Monthly Archives: January 2018




Nepal is a country in Asia. This nation lies in a region called South Asia. It could be considered to be part of the Indian Subcontinent. Nepal is in the Himalayas Mountains. The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world. The lowland region of Nepal has cool winters and warm summers. In the mountains it is always cold.

There are only two neighbours of Nepal. These are China and India. The highest Himalayas are on the border of China and Nepal. There are very few roads from Nepal into China. Most of Nepal’s trade is with India.

There is no coastline in Nepal. The country has low rainfall except in the monsoon which occurs in July and August.

Nepal was once divided into many different realms. Hinduism came to the country over 4 000 years ago. Most Nepalis are still Hindu. Many sacred shrines are within Nepal’s frontiers. Gautama was a Hindu princeling. He left his palace and saw four lugubrious sights. This made him reflect. He founded a religion called Buddhism and became known as Buddha.

In the 18th century Prithvi Narayan Shah rose to prominence. He was the king of a small kingdom in the middle of Nepal. He was trying to take the largest valley in the country – Kathmandu. There was to be a battle. He had a vision. He was told that next day his arm would prevail and his progeny would rule the land for 14 generations. In the 14th they would be annihilated. Next day fortune blessed his arms with victory. Indeed, he came to be King of Nepal. He was the first one to unite the nation.

Some time later the Nepalese came into contact with the Britishers who ruled India. In 1814 the British and Indians fought a war against Nepal. Nepal was smashed and lost half her territory. The British general who was the architect of victory in the Nepal War was commemorated by a monument that bore his name in Calcutta – the Ochterlony Monument. In recent times this said monument has been rededicated in honour of Indian separatists.

The Britons were impressed by the fighting qualities of their Nepalese foes. The Brits asked the King of Nepal whether they could recruit some of these doughty warriors into their army. The Nepali king answered in the affirmative. The Nepalese troops who joined the British Indian Army were called Gurkhas. This is because of a town in central Nepal called Gorkha which is where many of them hailed from. The Gurkhas were to be one of the most reliable regiments in the Indian Army.

In the 1840s the Prime Minister of Nepal – Rana – gained more power than the king. The king was believed to be an emanation of the Hindu god Vishnu. The king and his family seldom left the palace at Durbar Square in Kathmandu. The Rana family then effectually wielded power. The prime ministership became hereditary. The king never left the Kathmandu Valley.

In 1857 Nepal assisted the Britishers and Indians in defeating some religious fanatics. The grateful Indians and their British friends returned some of the land seized in 1814.

In about 1910 four men tried to overthrow the Rana family. They were executed in four different ways. One was shot, one was hanged etc… They are remembered at the Martyr’s Gate in Kathmandu.

Gurkhas served with distinction in all Indian wars. They never mutinied. They always made common cause with their British allies. The Gurkhas felt themselves to be very different from the people of the plains.

A hospital was built in Kathmandu to tend those Gurkhas wounded in the First World War.

In 1947 India became independent. The British were suddenly not so important. Some of the Gurkha regiments were allotted to the army of the newly independent India. Some went to the British Army.

The king managed to overthrow the Rana family and regain power. The royal family were the masters for the first time in a  century. Nepal had some modernising monarchs. These included Trihhuvan and Mahendra.

In 1971 King Birendra became king. His Majesty has attended Eton College – the world’s best school. He also studied at a university in Japan but left without a degree.

Birendra was minded to share power with the people. His queen was a Rana. That means she was from the prime ministerial family. Their marriage was the two families achieving rapprochement. She believed in maintaining absolute monarchy.

Literacy spread at this time. Socialist notions came from Indian and China. Many WESTERN backpackers came here. They were on the banana pancake trail. They often experimented with cannabis which grew wild in the hills. The government outlawed cannabis but a royal building was burnt down next night. It was probably arson in protest at the new edict.

Many Nepalis went to India and the Middle East to work.

In the 1980s a protest movement grew demanding democracy. The Government of Indian backed the democratic movement. The Indians closed the border. Shortages of everything grew severe. There were large scale riots. People tried to storm the royal palace. The police shot dead many who tried to attack the palace.

The king had to give in. Democracy was introduced. The Nepali Congress Party won the elections.

In the 1990s a Maoist insurgency started in the hills. The government found it difficult to contain.

In 2001 there was a row in the royal family. The king’s eldest son Dhipendra wished to wed his girlfriend. The king found her unsuitable. They threatened to disinherit the crown prince. He would be passed over in favour of his younger brother Nirajan. Dhipendra was told to go to his room to calm himself.

#Dhipendra returned with guns and shot dead the whole family. He then turned the gun on himself.

The royal family were rushed to hospital. They were all dead except Dhipendra who was on life support. A couple of days later he died. Or was life support switched off?

The new king was Ganendra – the younger brother of Birendra. Ganendra had not been at the dinner when Dhipendra killed the others. Some said that Ganendra was somehow behind the massacre. He was deeply unpopular because of his tearaway son Paras who had killed a film star due to reckless driving.

People noted the prophecy that the descendants of Privthi Narayan Shah would all be slain in the 14th generation. It was 14 generations since that man conquered Kathmandu.

The Maoist insurrection grew and grew. Tourists were scared away. The economy was close to collapse. Finally the Maoists were poised to take the capital. The king fled.

The Maoists took over. Astonishingly, they did not behave like Maoists. They held elections. The monarchy was abolished and the country became a republic.

The capital city of the nation is Kathmandu. There are some fabulous cities in that valley such as Patan and Bhaktapur. These are well preserved terracotta towns.

Most people are Hindu and some are Buddhists. These faiths are syncretic and they overlap. Some people belong to both. There are a few Muslims and Christians.

Nepali is the official language. It is related to Hindi. It is penned in the Deva- Nagari script.

The Flag of Nepal has two right angle triangles one on top of the other. No other flag is like it. The flag is red, white and blue. It has symbols on it.

Mount Everest – the tallest mountain in the world – is in this country. It has a different name in Nepali. It is named after a Briton who was in charge of a geographical study of India.

Nepal is not a rich country. Most people are literate now. Gender roles are strict specially in the countryside. People put a lot of emphasis on family honour.

The capital city is Kathmandu. There are many dogs in this city. Because of the number of canines people sometimes called it Dogmandu.


  1. Name the two neighbours of Nepal? (Two marks)
  2. What are the clours on the Nepali Flag? (Three marks)
  3. Who was Prithvi Narayan Shah? Four marks
  4. How did the prophecy made to him come true? Three marks.
  5. What is the tallest mountain in the world?
  6. Which mountain range covers much of Nepal?
  7. What is the language of Nepal?
  8. Which religion was founded in Nepal?
  9. What faith do most Nepalis subscribe to?
  10. Is there a king of Nepal now?
  11. Why do people sometimes call a certain city ‘Dogmandu’?
  12. Do you wish to pay a visit to this land? Five marks.





New Zealand.



New Zealand is a country in Australasia. Australasia is a continent that comprises New Zealand and Australia.

New Zealand consists of two major islands and many minor ones. The largest island is called South Island and the smaller of the two major islands is named North Island. North Island and South Island are separated by the Cook Strait. This country is surrounded by the South Pacific Ocean. New Zealand lies across the Tasman Sea from Australia.

The climate of the country is mild to cool. The further south one goes the colder it gets. This is because one is approaching the Antarctic Circle. The country is very verdant and has high rainfall. The landscape is hilly and mountainous. There are millions of sheep in New Zealand. It might even be termed a supersized Wales. The largest mountain ranged in New Zealand is on South Island and is called the Southern Alps.

The Maoris are the original inhabitants of New Zealand. They came thousands of years ago. They called the country Aotoreroa. This means ‘Land of the Long White Cloud.’ The Maoris have their own language. The Maoris are divided into different tribes each with their own king. They often fought each other.

European explorers sailed to the islands in the 17th century. A Dutch mariner Abel Tasman sailed to these islands. He named them New Zealand after the province of the Netherlands called Zeeland.  Tasman’s name has been given to the Tasman Sea and the Australian isle of Tasmania.

Captain James Cook, the British explorer, circumnavigated the archipelago in the 1780s. He changed the spelling of the country to New Zealand. Cook was an officer in the Royal Navy.

In the 1840s British settlers from Australia moved to New Zealand. New Zealand was first of all governed as an adjunct of New South Wales. At that time Australia was not one country. It was six different colonies. They were all run separately and all had a relationship with the United Kingdom. Only in 1900 did the colonies unite to form the Commonwealth of Australia.

British immigrants fought the Maoris. Eventually the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between Queen Victoria and the Maori chiefs.

A bird called the Kiwi exists in New Zealand. These birds lost the ability too fly as there were no predators. 19th century British immigrants brought dogs and cats with them. These animals almost wiped out the kiwis because the flightless birds could not get away. In some minor islands the kiwis still live. Kiwis are unique to New Zealand. Therefore the word ‘Kiwi’ is synonymous with New Zealand. New Zealanders are happy to call themselves Kiwis and like other people calling them Kiwis. There is also a kiwi fruit.

New Zealand became a separate colony from New South Wales. Soon New Zealand gained dominion status. It was internally self-ruling. The New Zealander depended on the United Kingdom for defence and foreign affairs.

People from New Zealand sailed to other islands of the South Seas. They helped to administer places such as the Cook Islands. The isles are named in honour of Captain Cook.

New Zealanders went to South Africa to fight in defence of the British Empire in 1899. In the First World War New Zealanders and Australians formed the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps – ANZAC. Its troops were known as ANZACs. They fought with distinction at the Battle of Gallipoli in Turkey. The New Zealanders were proud not to have executed a single one of their men.

New Zealand was the first country in modern times to grant women the vote. It was in 1893. New Zealand suffered from the Great Depression. Being a self-sufficient agricultural country it was not as severely impacted as other nations.

In 1939 the Second World War broke out. New Zealand was in the British Empire but controlled her own foreign policy. The country was entitled to stay neutral. However, she joined the UK in the war. New Zealanders went to the United Kingdom to fight in the Battle of Britain.

After the Second World War New Zealanders fought in Malaya. The country joined SEATO – South-East Asian Treaty Organisation. It was an anti-communist alliance. New Zealand troops were to Vietnam to assist the Americans. The idea was that the USA must care for the security of the region. If not communists could take over the entire region and invade New Zealand.

In 1953 Edmund Hillery and Sherpa Tensign Norgay climbed Mount Everest. They were the first people to conquer the highest summit in the world. Asked why he climbed it Hillery said, ‘Because it was there.’ He was later knighted. The news that he had climbed the mountain broke on coronation day. Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand.

In 1954 the queen came to New Zealand. She was the first reigning monarch to do so. She was hailed gleefully.

New Zealand became an affluent country. It has a non nuclear policy. It also allows only organic farming. The country has high taxes and high fines for speeding.

In the 1970s people toyed with the notion of becoming a state of Australia. The two countries have so much in common. New Zealanders would still be New Zealanders if they joined. They could keep their flag, parliament and identity. They would be represented in the Australian Parliament too. In the end the Kiwis chose not to go for it.

Kiwis often like outdoor pursuits. Its rugby team is called the All Blacks because they wear an entirely black kit. The All Blacks have long been a formidable team. In the 1980s they went ten years losing only one match. That was to Australia. In 1987 the first ever rugby world cup was held. It was hosted bu New Zealand. The hosts won.

In the 1970s there was a controversial issue. It was the sporting ban on South Africa. The South African Government pursued a racist policy called apartheid. They would not play against non whites. Some people said that New Zealand should not play South Africa because this racist policy was unsporting. Others said they knew nothing of South Africa’s politics and just wanted to play the game. People play sports against others without approving of the other country’s policies. Surely sport is a way to make friends and bring positive change. There were attempts to disrupt rugby matches. The Springboks – the South African team – were a superb rugger XV.

The anti-apartheid campaign said that sending South Africa to moral Coventry was vital. South Africa must be barred from international sport. If South Africa had racist rules in sport then she did not deserve to play. In the end it caused such a ruckus that the All Blacks stopped playing the Springboks. There was a danger that New Zealand would be banned from international sports if she did not refrain from playing against South Africa.

Some New Zealand international players went to South Africa in the 1980s. They played rugby called the Cavaliers. This was not the official New Zealand team. Nevertheless they were sometimes announced as being ‘New Zealand.’

New Zealand has a good  cricket team too.

Kiwis like to go hill walking and camping. They invented bungee jumping. Many people there like sailing, kayaking and cycling.

In the 1990s there were severe cutbacks to the New Zealand Defence Forces. The Royal New Zealand Navy and the Royal New Zealand Air Force were so severely reduced that many people left the services. They mostly moved to the United Kingdom to join the RAF and Royal Navy.

The Flag of New Zealand has a dark blue field. It has four red stars of five points each. In the ensign there is the British Flag. In 2014 there was a referendum on changing the flag. There was an alternative flag proposed without the Union Flag on it. The current flag won.

In the 20th century immigrants came from countries other than the UK. These include the Republic of Ireland, Denmark and Germany. In recent years immigrants from China, Korea, Vietnam and Nigeria have arrived. This is a multiethnic nation.

The official language of the country is English. Maori also has official status.

The capital city is Wellington. It is on the southern tip of North Island. The largest city is on North Island and it is called Auckland. It is by the Bay of Islands. Most the people live on North Island. South Island is more than twice the size. The main cities in the south are Dunedin (the old name for Edinburgh) and Invercargill. The University of Otago is there and it is the country’s most estimable university.

This country is highly developed. It has extensive welfare provision. There are no valuable natural resources but the country thrives due to its educated workforce. It has one of the highest university participation rates in the world.

The Commonwealth of New Zealand has a prime minister. At the moment it is a young woman. There is a governor-general. He or she represents the head of state – the queen. The country is a constitutional monarchy. Parliament is elected.

The currency is the New Zealand Dollar. It can be written NZD. It is also written NZ$. There are 100 cents to the NZD. This is less valuable than the Australian Dollar.

The national carrier is Air New Zealand. It has a black and white livery. It has a fern on the tail fin. The fern is a symbol of the country. The country emphasises that it is very clean and has gorgeous nature.


#1. In which continent is New Zealand?

2. Which country lies across the Tamsan Sea from this one?

3. What hemisphere is New Zealand in?

4. Describe the climate in New Zealand.

5. Who are the Maoris?

6. Describe the ethnic mix in New Zealand.

7. What are the names of the two main islands? Two marks.

8. Draw the Flag of New Zealand. Five marks.

9. What is the name of the capital?

10. Who was Captain Cook?

11. What is the Treaty of Waitangi?

12. What is the Maori name of the country?

13. Name another island administered by New Zealand.

14. What are the languages of this nation? Two marks.

15 . What was the controversy about playing the Springboks? Five marks.

16. What is appealing about life in this nation? Five marks.

17. Which bird is a symbol of New Zealand?

Nicaragua =================================================



Nicaragua is a country in Central America. This country lies in between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific coast is longer than the other one. This country is in the tropics and north of the Equator. Therefore Nicaragua is very hot. There is heavy rainfall. The land is very fertile and much of it is jungle.

Some children laugh at the name of this country because it sounds like knickers.

For millennia Nicaragua was inhabited by Mesoamerican people. In the 16th century the Spanish arrived. Spanish conquistadores (conquerors) came to rule the country. The Spaniards intermarried with the indigenous people. Spanish is the official language of the nation to this day.

In the 1820s this country became independent. The small Spanish descended elite of plantation owners ruled the country. Most people were illiterate. Those of native descent were almost exclusively on the lowest economic tier.

An American called William Walker came to Nicaragua in the 1850s. He attempted a coup d’état. He wanted to bring back slavery. Walker was defeated and executed.

Nicaragua produced large amounts of fruit. The United Fruit Company dominated what happened there. In the late 19th century the nation’s principal trading partner was the United States. Nicaragua became the archetypal banana republic. That means a country where a rapacious dictator rules and the norms of democracy exist in theory but are flagrantly violated in practice.

In the 1920s the US Marines were dispatched to Nicaragua to protect US interests there. Anastasio Samoza Senior was one of very few Nicaraguans who spoke English. He became an adviser to the US military.

In the 1920s the Samoza family came to rule the country. Three members of the Samoza dynasty ruled as president. The Samozas owned extensive estates. They had been educated in the United States.

In the 1930s Augosto Sandino led a pesants’ revolt against the Samoza dictatorship. Sandino said that the majority of people suffered in the most abject penury owing to the frank exploitation of the landowners. The Samoza family had difficulty containing the insurrection. Sandino was invited to the capital under truce for talks. Sandino accepted. Samoza posed for photos with Sandino with his arm around his guest. He then had Sandino tortured and killed.

Anastasio Samoza senior was assassinated by a left wing writer in the 1950s. His son Miguel then ruled. Upon his death Miguel’s younger brother Anastasio Samoza Junior became president. Anastasio Samoza Junior was known as ”Tachito” to his friends.

In the Cold War the government was totally pro-US. In the 1970s a far left rebellion began against the government. The rebels called themselves Sandinistas in honour of Augosto Sandino. In 1979 it was clear that the writing was on the wall for the Samoza dynasty. The last dynast fled the country.

The Sandinistas marched into Managua. They formed a socialist government. The property of Samoza and his cronies was nationalised. The government began a campaign to spread literacy. The Sandinista Government was aligned with the Soviet Bloc. Advisers from communist countries came to Nicaragua.

The United States was anxious about another communist government on the American Continent. Remnants of the Samoza regime set up came in neighbouring Costa Rica, Honduras and El Salvador. They called themselves counter-revolutionaries  (Contras). The Contras started a guerrilla campaign against the Sandinistas. The Sandinistas held elections in which people who had formerly served the Samozas were barred from standing. A variety of socialist parties formed the government.

The Contras made little progress. The US Government assisted the Contras and hailed them as freedom fighters.

In 1990 a peace agreement was made. Elections were held. Some of the former Contras won. Nicaragua is now a democracy.

Managua is the capital. It is beside Lake Managua. It is the biggest lake in the country. The country is lush and hilly.

Most of the people live in the west. There are few good roads in the east.

In Central America people from this land are called a Nica.

#The Flag of Nicaragua is blue, white and blue horizontal bars. In the middle there is an emblem.


  1. What ocean is Nicaragua beside?
  2. Which sea is east of Nicaragua?
  3. What is the largest lake in the country?
  4. Name the capital.
  5. Who was Sandino? Three marks.
  6. Which family ruled the country for 50 years?
  7. What happened to Anastasio Samoza senior?
  8. Who were the Contras? Three marks.
  9. Draw the flag of the nation.
  10. What is the official language?
  11. Describe the landscape.
  12. Who lived here before the Spanish?
  13. What is a Nica?
  14. Who were the Sandinistas?
  15.  Name the neighbours of this country? Three marks.







English lang teaching – grammar


lecturer teaches English in Italy. Graham Burton.

PhD on grammar teaching. what we do versus grammar produced by students at various competency levels.


present simple and present continuous – elementary. can and cannot

different meanings of will. superlatives and comparatives.

intermediate – might. can’t and must. modals of deduction.

upper intermediate – it must have been. it cannot have been that

upper int – be used to

advanced – unreal use of past tense. alternative uses of things already taught.

ELT praxis is his field. what people think. what is considered good practice.

where does list of grammar come from in ELT book? Can we rely on it? Who decided it? What is missing. Issue of sequence.

is the system fit for purpose?

english file has an american book

”simple present” as opposed to ”present simple.”

should we teach grammar explicitly?

there is historical research. ELT archive at Warwick University.

collection of historical ELT books.

data sources – interviews. nine informants.

english grammar in use – famous book.

michael swan – practical english usage.

azar – US book on grammar. pedagogical

books should be generative. not just descriptions.

origins of ELT grammar. tradition of describing.

first title – 1586. The Pamphlet for Grammar by Bullokar.

Bullokar wished to demonstrate that english was rule based.

greek has complex morphology.

Bullokar applied descriptions of Latin and Greek to English

clause, verb, perfect – borrowed from latin

why not? There were no words in english for these. loanwords were used.

verbum. clausa, perfectus

1640. Ben Johnson – write a grammar. learner’s grammar. ”for the benefit of all strangers” i e foreigners

be , have to, necessity or conveniency of doing something

he divides parts of speech. divides parts of speech into those that indicate number and those that do not.

english grammar is translated into latin.

english grammar adapted for different classes of learners.

children had to relearn the lang they already spoke. grammar bullies

Jesperson wrote a grammar. scientific and descriptive.

not so pedantry.

Krusinger a Dutchman wrote an English grammar in 1910.

ELT is becoming a stand alone profession. Harold Palmer at forefront.

Palmer owned a lang school. 1920s.








Niger is an African nation. This country is located in West Africa. The River Niger flows through it. The name of the country and the River Niger is pronounced ”N’EYE jer”. This self same river also flows through Nigeria.  Niger is exceptionally hot throughout the year and the rainfall is low. The river first became well known to the Occident in Mungo Park’s seminal tome Travels in the Interior of Africa.

No coastline abuts onto Niger. Niger is a landlocked country. She is bounded by Chad, Libya, Algeria. Nigeria, Mali and Benin. The country is desert in the north. The Sahara is there. The southern section of this country is fertile. The country is very flat.

Most of the people of this nation are Bantu. Islam arrived centuries ago. The majority of the people of Niger profess the Islamic faith. Some people are Tuareg. The Tuareg are Bedouins and they are fairer skinned than the average black person. The Tuareg tend to wear blue robes.

Niger was mostly ruled by the Kingdom of Kanem in the Middle Ages until the 19th century. This empire traded with the Middle East. Much of the economy depended upon capturing people and selling them into servitude.

In the 1890s the French invaded. They conquered the land and freed the slaves. The French soldiers were mostly black. The French introduced their language. They build many edifices and brought modern technology and scientific discoveries to the country. The French legal system was introduced.

Nigerois men volunteered for the French Army. In 1960 the country was granted independence by France. The official language remains French.

Niger is a republic. There is a president. The Flag of Niger is green, white and orange horizontal bars. The green bar is at the top. The middle bar has an orange circle in the middle.

The currency of this country is the CFA Franc. That is African Financial Community Franc. This currency is pegged to the Euro. There is a fixed exchange rate with the Euro. The CFA Franc goes up and down with the Euro. Several countries in the region use the CFA Franc.

Niger is not a rich country at all. It has the highest fertility rate in the world.

The capital city is Bamako.


  1. Which country is Niger in?
  2. What is the climate like?
  3. Describe the landscape of Niger?
  4. Which is the main river in Niger?
  5. Name the capital of Niger.
  6. What are the colours of the flag? Four marks.
  7.  Name three neighbours of Niger. Three marks.
  8.  Draw the Flag of Niger. Four marks.
  9. What is the principal religion of Niger?
  10. Is there a king in this country?
  11.  What is the official language?
  12. Describe how the French benefitted Niger. Three marks.
  13. Is this country on the sea?
  14. In which year did this nation become independent?
  15. What is the CFA Franc? Three marks.





Namibia is a country in Africa. This nation used to be called South-West Africa which describes its position on the continent. Namibia derives her name from the Namib Desert.

This country borders South Africa, Angola, Botswana and Zambia. She lies beside the Atlantic.

Namibia is peopled by San people and Bantus. There are a few whites. San or Khoi people are indigenous Africans. They look different from the majority of Africans. They are shorter than most and they have an almost orange complexion. They are instantly distinguishable from the Bantu race. The Khoi or San have lived there for millennia. They Bantu arrived more recently.

The land is very dry. There are a few mountains. In the Caprivi Strip there is some fertile land. This nation is beside the Atlantic Ocean.

Namibia was annexed by the Germans in the 1890s. The capital was established at Windhoek. The German Government faced a revolt by the Herero tribe. The German Army thrashed the Herero Army. The German governor ordered that the Herero people be denied water. Their wells were poisoned. There was a policy of shooting dead civilians. Many Herero people fled to British territory. German missionaries and politicians were horrified by these atrocities committed by their compatriots.

In 1915 the British and South Africans invaded Namibia. They Germans were vanquished. After the First World War the League of Nations allotted the country to South Africa. Namibia was under the tutelage of South Africa.

The South African Government passed racist laws. White privileged was enshrine in statute. These laws extended to Namibia. The Caucasian race lorded it over the natives.

In the 1960s nationalist fervour swept the country. Some Namibians agitated for independence. They also wished to do away with racialist legislation. Communist nostra were disseminated. Those who hungered for self-assertion formed the South-West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO).

SWAPO began to fight for independence. The South African military was there. They battled to suppress SWAPO. SWAPO cadres went to the Soviet Union for military formation.

The communist government of Angola became drawn into the fight. Angola assisted SWAPO. South Africa invaded Angola.

In 1990 South Africa began to dismantle apartheid – her legal racism. Peace was made between South Africa and Angola. The South African Army withdrew from Namibia. United Nations troops entered the country. Irish soldiers were there under the auspices of the UN. They provided security for the country as it transitioned to independence.

Windhoek is the capital of the nation. It means ”wind corner.”

The country does well from tourism. There are also minerals there.

The Caprivi Strip takes her name from the German Foreign Minister who negotiated the cession of this land to Germany.

English is the official language.

The Flag is blue, yellow, red, green and white.

Namibia has a formidable rugger XV.


  1. Where does Namibia get its name?
  2. What is Namibia’s position in Africa?
  3. What is the capital called?#
  4. #Which European nation ruled this land?
  5. How does the Caprivi Strip get its name?
  6. What sport is Namibia good at?
  7. Describe the landscape.
  8. Which other African country ruled Namibia?
  9. What does SWAPO stand for?
  10. Name two ways this country makes money. Two marks.




Nigeria is an African country. Nigeria is situated in the west of the continent. This country is the most populous in Africa. The country has 200 000 000 people. Nigeria is very flat. It is bisected by the River Niger. This word is pronounced with a soft and never a hard G. It sounds like ”N’EYE – jur.” Nigeria is just north of the Equator. It is hot all year. The south of the country is fertile. The north is mostly desert.

Nigeria is beside the Atlantic Ocean. The neighbours of this nation are Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Mali and Benin.

The people of Nigeria are Bantu. The Nigerians were divided into many different tribes. Perhaps we should call them nations. Hundreds of languages are spoken in the country. However, the official language is English.

In the 8th century AD Islam reached Nigeria. Northern Nigeria is mostly Mohammedan. Southerners were animists in those days. That meant that they had their own religion with gods and goddesses from their own pantheon.

Horses can live in the northern part of the country. Horses tend to die in the south of the country owing to the tsetse fly. The Muslims were unable to conquer the south.

Nigerians fought each other for centuries.  The peoples of Nigeria did not perceive themselves as one people. What we now call Nigeria was divided into many different kingdoms. Those who were captured were enslaved. The slaves were often sold. These captives were often taken to the Middle East.

In the 17th century European sailors stopped off in Nigeria. They trade with the people of the country. Some Nigerians sold fellow Africans to European merchants and pirates. These unfortunate people were held in bondage. They were shipped across the ocean in wretched conditions.

In the 18th century the British built some forts in ports. The Britishers came to rule the coast. They signed treaties with local potentates.

In the 19th century the British came to rule the whole country. Lord Lugard was the first Governor of Nigeria. It was his wife who invented the word Nigeria. His lordship lived into the 1940s.

The Britannic administration taught English to the autochthonous people. They built roads and railways. Modern medicine was introduced. Tribal fighting was brought to an end.

Palm oil was a major export of Nigeria at the time. Ground nuts was another one. Oil was found in Nigeria. This became important in the 20th century.

The people of the north was principally Fulani and Hausa. They speak those languages. In southern Nigeria the people are mainly Yoruba or Igbo. Igbo is pronounced ”EE bo”. These southerners are usually Christian.

Lagos was founded by the Portuguese. It is named after a city in Portugal. It means ”lakes.”

In 1960 the country became independent as the Republic of Nigeria. In the late 1960s the oil rich Biafra Region pushed for independence. The people of this region are mostly Igbo. They took the name for their region from the Bight of Biafra – an indentation on the coast.

A civil war broke out. It was known as the Biafran War. The Biafran fighters called themselves an army. They almost took the capital Lagos. The Nigerian Government got organised. The Nigerian Army was Muslim dominated. Nigeria refused to grant independence to Biafra. Nigeria did not wish to lose her most prosperous region. Furthermore if Biafran independence were permitted the other states might also declare independence. Ere long there would be no Nigeria left.

The Organisation of African Unity backed Nigeria to the hilt. The United Kingdom sold arms to Nigeria and provided military advice. The Biafrans were eventually defeated. Many people starved to death before the conflict was over.

The elite got their money out of Nigeria. For most of the 1980s the country was ruled by a military dictator. The capital shifted to Abuja. Sani Abach and Olesegun Obasanjo were among those who ruled as strongmen.

Much of the oil wealth was siphoned off. Kleptocrats expatriated their ill gotten lucre. Ogoni State produced much f the oil. However, is much put upon people saw few benefits. Instead they experienced environmental degradation. Ken Saro Wiwa led protestes against the misappropriation of oil money and the pollution caused by unethical oil industry practices. An oilman was killed y some protestors. Ken Saro Wiwa was executed by hanging in 1995. This was a cause celebre.

Nigeria returned to democracy. The country has fair elections. Presidents have lost. Goodluck Jonathan stood down when he lost. Muhammadu Buhari took up the reins of government.

The country is battling Boko Haram. This is an extremist Islamist group. Its name means ”Western education forbidden.”

Religious fervour is widespread among both Muslims and Christians. Christian worship in Nigeria is of the ‘praise’ style.

The Flag of Nigeria is green, white and green. These are vertical bars. There is a symbol on the middle bar.

Nigeria is famed for her accomplished writers. Things Fall Apart is the most celebrated colonial era novel. This country has also produced a renowned football tram what has brought glory on the nation in the World Cup and the African Cup of Nations.


  1. On which continent is Nigeria located?
  2. What river lends its name to Nigeria?
  3. Is Nigeria by the sea?
  4. What race are almost all Nigerians?
  5. Name three neighbours of Nigeria? Three marks.
  6. #What two colours are on the Nigerian Flag? Two marks.
  7. What is the capital?
  8. What is the largest city in Nigeria?
  9. What is the official language?
  10. Which European people ruled this country?
  11. What are the four major ethnic groups in Nigeria? Four marks.
  12. What region tried to break away in the 1960s?
  13. What is Nigeria’s most valuable natural resource?
  14. Is there a King of Nigeria?
  15. Which country has the largest population in Africa?
  16. What are the two main religions in Nigeria? Two marks.
  17. What organisation has been terrorising Nigeria for the past five years?
  18. Describe the climate of Nigeria.
  19. Which woman named Nigeria?
  20. Do you wish to reside here?

The President’s Club Party ===================


party all male. young female waitresses. skimpy outfits

flortiation. what do yu expect. groping . how stuid would one have to be not to expedt banter?

ome woman sat on boys; laps. some were hookers going off with makes. femal witress spoke to Emily maitless

some famles enjoyed it

mother of a waitress calle dpolice. no crime to insitae# that waitress wnet back

womenw ere boiggt – jess phulips. lie   totally acceptbale.

at we no longer allowed to be hetero?

appreciate femla beauty. aesthetic pelsure and  sex appeal. puritan get out. bigotry po faced prudes.  a free society.  ptuty the club has closed. I would want to got  such a party.  some people had a bad day at work.  dislike work. someone said bo to you.

no clear deifntion of sexual harassment.

most men are attarcte to wkne. get over it. say no to judgmental feminists. do not go to sucha  party ifyouo do not like it. do not do sucha  job. chouces# feminsust like choice.  men wer eepxlotie dby high price

s have your own paryt. all female dinner. chip en dales.




Oman is a country in Asia. It is located in a region called the Middle East. This country is North of the Equator. It is very hot and the rainfall is low. Most of the country is desert. There are some mountains.

Oman has been inhabited since pre historic times. Islam came here in the 7th century AD. Oman soon became independent. The Omanis sailed the ocean blue. They owned a port called Gwadar in Pakistan. There are Baluchis in Oman. They Omanis also sailed to Zanzibar in Africa. It was ruled by Oman. The Omanis purchased people in Africa. These unfortunate people were made slaves and treated abominably.

In the 17th century the Portuguese established a fort here. They were soon obliged to leave.

The Omanis sometimes fought with their neighbours. In the 19th century the British arrived in this region. The British Government of India established a truce with the people of the region. The various emirates agreed not to fight each other. This was better for everyone.

Oman became a British protectorate. The British Army was there. Oman governed herself. However, they relied on the British for foreign affairs and defence.

This arrangement came to an end in 1970. At that point the old sultan was ousted by his son Qaboos. Sultan Qaboos has reigned ever since. He has never wed. His Majesty is a fan of classical music and has founded an academy for it.

In the 1970s there was an insurgency in Dhofar. The British Special Air Service (SAS) was called in. The SAS quelled the revolt.

Oman’s neighbours are the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This nation also has a maritime border with Iran. Oman is beside the Arabian Gulf and the Arabian Sea. The Straits of Hormuz is a stretch of water between Oman and Iran. This is a very busy shipping lane. Huge oil tankers ply this waterway.

The people of Oman are Arabs. The official language is Arabic. Many people also speak English.

The Sultanate of Oman is ruled by the sultan (king).

The Flag of Oman is red, white and green. There is a khanjar (knife) on the flag.

This country is oil rich. The population is 3 000 000. There are many foreigners there.

The capital of this country is Muscat. The airline of this country is called Oman Air. The currency is the Omani Riyal. It is divided into 1 000 baisas.


  1. What colours are on the flag?
  2. What symbol is on the Flag of Oman?
  3. Oman is beside which two seas?
  4. What is the name of the sultan?
  5. Describe the landscape.
  6. What area of the sea is in between Oman and Iran?
  7. Oman rule which two foreign places?
  8. What is the major faith of this country?
  9. Name the capital of the nation.
  10. What are the three countries that have lad borders with Oman? Three marks.
  11. Would you like to visit this country Three marks.
  12. What is the unit and subunit of currency?
  13. Name the Sultan of Oman.
  14. Which foreign country protected Oman from 1840 to 1970?
  15. What is the climate like?


lANGUGE change and young people in todays world


Prof R Hickey

accent grammar and vocab. accent is most telling. vocab can be selected

accents tell us a lot about their movement, their aspirations. origins

socio lnguistucs chiefly concenred with accents.

diachronic info. historical. different varieties in Ireland. Irish, english, scots. ulster english.

southern irish english. basket of accents.

ireland today – foreigners. new Irish. many nationalities. 5 times as many polish speakers as Irish speakers.

first generation born in Ireland speak English

children assimilate completely.

english in ireland. englsh came with normans. french speakers. built keeps. wanted land. they became irish. we have norman loanwords.

where are the english in retinue tradespeople artisans lived in towns. they worked for normans. kilkenny, new ross, wexford

english was modest

enlugh an to over country from 1600. plantations renewed

settlers from lowland scotland

englosh replaced riish in the east first. second period.

shift from east to west.

present day picture. dialect. forms of rural spoken lang

irish english – there are west, east and ulster

mid ulster english.

ulster crescent – mallin to ards

is scots a different lang?

CHANGE. eastern area. dublin. dublin english. big. capital dominates. 3 times size of cork.

in germany no single city dominates the country.

non vernacular varieties. local variety. rooted. local. vernacular dublin english . Fair City

local speakers with strong dub accents.

non vernacular speakers. non vernacular accent because that spreads.

local capital accent. cockney etc…. that does not travel.

examples. ”meal, deal , field.” down-up. new dub pronunciation, dark L

people keep their pronunciation.

use of retroflex R ”car.” dublin .

house as ”hows”

”soon” as soo-in

variation in lang. change. use different pronunciations. change is when it becomes established.

instance of change. short fron vowel lowering.

type of change in front vowel. very obvious. starred in california or canada. to S Africa and Oz.

US dominates anglosphere.

Eire very pro USA

we are small. no competing

GB likes to think that it is a superpower. they resist american influence. have not taken on American pronunciation

waterford  the T is a D now in hiberno english

cidy not city. a flat T.

used to be soft  T in Irish – Citsy

inherent resistance in UK.

short front vowel lowering.

”dress” and ”trap” front vowel lowering.

”yas” for yes.

lowering of ‘e’ vowel to ‘a’

some complain about lang change.

pattern. change or variation evolves.

use different word or structure.

people resists change. new users are young. old dislike it.

complaints. they die out. people grow accustomed to it.

Cork as ”querk” is established.

complaints. new pronunciation.

will it be established or disappear.

small groups of people in key positions use something new. others think it worthy.

2006 weather forecast. have latest pronunciation. many words contain key vowel sound. west.

”wast” for west. on telly.

changes in pronunciation are unconscious. things can travel unselfconsciously

we think of not how we say things but we think about signification. we can grasp what is said around us. we can comprehend all. pronuncation is often v different from our own. no trouble processing. adjust tone and rate of delivery.

sound stream. stream of sounds.

process sounds. guessing stream of sounds how it is cut up. babies hear lang. absorb lang. stored. organised. reproduced.

enormous feat. one absorbs set of sounds. you pick it up. analyse it. work out a structure. recombine. generate sentences. no instructions.

one learns to produce sounds to speak intelligibly. vary the way one speaks.

phonology – blocks of sound. manipulate.

we can produce sounds. store them. we can vary them. say down many ways.

speakers are accommodating lang like that of others in a group they wish to join. they can disociate – they want to make their sound differnt from others

oDublin in 80s and 90s they wanyed to be different from others. they wanted to be sophisticated and urbnae. new accent to fit with that.

types of change. internally motivated if it involves change in seucture of the lang.

apron – naparon in French.

chuldren saying ;;negg” and ”napple” because they do not understand an.



externally motivate change.

dove or dived? past tense.

changes in adulthood. pronunciation changes. age group. teenagers and yoyung adults. they are not individualistic. they are conformist to others.

peer pressure. dress, hair style, socialising. very sensitive to use of lang. crave acceptance. finding feet.

adults are established.

pathways of change. how is it transmitted? Media

net. audio material. people used to think when a change happened face to face it was effective.

speakers. contact is not only means of meeting other types of lang.

acquiring lang as baba. children are not part of society. babies are not social beings.

school. children care about social factors.

external change in teens and young adults. ladies. vanguard as change.

young women use standard lang not local accent.

non local forms of lang used by young females. males have local accents.

transgenerational change is constant.

it is seldom that one generation does not understand another

change is incremental.

pronunciation. short vowel lowering. sagital view – side on view of mouth.

most flexible muscle is body. move very quickly. can make tiny adjustments in configuration# R is very fast. several hundred times a second.

there is a phonological envelope – space in which one can produce sounds

speakers pick up a sound change. they alter the tongue to produce a sound differently

englosh has a series.

there are high back vowels



dipthongs – move from oen position to another in a vowel. ”boat, boil”

flat vowel.

lexical sets. sample words we use to talk about vowels. kit vowel. this is in bit, hit, hiss

dress word . all have e. breakfast#

trap, back.

lot vowel.

strut vowel but

everyone pronounces those vowesl the same

what is happening. vowels move down a space. short front vowel lowring

dress and trap are short vowels. they are lowered

females in service job. lower middle class speakers – the move lang change. class is meant neutrally.

air hostesses, secretaries, nurses, receptionist, clerks.

typical section of society where change first occurs.

flight attendants were first to use new dublin english

gender paradox. women lead change.

english in Dublin. founded over 1 000 years ago.

1.5 million people  – greater dublin.

”farm” without an R- vernacular

”farm” with retroflex is non vernacular

a certain ”o” is pukka. seems to be sissy.

females pronounce ”o” like that.

how does one do research? recordings. 445 speakers recorded by prof

people pronouncing key words.

gallup polls.

we maintain a linguistic identity. we can always tell young irish people. vowel strut – but, cut . we say it as a back vowel.

country. has a distinctive Irish vowel.

early 20th century Ireland – accents were very simialr to people in england.

local accent has been more prominent since partition/

wide anglophone feature. down vowel sound. very front vowel. do vowel s very far front in Hibernia.

west of the country. oo, ow.

some vowels are pronounced more open and others more closed.

distinction between ”morning” ”marning”

horse or harse.

which – blowing out a candle. some do not pronounce the H in wh.

loss of distinctions

does not obstruct understanding.

pragmatics. conetxt of lang allows one to grasp difference.

whale and wail are not said the same.

spectograms one can analyse air stream and prove that pronunciation changes

short front vowels changes. physical changes.

we do not know if this new pronuncation will become general

dark L and retroflex R have become establshed.

if people regard a variant as worthy of imitation it shall be entrenched

when change is taking place it is scintillating

dynamic change is gripping