It is possible to do commerce that way as many countries do.
It appears to be the EU strategy to dismiss any British suggestion as being grossly inadequate. They want to waste time. The objective is to go down to the wire. Then they believe that the British will panic and accept an unfavourable treaty. This is why no progress is being made by parleying. The EU is petrified that Brexit will be a resounding success. If this is so other affluent EU member states will decide to go it alone. If Den;ark, the Netherlands and even France leave then the whole thing will come crashing down. That is why EU fanatics believe that the UK must be made an example of. They want the UK to suffer severely. There is no need for such acrimony and malice. There are reasonable people on the EU side.
How do you wish a Happy B day to someone with diarrhoea?
What is the point of those plastic bags for 100 ml of liquid in airports>? Terrorists can mix chemicals together to make them explode on a plane. Does an explosive not explode if it is only 100 ml? Even if that were so could they not bring several bottles of 100 ml?
I am glad ther e is a bit of proportionality to these rules. Where would we be if people could not take any medicine on a 14 hour flight?
What good does the plastic bag do? Did you ever hear this on the news? Some terrorists planned to mix chemicals together to make a plane blow up. Luckily we had sealed it in an easily openable plastic bag first so the terrorists were not able to get their chemicals out,
Genius! Next time there is a bomb do not send a robot to defuse it or evacuate the area. Just put a plastic sheet over it. Yeah . that will stop it!
AL7711: Core Features of Language: Assignment 70% of assessment for module Task: Analyse the three texts (scanned copies in assignment folder) from the *New Headway English language series, aimed at Common European Framework (CEF) levels A1/A2; B1; C1, respectively. Specific focus on core features of language:
Compare the texts according to the following features:
1. The differing levels of complexity and variation in morphology across the three levels of text: e.g. use of free and bound morphemes; use of lexeme ‘paradigms’ (i.e forms taken by a single word) for different word classes etc.
2. The differing levels of complexity and variation in word relations across the three levels of text: i.e. semantic relations e.g. polysemy, metaphor etc.; syntactic relations e.g. collocation, idiomatic language, chunks etc.
3. The differing range of word classes across the three levels of text: e.g. use of adjectives, adverbs; use of nouns (countable/uncountable; abstract/concrete etc), verbs (multi-word, auxiliary etc) etc.
4. The differing levels of complexity and variation of types of phrases: types and construction of phrases used e.g. verb phrase (simple or complex), noun phrases and their dependent words (determiners, pre-modifiers , complements, postmodifiers etc), constructions of prepositional phrases ( e.g. preposition +ing clause) etc.
5. The differing types of clauses across the three levels: Use of main and subordinate clauses, numbers of clauses in sentences, use of finite and non-finite clauses, use of relative clauses, use of different clause types- declarative, imperative etc.
6. The differences in tense, voice and mood across the three texts: range of tenses used, use of active and passive voice, use of mood e.g. indicative, subjunctive.
7. The degree of use of modality across the three levels of text: e.g. use of core modal verbs: must, shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, and might..
There are two stages to this assignment: Stage 1 (55%) – due 23.59 on 02/10/17: Upload your analysis to the Discussion Forum (DF) as a word document, commenting on how the competence of the learner is developed across the 3 levels in terms of the 7 features listed above (and giving examples from the texts). You will not see anyone else’s post on the DF until you have made your posting
2,000 but this is not a target. i.e. You may be able to complete this task in fewer words). (Words in tables may be excluded from the word count) Stage 2 – (15%) – due 23.59 on 09/10/17: Read the posts made by your fellow students and make any revisions to your own analysis and conclusions based on these contributions and re-upload your word document. Briefly summarise the main changes you have made on the DF.
NOTE: You might want to use references from the lectures in some instances e.g. Vocabulary Matrix and English Grammar Today etc. but this assignment does not require extra reading.
Format: See guidelines on MAAL Landing page on Moodle. Assessment criteria: 30% – evidence of understanding of the core features listed above. 25% – level and range of detail of analysis of the three texts 15% – evidence of learning and critical reflection in relation to work of fellow-students (i.e. how much you have engaged with the redrafting / revising in stage 2) *Texts from: Soars, Liz. and Soars, John. New Headway Elementary Student’s Book. (3rd ed) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Soars, Liz. and Soars, John. New Headway Intermediate Student’s Book. (4th ed) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Soars, Liz. and Soars, John. New Headway Advanced Student’s Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Morphology varies widely between the three text. However, some morpehmes are common to all of them. For example in Greenland largest island in the world the bound morpheme “est” is used in “largest” since there is no other way to say this except biggest which would also be using the self same bound morpheme “est” for a superlative. In the second text Daniella from Australia says “I like summer best”. Again this is using the same bound morpheme. This is the “est” suffix which is a bound morpheme. Again the use thereof is unavoidable since the superlative in relation to what one likes cannot be expressed without it. Even if one were to use other words having the same effect one would be obliged to say “I like summer the most.”
2. The second text has an example of what one student cited in a webinar that is the omission of “that” from a sentence where it might have been included. “My cousins in England think this is very funny.” The word “that” could have been inserted after the word “England” in the foregoing sentence. This is a new idiom. Some claim that the word “that” is being dropped from colloquial conversations with ever increasing frequency. This assertion was challenged by the lecturer. The evidence from corpora is mixed. The vocabulary in the second text is from a low register. The second text (i.e. the one beginning with Daniella from Australia) has no metaphor in it. The first text “Greenland is the largest island” has a conditional in it “the sea level would rise by six or seven metres”. This is the se of a modal tense. One does not find this in the simpler text “Daniella from Australia”. The “bare haunting landscape” in “Greenland is the largest island” is a usage of metaphor. This would tax the imagination of some readers. Those who do not understand this English metaphor would be flummoxed. “Pockets of greenery” in “Greenland” is yet another example of metaphor. Another very vivid and gruesome case of metaphor in this text is “bloodthirsty”. This word is also a compound word since both blood and thirsty are capable of an independent signification. These words combine their meanings to create a new word. There is also a compound word in “Daniella from Australia” where the text mentions “sunbathing”. These are free morphemes but have been put together to create a compound word that blends their meanings t make a new word.
The Daniella from Australia text is a little informal because it uses elision repeatedly as in “it s” rather than “it is”. The same goes for “here s”.
The text about Greenland uses and idiomatic phrase ‘died out suddenly’. ‘Anything but’ is another example of this. It also uses the collocation ‘from north to south’. Th ‘greyness’ of Greenland is an example of polysemy. The country is literally grey but it also suggests that it is bland. This added to the preceding word ‘desolate’ so it was almost tautological.
There is an ironic use of inverted commas in the text about Thailand. The putative speaker says ” “Winter” ” as if ti imply disagreement since there is no real winter in that country. This feature is not found in the Greenland text.
There is also a simile here “as a natural refrigerator”. This text is particularly rich in literary language. It uses a very advanced metaphor “the embodiment of human spirit”. There is also the use of personificiation “the Danish taxpayer” is used to stand in for all individuals who pay tax in Denmark. The writer could have chosen to say “Danish taxpayers” but has decided to let a fictive single taxpayer be used to represent all people who are Danish taxpayer. This figurative use of the definite article would be too confusing for some readers.
The Galileo text is the most formal. It uses slightly antiquated expressions such as “once daily” whereas “once a day” would have been contemporary usage. Another example of this from the same text is, “imprisoned in his own home”. The words in the other two texts are up to date. The vocabulary used here is much higher register than in Daniella from Australia. Words such as “heresy, heretical, proposition and absurd” would not be known even by some native speakers.
Father of modern science is a metaphor. The verb “to undermine” is used here and it too is a metaphor with a meaning that provides and image. However, it is so commonly said that many no longer relate it to its literal meaning. There is a simile here “the mind is like an iceberg” since one thing is likened to another.
The use of the verb “to mesmerize” is no literal either but metaphorical.
This texts uses bound morphemes such as “un” to distinguish conscious from unconscious.
“We are not here because we are lawbreakers but because we want to be law makers” is an example of an oratorical device called contrapuntalism, The very same one was later used by Neil Kinnock. This text is aimed as a high ability reader.
” Heaven help us” is a figure of speech. It is now considered anachronistic. This quotation is from before 1914 which explains its inclusion.
The third text is by far the most advanced. Nonethless is deploys some colloquialisms. This is because it quotes people speaking in informal contexts and saying “that s” and “can t”.
All three texts use adjectives. The text on Greenland uses a superlative adjective ‘largest’. The determiners such as ‘the’ are used in all texts. They can scarcely be avoided! These closed word classes are used peppered throughout all the articles. The Greenland text uses lots of nouns both countable and uncountable. The former includes ‘temperatures’. Concrete nouns such as ‘ice’ are used. There are some abstract nouns too.
Nouns belong to the open word classes since more words can be added thereto.
Adjectives such as ‘cunningly’ are used to indicate in what manner a verb was done.
A multi word verb is used in the Greenland text ‘made up’. This then becomes a well known verb phrase ‘made up of’.
‘If this were to melt…’ in the Greenland text is an example of using an auxiliary verb to make the sentence conditional.
The text in Daniella from Australia uses concrete nouns such as ‘beach’ and abstract nouns such as ‘sometimes.’ There are countable nouns such as family. It also uses determiners such as ‘the’ for ‘the summer’. There are auxiliary verbs such as ‘dont’ in ‘don’t have’. There are adjectives such as ‘red’. This belongs to an open word class. There is also a multi word verb ‘to go skiing.’
The text on Freud and others uses verb such as ‘spent’ in relation to time not money. This text uses the abstract noun ‘heresy’. The concrete noun ‘sun’ is used. Nouns are one of the open word classes. This text also used double nouns such as ‘principal fighter’.
Interestingly the page on Freud and others uses an unusual construction ‘travelled round’ not ‘travelled around’. Moreover, it is notable that they have chosen to spell travelled with a double L.
The page on Freud and others uses lots of determiners.
The text on Freud and others uses some advanced adjectives such as ‘incapable’ and ‘rational’. The range in this text is very wide as the lexis is rather challenging.
4. The text Daniella from Australia has verb phrases such as ‘I live’. The phraseology in this text tends to be simple. Things are listed but beyond that there is little punctuation. There is a little alliteration there ‘beautiful, blue’. There is a prepositional phrase ‘for skiing’ in this text. There are some uses of pre modifiers and post modifiers. The verb phrases tend to be simple,
The text on Freud has long and complex phrases. The same goes for its clauses. There are subordinate clauses here. ‘ Galileo believed, as Copernicus had done earlier, that the sun revolved… ‘ this is a case in point. Note the sentence changes from simple past to past perfect and then back to simple past. This text includes both noun phrases and verb phrases. There are a few pre modifiers and post modifiers. It has some prepositional phrases such as ‘for attracting’.
The text on Greenland has a prepositional phrase ‘to seal hunting.’ Seal hunting is a double noun. Both words are nouns and they need each other for the full meaning. Hunting is a gerund here.
The phrases in the Greenland text are mostly simple. There is not much punctuation. There are verb phrases and of course noun phrases with a few dependent words. There are several complements too.
5. There is a considerable range of finite and non-finite clauses in the three texts. The Greenland text has plenty of non-finite clauses. That means verbs with non-finite verbs or sometimes without a verb at all. One example would ‘with tiny pockets of greenery.’
The text beginning with Daniella from Australia has plenty of finite clauses. Here is a case in point ”There’s a joke about my country.”
In the text about Freud and others there are plenty of finite clauses. Here is an example where the verb is the predicate ”Nothing really affected me until I heard Elvis.”
There are main clauses in all the texts. Daniella from Australia does not have many subordinate clauses. The other texts have more as they have lengthier sentences. There are lots of declarative clauses because these texts are informative. There are not many imperative ones since we are not being ordered to do things. There are up to five clauses in a sentence. The text on Freud and others has these five clauses sentences.
6. Several of the past and present the tenses are used. There is simple past; ”Galileo was born…” There is past continuous ”He spent years observing”. There is present simple ”Elvis is known as simply the King.” There is past perfect ” was sent to prison.” There are no examples of present continuous here.
The grammatical mood varies too. Sometimes present simple alludes to things that are generally true such as ”regional boundaries divide the country…” Perhaps curiously present simple is not used here for things that are occurring at the moment. Therefore there are lots of examples of the indicative being used but very few of the subjunctive being used.
There are very few examples of future tenses in these text.
Both the active and passive voices are used. ”These dangerous animals are feared.” That is passive rather than ”People fear these dangerous animals” which would be active. The text on Greenland uses the passive voice more than the active one. This is how people tend to write about countries. ”Eric cunningly named the island…” is an example of the active voice. The text on Daniella from Australia uses the active voice much more.
People find the active voice more engaging, personal and easier to comprehend.
7. Modal verbs are used in these texts but unevenly. The modal verbs are little used in the Greenland text.
There are very few modal verbs in Daniella from Australia. One of the few is when Axel says ”you can go skiing.”
The text on Freud and others uses very few modal verbs. This is partly because modal verbs are usually about future tense or conditionals. Neither of these apply here. This text is giving the reader information which is why the text is very declaratory and there is little uncertainty or speculation. This lack of modality is very striking.
Phonetics is the body part of sound making.
what body part are involve din speech? Lungs, trachea, soft palate, hard plate, lips, , throat, tongue, nasal cavity.
explain difference between phonetics and phonology
look at consonant and vowel sounds
phonetics is physical, This is not language specific.
speech is about manipulating the air breathed out. Larynx and pharynx, vocal folds , oesophagus and teeth
phonation is making vocal folds move
speech organs piggyback on the primary use of organs for respiratory and other purposes
French can say yes by sucking air in.
glottis is used
the aritinoids open and close stuff
when speaking we use aritinoids to hold vocal folds together = they are not too tight, air can pass through and the vocal folds vibrate
aritinoids make a difference between a voiced and unvoiced consonant sound
do the vocal folds vibrate for these sounds?
aaaa * no
sssssss == no
ffffffffffffffff = no
vvvvvvvvvv = yes
mmmmmm = yes
sssssssssssshhhhhhhh = no
one modifies the airflow from the larynx up
soft palate is right at the back it is also called the
tongue goes very far back
labial sounds rely on the tongue
consonants rely on
put lips tpgether for mmm
touch lower lip to teeth for ff
#touch tongue to alvelolar ridge
she is further back than sss
touch tongue to soft palate for hard G and K
touching things together in different areas of the mouth to produce certain sounds
vowel soinds depend on tongue
think about sound
book and car. where is the tongue higher for these vowels? It is higher for the a in car
end and eat. tongue is hugher for eat
hot and choose. higher for choose.
three sets of organs involved in speech
consonants involve place of articulation
vowels are about tongue position.
this is psychological. it relates to the brain not the body.
this is language specific.
this is WHY we produce speech sounds. The HOW is phonetics.
phonology is about accents etc…
a sound us a physical event but it is also a part of a symbolic system
three issues> three consonant clusters
“str, st ” and ” ftr”
think about st
“st” can be at the start middle or end of a word
tere is also the “sh” sound
str is in structure
ashtray so there is shtr in the middle
shtr does not exist at the start of a word
str is in German strasse
is it at the start of a word in other languages?
Strasbourg. it is physically possible. it is simple for Anglophones to produce this sound but we must have a rule telling us not to make that sound at the outset for a word.
is the pronunciation always in or can it change.
in hospital = the H is sometimes dropped from hospital
that is not a change with the word in.
in court = people sometimes say it as Ink ourt. The K sound attaches to the in word
the n in in becomes more of an ng ans in ing sound.
in stop and top is the “t” the same?
the difference is that the “t” is aspirated in top but not in stop
Aspirated means it is blown out = emphatic. air comes out.
a pphoneme is a contrastive unit of sound
the two ways of pronouncing the “t” sound do not affect meaning
therefore theses are not phonemes
allophones are variations on the pronunciation of phonemes
allophones are physical they are not in the mind since they do not alter signification
phonology is very much in the head.
draw a rainbow. there is red but there are many shades or red. it is true that there are endless shades but we ave to perceive red as one. that s the same with phonemes
transcribing speech. phonetic transcription. are we trying to convey sound or signification?
we do phonemic transcription to render significance into symbols and not actual sounds
speech sounds prodced by three sets of organs
consonant sounds are produce in many ways
vowel sounds are produced by the tongue
phonetics describes physical events
phonology tells us why we produce such sounds
tonsils are not used in any languages
these clause = however, as a result etc… are these subordinate caluses?
“I emailed everybody about the meeting. However , only two people came.”
try to subsistitute a simpler word for however to see if the cause changes.
“only two people came to the meeting. As a result, it was not very productive.”
“His phone rang. At the same time, someone came to the door.”
these are a particular type of a clause .
“However” , “as a result” , “unfortunately” these are averbal phrases
“their tactics for attracting attention included burning down buildings, smashing shops windows, slashing paintings, chaining themselves to railings, organising marches and, … ”
these are phrases and not clauses since it does not have a verb of its own. These are noun phrases.
people often misuse the word clause>#
are the phrases in the text all finite clauses
how do we identify the dropped “that”
” The house that I told you about yesterday.” People often omit “that” from such a sentence
there are two places to look for “that” after a verb
in an informal context it is used a lot>
“that” is used after “think” and “said ”
that is commonly used in a relative clause when it is the object of the verb
“the woman that I love”
In a relative clause we cannot omit “that”
some people say that the word “that” is being left out more frequently these days
all clauses must contain a verb, Does a verb to be with an adjective and a noun count ?
is this a clause = “Greenland is the largest island.”
yes it does because it has a tense or an imperative ) or a subjunctive.
do not confuse passives with intransitive verbs
“be!” as an imperative is a clause. It is like God creating the world.
“I was” is a clause
“the format has changed”
“the mens mass has ended”
It is hard to identify passive in English because it is used so much>
to be plus past participle = passive.
“He is boring” adjective is boring.
“he is boring me with questions” here boring is a verb.
Think of positive reasons for using them = what it does rather than wahat is avoids doing
the concept of aboutness is useful as a starting point.
“the Beatles wrote Yesterday in 1965”
“Yesterday was written by the Beatles in 1965”
Theresa May has voiced her desire to remain Prime Minister until the next General Election and indeed lead the Conservative Party into this election. Is it dubious as to whether she really believed this. Then again her body language suggested that she spoke in earnest. Her eyes supported her words. Yet had she said that she would not lead the party into another Westminster election then she would have cut herself off at the knees.
Brexit negotiations have a year and a half left to run. It is conceivable that the United Kingdom will leave the European Union even before the deadline for thrashing out a deal. The Conservative and Unionist Party had a mediocre performance in the recent election. But there having been an early election there is no appetite for another early election. This is especially so in the Conservative Party. They called a snap election and it did very badly for them. Labour has wind in its sails so the Tories do not want to give Labour a chance to win office any time soon. This is also why there is no wish for an early Conservative leadership campaign. The Conservative parliamentary party wants Theresa May to get the realm through Brexit. Initially it seemed that there was a truce within the Tory party until such time as Brexit was complete. AFter that, all bets are off.
Then again there have been rumblings in the Conservative Party that there may be a putsch sooner than March next year. BoJo seems to be a standard bearer for the hardline Brexiteers. This is puzzling since he kept everyone guessing as to which way he would ump on Brexit until the very last minute before the referendum. Mays position on the EU seems to be too conciliatory for the ardent Leavers. Her claim that she shall stay on for five years or more may have raised rather than diminished the desire to be shot of her.
Mays standing is diminished because she is not strong or stable. She is perceived as being weak and unstable. There have been no catastrophes on her watch. Terrorist attacks occur under all Prime Ministers. Austerity is being eased off because of public anger at it after nine years. There is a honeymoon after this election. Ironically it is for Labour. Gone are the days when Labour parliamentarians openly denounced Corbyn as unelectable. Now it is the Tory Party that is riven by dissent and open bad mouthing of the leader.
Who are the runners and the riders?
BoJo is clearly one. He has name recognition. He is liked well beyond politics. On the other hand he is a busted flush. He chickened out of the leadership contest when Gove betrayed him. No one trusts Boris and he keeps openly contradicting the Prime Ministe ron Brexit. As Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary he ought to be at the forefront of Brexit. In fact he has little visibility except when he wants to undermine May. As he is such a loose cannon and so disloyal its seems bizarre that May has him in the cabinet. It must be on the principle that it is better to have him inside the tent pissing out…. If he were sacked he would be a potent enemy. The media would lap up his anti May quips.
Philip Hammond is another obvious candidate. He has over twenty years experience in Parliament. He is Chancellor of the Exchequer and therefore he holds one of the great offices of state. He has been fairly successful in this most challenging role. He has no foes but it seems no proselytes. Hammond is a grey man but that can redound to ones advantage. May is unshowy and indeed bland. Some people prefer that the to messianic complex of someone like Thatcher or Blair.
David Davis is blatantly a front runner. In fact I tip him to win it. He has been in Parliament for thirty years. He has the right back story and cannot be accused of being born with a silver spoon in his mouth. Davis resigned on principle over the proposed 90 day detention. He has stood for the leadership before and won. As he was a Leaver he had more credibility in terms of completing Brexit. He is Brexit Secretary which makes him popular with the rank and file. Davis is a bit vanilla but not as dull as Hammond.
Amber Rudd has been tipped as leader. She is experienced but not too old, Her problem is that her majority in her constituency is wafer thin. People like being represented by famous MPs so well known MPs usually increase their majority. Still the party might not want to risk the PM losing her seat. She could be immediately elevated to the peerage if that were to occur. But is it possible in these days of vetting committees to raise someone to the House of Peers instantly? Rudd would also be good for the Torys feminist credentials. Two women leaders in a row would dish Labour.
Michael Goves enemies are legion. He is seen as slimy and pseudo intellectual. His back stabbing of Boris did not go down well.
Stephen Crabb stood last time. It was a long shot and he is a virtual unknown. Davis has the state school boy mantle.
Andrea Leadsom is seen as inept. She has her chance and blew it. She has been sidelined by being given minor office. If she were on the backbenches she could make more noise.
Jacob Rees Mogg. He is just too risible and antiquated. This last Victorian will not play well with modern Britain. His pro Life advocacy has sunk him further due to modern intolerance. Even the man himself says he does not want to the top job and people saying that they want him is a protest vote.
What if Brexit works out wonderfully? What if the economy continues to grow? Supposing public services improve? What if Corbyn sinks bad into unpopularity and the Lib Dems are going nowhere? It is just possible that May could hang on. She is not liked now but she may be able to tough it out. Weathering the storm as seen leaders with woeful ratings improve their standing dramatically over time. Surviving these current travails will strengthen her. She is experienced and has not made any major mistakes. She did after all win an election however narrowly. It is possible that May will grow into an elder stateswoman. She may grow in gravitas and could even lead the Conservative and Unionist Party to victory in 2020. I do not see it myself. I see Davis as being PM in 18 months time. This is not a prospect I welcome.
present can mean something that is generally true
I am alive
water freewes at zero degre
present conthinuous is the same as present progressive
present simpleis pronoun plus verb
present simple and present progressive different structurtally and in signification
#present progssive uses an auxiliary vern and an ing form
there qre qffirmqitve ngative and interrogative forms of these tenses
these describe how, in what manner of where a verb is done. It can add to meaning
it is over there. there is a place.
more info about a noun or noun phras e or another adverb.
here is qn adverb
locally is an adverb#
loudly is an adverb
really is and adverb.
it can modiy awhole phrase . this is particualt true of noun phrase
advers of time. now
always , sometimes, ever , often
nearby uosairs m downstairs = adverbs
very, ptetty, awfully,
linking advebrs = then, however, therefore
lengthways lengthwise, fanwise, sideways
just , only soon – adverbs
people confuse advebrs with adjectives
adbers often describe smell m taste and movement
adverbs can be of degree, time, place and manner
yesterday is an adverb
advebrs can be comparative and superlatives
earlier, sooner, later, earliest, soonest, sooner, hardest, hard, fast, faster and fatests
advebrs with two or more syllables one use more not adding er
most carefully, more carefull etc… comparative and superlative advebrs
WHAT IS TRUMP PLAYING AT IN SYRIA,
It is virtually certain that the Ba’thists carried this out.
The United States bombed a Syrian base where such weapons were held and destroyed some military aircraft. This is punishing the Syrian regime for its atrocity. Assad will think twice before ordering such a massacre. There is a price to pay for such massacres.
The air force is one of the Syrian state’s major advantages over its foes. By destroying warplanes the US will enfeeble the Syrian military considerably.
Trump ordered this punitive raid without seeking UN or congressional approval. He is commander in chief of the armed forces. He does not require Congress’ backing for minor actions. Clinton ordered missile strikes on Al Qa’eda in 1998 without such a vote.
Donald Trump was very complimentary about Vladimir Putin. Trump also said he prioritised smashing ISIS. Now Trump is blasting the Syrian dictatorship for its crimes against humanity. This is welcome. However, Trump has revealed himself to be volatile and inconsistent. There is no telling what he will do next. He does not care about the past only the future he says. This is partly because he does not wish to be accountable for his own actions. He does not study the causes of things and therefore cannot sensible forecast the consequences of his deeds.
The US has damaged its relations with Russia. This may be worth doing. Russia damages its relationships with many lands by its fulsome support for the vicious tyrant Al Assad.
President Trump wishes to annihilate ISIS. This is a noble goal. By degrading the Syrian military he has tilted the balance a little towards ISIS. Trump has probably not thought this through. His national security team may have advised him of this but Trump dismisses any unwelcome advice or information.
The US President could easily turn the other way next week. He might suddenly bear hug Putin and apologise for what he did. Excuse me as he said to Megyn Kelly. Trump has prolonged the conflict. He may have saved lives because now Dr Al Assad is less likely to authorise massive attacks on civilians.
More sanctions against Russia would also make Russia more reluctant to give Assad carte blanche for atrocities. It would also damage the Russian economy even further. Russians bluster that the sanctions are a filip to their economy. A well placed Russian source told me that this is all hot air. Sanctions do of course weaken the Russian economy and they are feeling the pinch. As Russia has less money she can ill afford to pursue such adventures abroad. Deepening sanctions against Russia would be praiseworthy. Congress and not the president can authorise this. Trump mused about lifting sanctions a few months ago. He is so unpredicable it is hard to know if he will encourage Congress to pass sanctions.
Moscow has learnt not to trust Trump. D J Trump is dishonest but he also does not know his own mind. He is so unreliable that even Trump cannot rely on himself.
brAVO FOR THE MISSILE STRIKE
The Syrian regime has launched a chemical attack on civilians. Dozens of civilians were slain in this barbaric attack this week. Three times before this the United Nations found that Dr Al Assad’s military had used chemical weapons against civilian targets. There have been other occasions when it was alleged that the Ba’athists used chemical weapons but the evidence was not conclusive. Human Rights Watch and the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights accused the Assad regime of using chemical weapons on more occasions but the UN did not endorse all of these allegations. The Ba’athists certainly possessed chemical weapons in 2013 and declared them. Al Assad’s regime supposedly destroyed its stockpiles of such weapons in September 2013. That was part of an agreement with Russia and the United States. In return the Obama administration agreed not to launch airstrikes on Assad’s military.
Dr Al Assad gave an interview a couple of years ago to the BBC. When questioned about these chemical attacks his blink rate went up fantastically when it came to him denying that it was his forces who used these weapons. His army has routinely used chlorine barrel bombs.
The Kremlin and Damascus blamed the rebels for the chemical attacks. Why would the rebels gas their own people? Assad the and Putin say this is so the rebels can blame Assad for it. The aim being to goad the United States into launching air strikes on the Ba’athist forces. In 2013 that might have made sense. As Assad’s men have used chemical weapons several times since and this has elicited no air strikes from the USA this argument falls apart. There insurgents do not have chemical weapons. There is no motive for them to use such weapons against people they control. They have killed civilians of other faiths. On this occasion the victims are mostly Sunni Muslims. There is no reason why the insurgents would use such weapons against civilians in their territory even if they possessed these weapons.
The case that the Assad dictatorship is responsible for this attack is absolutely unanswerable. His regime has no credibility at all. It runs entirely fraudulent elections. It deliberately starves civilians to death. It boasts of the Hama Massacre when at least 10 000 civilians were killed by regime forces. It denies the repeated massacres of unarmed protesters in 2011.
President Donald Trump ordered missile strikes against Assad’s forces. This is the one decision Trump took that I approve of.
Putin thought that Trump was his man. Trump talked very tough on ISIS and cosied up to Putin. Moscow and Damascus had no way of predicting that Trump would react this way. Trump seems to detest the very notion of human rights. Therefore Putin and Assad reasoned that they could use chemical weapons with impunity.
Obama was a pensive sort. He considered his options carefully. He put it to a vote in Congress. President Obama tried to avoid hard decisions.
Trump is more decisive. Put another way he is unreflective. He has not thought through the consequences of his actions. Assad will be less likely to use such chemical weapons in future. The sad truth is that Trump has assisted ISIS.
Either ISIS or the Ba;thists will win. The Ba’athists are foul but ISIS is even worse. It really is about finding the lesser of two evils. The moderate opposition will not win. They are too few and have too many scruples. Most people of moderate opinion have fled the charnel house.
Trump has damaged relations with Russia. It is good that he does not care about this too much to prevent him from ordering such missile strikes. Bravo for Donald Trump. I never thought I would say it.
Trump is so erratic that he may turn the other way next week. The United States has little moral authority on this. Its air force killed 150 civilians in Iraq the week before. This was not a chemical attack but the effect was the same.
Chemical weapons are illegal. They are by their very nature indiscriminate. This is why their usage should be severely penalised.
TURKEY AND RUSSIA ARE ON THE SAME SIDE
Turkey and Russia have joined forces to fight against ISIS. Russian military spokesmen have said that the Turkish Air Force has carried out joint air strikes with the Russian Air Force against ISIS targets. This is a welcome development. ISIS is ghastly. It is roundly condemned by all right thinking Muslims.
A few weeks ago the Russian propaganda machine was accusing Ankara of backing Daesh. The Kremlin said that Turkey was purchasing oil from ISIS and assisting ISIS. This was a blatant lie. Why would the Turkish Government fund an organisation that kept setting off bombs aimed at Turkish civilians? It failed the reality test. All of a sudden these ludicrous claims are no longer made. The Turkish Government was demonised as being full of religious maniacs. Suddenly Moscow says that Ankara is reasonable. Why would the Turkish State back ISIS one week and bomb it the next? It does not make sense. Moscow puts out the daftest falsehoods. Many intelligent Russian people fall for these flagrant lies. Many useful idiots in Western countries think they are clever and audacious for believing in claims made by a government that is notorious for telling provable lies and has killed – literally killed – its own free media.
Note that Turkey is a NATO country. Moscow often says that NATO is aggressive. If this is so then why does Russia co-operate with Turkey on this mission?
Moscow says there are no moderate rebels. They are all terrorists. One can only overthrow a violently oppressive government by the use of force. Some use of force is ethical such as killing soldiers in combat. SOme use of force is unethical such as willfully killing civilians or the use of torture. It is extremely well documented that the Syrian military and ISIS have both used torture on a gross scale and deliberately killed civilians by the tens of thousand. Moscow rightly highlights the countless crimes committed by ISIS. Moscow then denies the many, many atrocities committed by the tyrant Assad. By denying these crimes, providing intelligence, providing diplomatic cover, funding the Ba’athists and arming the Ba’athists the Russian Government is partly responsible for all these crimes.
Let us not forget what started this conflict. Decades of oppression by the Assad dynasty caused fury among the downtrodden Syrian populace. There was an insane level of adulation for the leader. The cult of personality extended to people swearing fealty to Bashir Al Assad before every football match. Not to Syria but to him personally. The Syrian Constitution stated that only a person over 35 could become president. The constitution was violated to allow the 34 year old to become president.
The Syrian regime severely mistreated its people for decades. The United Nations says that there is a right to rebel when one is oppressed. Putin supports Lenin. Was Lenin a terrorists for overthrowing the democratic government in Russia? He certainly was. How about those democrats who overthrow the absolutism of the Tsar? Were the terrorists? Putin would probably say yes. He likes unenlightened dictatorship and detests free societies.
There was no free media in Syria and is none now. There was no right to protest. Because the government was so arrantly oppressive people rose up. ISIS is monstrous. Some people support it because they subscribed to its ideology. Others back it because they reason that the Ba’athists are even worse. Moreover, because of the numerous massacres of Sunni civilians carried out by Ba’athists some reason that Da’esh is the only thing standing between them and Assad’s pogromists.
People lived in poverty and had no civil rights. They hoped for something better. Their pleas for peaceful reform were organised. The Ba’athists used unfair trials, unlimited espionage, detention with trial, torture and unlawful killing to control the people. Unarmed, peaceful protesters were shot dead in their hundreds. This happened time and again. That is what caused the insurrection. The Ba’athist blatantly oppressive policies were fulsomely supported by Moscow. Putin backed the Ba’athists to the hilt. Because Assad had arms and money from Russia he was less inclined to reform. This put his enemies back up. They were less likely to parley. Assad has always negotiated in bad faith. He constantly promised reform. The Turkish Government had a very cordial relationship with him in 2011. When the demonstrations broke out the Turkish people were increasingly dismayed to see their Syrian neighbours murdered by the Ba’athists merely for asking for human rights. Assad vowed reform. Ankara pressed him to make genuine reform and not pretend to make reform. As he repeatedly broke promises to do this Ankara became infuriated. He did the same about ceasefires.
As Daesh is being bombed by Turkey and Russia Daesh will be largely defeated. Terrorist organisations can seldom be comprehensively defeated. It will not be smashed in a decisive battle. It will be very slowly strangled. It may continue in some form for decades. It might be mainly crushed now but there could be a recrudescence of Daesh activity in several years time.#
Reem was at a New Year’s party with her husband. She wore a black satin dress that bulged at her bust but did not show any decollete.
The dress reached down to just past her knees. Her silver high heeds added three inches to her moderate height. Reem’s hair had a playful
quiff in it. Her diamond choker set off her mid brown skin and body glitter. She wore pendant earings that added
an extra not of glamour. She was carefully made
up with purple lips and light foundation. The bright blue around her eyes made her seem to be a mirage of mysterious beauty. She wore a smile that was ony half false. Only an hour before her husband had had her in a headlock. Now she was playing the
perfect wife for the Karachi elite. As she quaffed a flute of champagne she guessed that half the women in the room had been through
the same. Reem was 26 but her healthy skin had the lumescence of one ten years younger. Her maroon eyes glowed with a sad intelligence.
She could not hire her inner unhappiness however hard she tried. She strove to remind herself how fortunate she was to have three healthy
children. She was a millionairess in a city where many lived in dire penury/. Things could be an awful lot worse she told herself.
Iqbal was an odious mostachioed man of 40. His black hair was flecked with grey and too carefully brushed. His white dinner jacket was
too brash and showed his lack of taste. His black leather shoes were very pointy at the toes and made of super shiny material.
It was all too ostentatious. This was Reem’s horrid husband. He spoke a little too loud and was too blatant in his cack handed attempts to
flirt with the few single women at the party. At 5’8″ he was almost tall for a Pakistani. His pot belly did him no favours and his
clothes were always a bit too tight; emphasising this unappealing feature of his. His loamy voice was croaky from over a quarter century of
smoking. His eyes were a little blood shot. The champers was getting to him and Reem knew he has snorted coke before coming out. At
least that meant he would not do her tonight. He had been abusing drugs for a while. At first the devil’s dandruff had made him hornier
than ever. Now he could hardly get it up. That came was a relief to Reem but she still craved sex.
The party picked up. Reem gladly complimented her friends on their outfits. Some were decidedly daring. Alcohol flowed freely in what
was officially a dry city. Reem could not abide it that some of those guzzling booze boasted of their Islamic piety outside the confines
of this five star hotel. These hypocritical politicians thought that Sharia law was for the poor.
Reem looked admiringly at the figures of some of the other ladies. She had given birth for the third time only months before and she had
not yet shed the extra weight. She tried not to beat herself up about that.
The band played a slow and some couples drifted onto the dance floor for a slow. A big silver ball rotated as the multicolorued lights
sparkled teasingly. 20 floors beneath this cosmopolitan elegance Reem knew that many people lived in the most abject penury. Yes, she
must remember that she was one of the lucky few. Iqbal murmured incoherently to himself. The alcohol had turned him into a zombie.
Just then she noticed a tall white man hove into view. He was over six feet tall. His thick, dark brown hair was just slightly messy.
She liked that. This man looked after himself without being vain. The black dinner jacket suited him perfectly. He had a dress shirt
to go with it and he had clearly tied the bow tie himself. It was not one of the ridiculous ready made bow ties favoured by Italian
waiters and clowns. His black laceup shoes were polished but they were not made of that revolting extra shiny material.
“Good evening; my names’s George” he said; his clean shaven face smiling as he extended his hand.
Reem was dumbstruck for a moment. She felt like she was 12 again and filled with girlish glee. She then gathered herself and shook his
hand. This itself was a risque gesture in Pakistan.
“Hello” she said softly ; almost giggling. “My name is Reem:”
“Well Reem. Good to make your acquaintance. May I say your heels are so very stylish and they do flatter your calves most pleasingly;”
Male attention; she did not get enough of that. She could tell that some of her servants desired her but these men dare not declare it.
From her husband she got the odd grope and occasional charmless fuck. But sex with him was solely procreative. It was an unwelcome chore for her/
Here was a man who knew how to pay a compliment. It was a subtle one. She had worked hard on these details and he had noticed that. She
felt her pussy moisten. If only she could have someone like him in her life and not that perverted, brutal sot who was snoozing on a chair
“Wow. Thank you so much George. Are you from England?” she asked relaxing.
“No; Ireland actually;” he said. He was eyeing her with barely concealed desire.
“I grew up in England and Scotland; I know the accent. That is why I asked. What are you doing in Pakistan?” she inquired. She felt
a little self-conscious about how unashamedly he was flirting with his facial expressions and grooming.
“I am a private tutor to the Chief Minister’s sons.” said George
“OH yes. I heard about you. ” said Reem. “You go to the Sindh Club sometimes. They say all the single girls there really fancy you.”
“Oh shucks! Too bad I cannot marry them since I am not a Muslim.” said George. He sensed that she was nervous. It would not do to be
seen speaking for her for too long. He did not wish to draw suspicion on her. “Well I do hope I get to speak to your husband some day
Seems to be a bit out of sorts at the minute. I have a job but I have a lot of free time in the mornings. Always looking to give
educational consultancy to people with children who want education abroad.” tHEN IN A Fluid movement George raised his glass as if
to clink glasses with her. He managed to slip her his business card as they chinked glasses. Then he moved on swiftly.
Reem left it a couple of days. Would she? Did she dare? She was no fool. She knew that George did not want to talk about her children’s
education. She also knew that tongues might wag. She told her husband that George had spoken to them at the party. She convinced Iqbal
that he had been so drunk he did not remember. This was a likely proposition.
Reem then bought a pay as you go phone; not registered to any name.
When no one was around she called George.
“Hi George it is Reem; Do you remember me?”
“I will never forget you” he said bouncily.
On hearing those words her hopes were confirmed. George was not touting for business.
“We should meet and speak about my kids’ education.” the tone in her voice indicated something very different.
” Oh goody. And will your charming husband be accompanying you? ” he asked.
“Not this time” said Reem.
“Well that makes things clearer” he said mischievously. ” I live at the Hilton Hotel. Room 69. Yes, they must have heard something of
my personal preferences” he quipped.
She laughed raucously.
“I tell you what. I go to the gum every day at 9. Then I go up to my room at 9;30; Perhaps you could drop by?”
“Yes, certainly” she said.
He had provided her with the perfect excuse. Next morning the elder two were off at nursery. She left the baby in the care of the nanny.
The driver took her to the Hilton to use the women’s gym. Reem went in there and changed but not into gym clothes though she had brought
them; She put on a blue chador. She took the lift to room 69 and approached the door.
Reem’s heart was pounding. Did she dare do this? She really wanted to but the risks were so great. She paused and thought.
But her desire overcame her and almost on instinct she knocked on the door. Alea jacta est.
George wore a white dressing gown as he opened the door rapidly. He was shocked to see a chador.
“It’s Reem” she whispered as she stepped inside. She cast off the hood.
There were no preliminaries; he grabbed her and snogged her. She was stunned but delighted. It was like every romantic film she had
ever seen but never experienced. He held her in his arms and she was so glad to be hugged and wanted. It was no illusion. He really
Reem could not quite believe she was casting off her blue chador. Underneath she had cycling shorts and a sports T shirt. He rubbed
her D cup boobs. She had never burned with lust like this. She opened her eyes as they kissed. Her was rubbing the back of her neck and
then he kissed her throat.
What would she think of her body,? She fretted. She noticed that his dressing gown was slightly open. He had recently showered
and was fragrant with aftershave. She saw George’s slim and muscular body. It was a world away from the ugly obesity of her husband
This is what every girl wanted;
He started tugging at her T shirt; She nodded consent and panted as he lifted it off. It revealed her fabulous brown boobs. She was
embarrassed that they were not as firm as they once had been. She had breast fed three babies. But he fell on them and sucked them
avidly. She had never felt so desired. She noticed him dry humping her. A large bulge in his dressing gown was poking into his stomach.
He was so tall that it was up there.
George led her hands to his dressing gown; inviting her to undo the belt. Though hesitant she undid it. The dressing gown fell open.
She glared at his quivering uncircumcised erection. It was much bigger than her husband’s. She wanted it insider her more than
anything else in the world.
Then he pulled at her cycling shorts. With difficulty she lowered them. She only had knickers on underneath. They were plain black ones;
not sexy. How had she not thought of that? Had she somehow not expected it to go this far? She could not help herself.
She lay back on the bed. She had last minute doubts. There was still a chance to back out. She did not have to do this.
George cast his dressing gown off. He then grabbed her knickers; not bothering to seek ^permission. He whisked off her last garment/
Thank God she had had a wax: Reem told herself. But his desire for her was so lambent that hair would not have put him off.
He climbed on top of her. She was beathing heavily and she eyed him cautiously but she knew it was too late. She had thrown caution
to the winds. She wanted to scream yes but the word could not come/
He entered her abruptly. He was rock hard and she only then noticed how moist she was. She was drenching the crisp white sheet with her
secretions. She had not known ot was possible to be so turned on.
He fucked her hard and passionately. His knees were bent and her legs were in the air; flailing helplessly. She cooed and eyed him spellbound.
She had not known that sex could be so fantastic. She closed her eyes and cooed with sublime pleasure. He felt his firm and athletic body.
Everything about him was so attractive and he made her feel attractive too. She was tense but relaxed into it. Her body quailed with pent
up lust. She cried out in joy as he hammered into her. She reached orgasm for only the third time in her life<. It was twice as good
as the other times put together. She moaned with sheer joy. The bliss tingled all the way down to her toes. Reem was floating on air.
Just then George groaned mightily as he empited his balls into her suculent pussy.
They lay panting and perspiring. Reem stared deep into his azure eyes. She knew she had fallen hopelessly in love with this man.
“What have you done?” she whispered; “You have conquered me. I simply have to have you.”
“I know and I have to have you;”
They gathered themselves and cuddled and chatted. She poured out her life story. But they could not be too long. He set up an email account.
He would write drafts for her to read. The account was in her name. She would write drafts for him to send. Some genuine anodyne emails were sent
by her to companies. Drafts from them to each other were to be deleted after reading. In this way they could keep in touch without
Every weekday morning; She came around to the gym but snuck up to George for some real exercise. Reem got such good sexercise that she
was losing weight and toning up her muscles. She felt awake and alive. In the car on the way to the hotel her pussy would be dribbling* in
*anticipation. George was a sensitive lover. It was a revelation to meet a boy who cared about her getting the most from sex.
Reem had had insecurities about her body. But he clearly adored every inch of her>. He caressed her love handles and sang the praises of her bodyparts.
Reem had never felt so sure of herself before: She was also energised and more alive than ever.
Just occasionally she had sperm in her if her husband had fucked her than morning. She washed out the sperm of the man she hated.
After George made love to her she had to wash out his sperm in case her husband decided to make a move on her that night.
George did not smoke and hardly drank. He made an excellent lover. He genuinely liked giving her cunnilingus. He appreciated Reem on all
levels and they chatted sometimes before sex as well as afterwards. Reem was worried because she had given birth naturally thrice.
Was her pussy too loose for him. But no he assured her. He liked it the way it was. “You are a real woman. You are fertile. Your body has been
used for its proper purpose.”
Reem then said that her husband wanted her to have another baby. She was to stop breast feeding as this reduced the chances of conceiving
George had drunk from her uberous tits on a few occasions. He quipped that he would starve without them.
“Shouldn’t you find real girlfriend instead of being my lover?” she said
*”Every time I go to St Patrick’s Cathedral the mothers are trying to set me up with their daughters; Invitations to tea. It is unreal
Because I am Christian I can marry them but no thanks.> You are the one I want;”
“I really like you George. I mean I really; really like you on all levels but can this go on? What if we get caught?”
“Some things are worth dying for” he said.
She knew that he meant it. Reem had been smoking shisha’s to cope with stress. She gave up as George soothed her. She also ate less; she had no
need for comfort eating. She had love in her life>. She appreciated the way he valued her opinions and praised her intellect.
Reem had not been so respect by men before: He also cracked her up with endless jokes.
Reems’s husband had forced her to have anal sex sometimes which she hated. It was so painful and degrading. George said he never wanted to
do that to her. She was far too good that that/ It would be an insult to her feminimity. He only wanted her love hole; her lady flower.
“And my husband wants me to have another baby” she said
“You will have another baby but he will not” he said wickedly;
“Oh you are naughty” she said but smiled;
“Come on do you want him to be the father of your next child?”
“No way. I want you to; I want to be the mother of your baby.” said Reem/
“Trouble is if you become pregnant how will you know who the father is?” asked George
“Come on you do me five times a week: Sometimes twice in the same morning. He does me once a week if that. Nine out of
ten when I become pregnant you will be the father.”
“Just see the colour when the baby is born ; If the baby is very light brown then I am the father; But
won’t your husband be suspicious?”
“I am a qurter Persian” said Reem “My granny was very white. So no. He will be delighted with a pale baby”
“I want a little girl” said George
“I want a daughter too. I already have three boys.” said Reem. She was also thrilled that he was no sexist. He wanted a girl even more than a boy.
He constantly talked about his niece of whom he was so fond.
Reem and George would hug each other and look at each other in a full length mirror naked. They felt they were the ideal couple. The both
liked the contrast of white and brown skin.
From then on they had no oral sex. George insisted they did not waste a drop of sperm; “The most important thing is to get you pregnant”
“I could not agree more” said Reem with elation. For the first time she actually wanted to conceive. Her lover was handsome and virile/
He had a full head of hair unlike her husband who was balding at the temples/ He actually cared for her and did everything to make her
happy. He was an honest man and he had achieved things. He did not hurt anyone and he was polite even to the lowliest servant.
Iqbal went away for a business trip for a week. It turned into two weeks. In that time Reems period did not come.
She realised she was pregnant;
“George I am pregnant” she said diffidently
“That is fantastic” he said filled with delight.
” I have not taken a pregnancy test but I can tell not just because of the missed mesntruaation. I can always tell because
I smeel things better ; I have been pregnant five times; Two miscarriages you see. I want this baby more
than life itself” said Reem
“Who is the father” he said suddenly circumspect.
She looked at him square in the face.
“You are” she said slowly;
” I know you speak the truth” he said deliberately. Then he snogged her.
She added; “I know it is you because he has been away for two weeks and he did not do me for two weeks before that. Missed period was
*a week back. But there is the trouble. He might realise he cannot have impregnated me. What am I going to do? ” she cried; ” I could never have
“YOU are not going to do that. You just need to say you became pregnant sooner. Lie about the date of conception.”
They successfully tricked the doddery old drug addict. It felt so good for Reem to be carrying her lover’s baby. She was also getting
one over Iqbal. That cowardly old bully had been defeated; Her handsome young lover had defeated hiM. Reem was very apprehensive in case
she had a miscarriage. She was honest with herself; her previous miscarriages had come as a relief. But now she desperately wanted to give birth
to George’s child.
Reem thrilled to the baby’s kicks.
She felt the life leap inside her. To bear a child conceived in love was the most wonderful thing of all. Her flesh had been united forever with the man
she gave herself to. She was so glad that the baby would inherit her lover’s looks and his IQ. Being an adultress was fun.
As Reem was pregnant her appalling spouse laid off her. She went to the hotel to do pregnancy exercises; She enjoyed her lover’s ministrations all through the
gestation. She had feared her would go cool on her during pregnancy as her husband used to. But it was the opposite. She felt twice as
loved as before. Her also desired her body more. He fucked her with extra verve. He caressed every curve of her; She was ballooning
but had never felt so gorgeous. She was brimming with life and optimism.
Nine months were up and Reem told her husband that the baby was late.
Finally Reem delivered the baby vaginally. She named her Fatima.
Reem brought the baby to the Hilton cafe where George just happened to be. He held his daughter for the first time when she
*was a week old. She could see that he was smitten with his baby.
That night Iqbal died of a heart attack. Reem inherited all his money. She moved to London with her children and married G
adjectives gives us more info about anon or a pronoun
adjectives are gradbale = they can be more or less
very, quite. really, extremely.
very is an adverb
if an adjective comes before a noun they are attributive
f they come afterwards the are predicative.
predicate is a verb
adjectives beginning with a are only used in predivative positon I e after the vern
I e afraood. asleep, alone, afloat
the boat is afloat
the child is asleep
this is a nic pizza, attributive
she is afraid for the drk. predicative,
long green dress. attributive.
the car was old and dirty . predicative
is she asleep predicative>
order of adjectives
#strange, green, metallic
young thin scottish , balck haired and tall = what sequence?
plastic, long m narrow.
opinion . size, physical quality, shape , age, colour, origin, material, tupe, purpose#
use an adverb t garde an adverb ro make it greater or lesser in degree
comparatives . add er if it is a one syllable adjective
if it is a two more more syllable adjective we usually put more in front
exceptions = we wned i