Monthly Archives: December 2017

Uganda=======================================

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UGANDA

Uganda is a country in Africa. Uganda is bisected by the Blue Nile. The country is fairly flat but is has some hills. Uganda has plenty of forest. The country is hot throughout the year. The Equator passes through this country.

The Ugandans are almost all black. They are divided into several tribes such as Buganda and Acholi. Each tribe has its own language. The official language of the nation is English. Most people can also speak Swahili.

Uganda has an area called Buganda. There was a King of Buganda. The British annexed Uganda in 1890 and created the country. The King of Buganda co operated with them.

Indians came over to do some technical jobs in Uganda when the Britishers arrived. The Indians later prospered in trade and the professions.

Uganda became independent in 1962. Dr Milton Obote was the first prime minister. King Freddie of Buganda became president. In 1971 General Idi Amin Dada launched a coup d ‘etat.  Amin expelled the Indians from the country. They moved to the United Kingdom. Idi Ami ruled the country for eight bloody years. Hundreds of thousands of people were slain on his orders. He was finally ousted.

Dr Obote briefly returned as prime minister. Binaisa then became the leader. Finally, Yoweri Museveni became president. President Museveni ruled for 30 years. The Lord’s Resistance Army started an insurrection in the north.

The country is mostly Christian. There are Muslims too.

The capital city is Kampala. This country borders Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Kenya and South Sudan. The country is beside Lake Victoria.

Uganda is a keen member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Uganda has twice hosted the Commonwealth Heads of Government Conference.

The currency is the Ugandan Shilling. The Flag has black, red and yellow horizontal stripes. There is a central white disc featuring a black crane which is a bird.

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  1. What is the official language of the country?
  2. What is the major language of the country besides English?
  3. Which Europeans ruled this country?
  4. What kingdom made up much of the territory of Buganda prior to the British arriving?
  5. People from which Asian country arrived in large numbers after 1890?
  6. What huge river flows through Uganda?
  7. Is Uganda in the Commonwealth?
  8. What is the capital?
  9. What is the currency?
  10. What are the colours of the flag?
  11. Which dictator ruled Uganda in the 70s?
  12. Who was the first prime minister of the country?
  13. Who has been president since the 1980s.
  14. Name a country that neighbours this country.
  15. Which lake is Uganda beside.
  16. Describe the climate.
  17. Who was the first President of Uganda?
  18. Which ethnic minority was kicked out in 1972?
  19. What is the main religion of this country?
  20. Which organisation caused an insurrection in the 1980s and 1990s?
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Ukraine

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UKRAINE

This is a country in Europe. Ukraine is derived from the Russian words meaning ”at the edge.” Ukraine is mostly flat but it has some mountains. There are the Carpathians in the very west. This nation borders Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Russia and Belarus. The river Dniper flows through the country and is very broad.

Kiev is the capital of the Ukraine. Kharkiv is the second city of the country. There are other major cities such as Donbass, Odessa, Lviv and Dniepropetrovsk. Ukraine is beside the Black Sea. The Black Sea takes its name from an ancient Greek myth about black ink being poured into the sea.

Ukrainian is the official language of the country. Most people can also speak Russian. Some people speak Russian as their mother tongue especially in the east of the country.

The Flag of the Ukraine is yellow and blue. These are halves with the yellow above the blue.

The Kiev, Ukraine was the birthplace of the Russian state. Vladimir converted the people to Christianity in 986. In Ukrainian he is called Vlodymyr.  The Vikings were also in the Ukraine. The Ukraine was conquered by the Poles in the 15th century. This is when the country was separated from Russia. The Ukrainian language emerged. Ukrainian has many Polish loanwords. In the 18th century the Ukraine became part of Russia again.

This nation was briefly independent in 1918. Some key battles of the First World War and the SECOND World War WERE FOuGHT HERE. Some ultra nationalists took the German side.

The Ukraine experienced horrific famines from the 1920s to the 1950s and millions of people starved to death.

The Ukraine was a republic of the Soviet Union. In 1991 the Ukraine became an independent country. The Ukraine is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Petro Poroshenko is the President of the Ukraine. The currency is the hryvniya.

This country has a lot of forest. There is also steppe – flat grassland. It has very cold winters and hot summers.

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  1. What is the second city of the Ukraine?
  2. What is the currency of this country?
  3. Who is the president?#
  4. What is the name of the largest river in the country?
  5. Name six countries that border the Ukraine. Six marks.
  6. What is the name of the capital city?
  7. Where was the Russian state founded?
  8. Which country to the west conquered the Ukraine in the 15th century?
  9. What are the colours of the flag? Two marks.
  10. Which sea is this country beside?
  11. Describe the climate.
  12. Who is the president of this country?
  13. Was this a Soviet republic?
  14. In which year did this country become independent?

Dreams of the past few days

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yesternight I DREAMT of speaking to a slim old man in Russian. He had thin grey hair – ooked ike Sean O Callaghan. Have been relcing onbuim of late sinc ehe died this summer. I was explaining partisoan movements in the Great War – how both sides sponsoered revolts against the other. This would be of intetes to an irish republican but in the dream he wa Rissian . In rality he was ant republican in the end. I was speaking Ruussian. It was the first time I evr dreamt in Russian.

The nigt afore I dream tof Gilbert and his wife. saw them on FB. he is dismissive if e. I like him not ovemrich. In my reveyr ehw as  adoctor and his spouse too – they were raking it in. I read of GPs making 700 k. I was very envous.

do not reall the dream the night before that.

Tunisia

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TUNISIA

 

Tunisia is a country in Africa. Tunisia derives its name from its capital city – Tunis. Tunisia is beside the Mediterranean Sea. The nation has two neighbours – Algeria and Libya.

In ancient times Carthage was located in Tunisia. This was the capital of the Carthaginian Empire. Phoenicians had settled there. The Romans conquered this country in the 2nd century BC.

Tunisians were mostly Christian after the 3rd century AD. After the 7th century AD they converted to Islam and started to speak Arabic. A minority of people speak Berber as their mother tongue.

This country was part of the Muslim Empire for a while and then the Ottoman Empire. Tunisia was an independent kingdom in the 19th century. The French then annexed this country.

In the Second World War major battles were fought between the Axis and the Allies here.

Tunisia has two languages – French and Arabic. Tunisia was a colony of France until 1958. Tunisia is a republic. The first president ensured that Tunisia is a secular country. He made  appoint of eating his dinner in the middle of the day during Ramadan. He insisted that restaurants stay open throughout the day in Ramadan. Ramadan is a moveable feast. It is a month when Muslims do not eat or drink during the daylight hours.

Tunisia has a flag with a red field and a white disc. Inside the white disc there is a red crescent moon. There is also a five pointed star. These are Islamic symbols. This flag is very similar to the Turkish Flag. These flags are often confused.

Tunisia is not a wealthy country. Tourism is crucial to the economy. People go to the beach a lot. This is a sunny country because of its location. This is why people come to Tunisia on holiday. It is an affordable destination. There are also ancient ruins to admire. Unluckily, bestial of terrorist attacks have caused tourists to stay away in droves.

The countryside is fairly dry. There is some farmland but plenty of desert. There are some low mountains.

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  1. What is the capital of Tunisia?
  2. What are the two official languages?
  3. Which sea is Tunisia beside?
  4. Why do tourists come to Tunisia?
  5. Which ancient empire had its capital in Tunisia?
  6. What symbols are on the Tunisian Flag?
  7. In which year did Tunisia become independent?
  8. What are Tunisia’s neighbours called?
  9. What is Ramadan?
  10. In which century did Tunisia become Islamic?

 

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US Virgin Islands

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US Virgin Islands.

These islands are a territory of the United States. They are not a state of the United States. The US Virgin Islands are located in the Caribbean Sea.

Indigenous people resided here for millennia. In the 17th century Europeans conquered the islands. Diseases killed off the native people. The Danes came to rule the Virgin Islands.

The Danes bought people in Africa as slaves. These unfortunate slaves were taken across the ocean to the Virgin Islands. These African people were made to work extremely hard. The slaves masters were extraordinarily cruel to their victims. Cash crops were grown on the islands and exported.

In 1914 the First World War broke out. Denmark was neutral. She borders Germany. This small country could easily have been overrun. The United States was anxious lest Germany annex Denmark. If this were done then the Danes may be forced to cede the Virgin Islands to Germany. In that case the Germans might station a naval squadron there. This would imperil the United States.

The US Government negotiated with Denmark. In 1917 the Unite States bought the islands. The people of the Virgin Islands were not consulted on their future. So much for Wilson’s belief in self -determination!

Most of the people of the Virgin Islands are black. Their language is English. They use the US Dollar. The are al American citizens. They have the tight to move to the USA any time People from the USA CAN MOVE TO THE ViRGIN IsLANDS.

 

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  1. What is the language of the US Virgin Islands?
  2. What is the currency?
  3. Which European land once ruled the Virgin Islands?
  4. Which is the main race in this territory?
  5. Are the people of these islands American?
  6. Which sea surrounds these islands?
  7. Why did the USA buy these islands?
  8. In which year did the USA buy these islands?
  9. How did black people come to be in the Virgin Islands?
  10. Is there a king here?

Sierra Leone

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SIERRA LEONE

This is a country in Africa. Sierra Leone is on the Atlantic Ocean. It borders Liberia and Guinea. Sierra Leone is south of the tropic of Cancer. It is therefore hot all year round. There is fairly heavy rainfall. The land is very fertile. There is country is suitable for arable farming. Yams and groundnuts grow very well.

Bantu people have dwelt in this land for millennia. Bantu people are the indigenous black people of subSaharan Africa. The Bantu people are divided into countless tribes. They speak many different languages but they are all Bantu languages.

Spanish sailors sited the coast of Sierra Leone centuries ago. One of the Spaniards thought that he spotted a lion there. Therefore they named that stretch of coastline ‘Sierra Leone’ which translates into English as ‘lion mountain. ‘

The people of Sierra Leone did not perceive themselves as one. They often fought against each other. Those captured in war were forced to be slaves.

In the 17th century Europeans started trading with the people of Sierra Leone regularly. The European pirates purchased people from other Sierra Leoneans. These unfortunate captives were made into slaves. These poor slaves were treated cruelly and placed on ships. They were taken across the ocean in appalling conditions. Many died on the journey. These luckless people were forced to work in the Americas.

The British, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and others were engaged in this trade in human flesh.

The British and American outlawed the transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and 1808 respectively. The British then deiced to prevent other countries from shipping slaves across the ocean. The Royal Navy stopped and searched ships to see if slaves were being transported. The Royal Navy rescued people from  slavery. Those they liberated were taken to Sierra Leone. These people were set free. However, this was seldom the part of Africa that they came from.

People who had been held in slavery in the British West Indies were freed in 1837 and in some cases prior to that. The British Government sponsored  scheme whereby these people were brought back to Africa. In some cases these people had resided in the American Continent for a few generations. These people freed from servitude were called creoles. They often had Anglophone names such as Fowler.

Those people in Sierra Leone who had never had ancestors in the American Continent felt separate from the creoles on the coast.

The capital city of this nation is Freetown. This is because slaves were set at liberty there.

Interestingly, the French Navy also had an anti slavery patrol. They intercepted slave ships. The people rescued by the French were put ashore in Gabon at a town called Libreville. This means ‘Free Town’ in French.

The British later colonised Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone became independent in the 1960s. It is a republic. Some of the people re Christians and some are Muslims.

The official language of the country is English. Many people there speak creole which is a form of broken English.

Sierra Leone has diamonds. There was a horrific civil war in Sierra Leone in the 1990s. The Rebel United Forces seized control of the diamond fields.

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  1. What is the capital of this country?
  2. What ocean is the country beside?
  3. How do you say lion mountain in Spanish?
  4. Name on land that neighbours Sierra Leone.
  5. What precious natural resource lies under the soil of Sierra Leone?
  6. What is the official language of this country?
  7. Is this nation a monarchy?
  8. Which European country ruled Sierra Leone?
  9. Name a nationality besides the British took people from Sierra Leone as slaves?
  10. Who are creole people?
  11. What are the crops grown here?

Uruguay

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URUGUAY

 

Uruguay is a country in South America. It is bordered to the north by Brazil and to the south by Argentina. The River Plate separates Uruguay from Argentina. To the east is the Atlantic Ocean.

There were indigenous people living here for millennia. In the 17th century the area was colonised by the Spanish and the Portuguese. In the 1820s Argentina became independent from Spain. Brazil became independent from Portugal at the same time. Brazil and Argentina were the most puissant countries in South America. Argentina and Brazil were rivals.

Uruguay was created as a buffer state between Argentina and Brazil. The idea is that this could stop them fighting each other. Some land was taken from Argentina and some from Brazil to make Uruguay. There was a Uruguayan War of Independence. An Italian named Giuseppe Garibaldi CAME TO FIGHT IN IT.

The Flag of Uruguay has a yellow sun on the top left hand corner. The field has navy blue and white horizontal stripes on it. This flag is very similar to the Argentine Flag.

The official language of the country is Spanish. However, in northern Uruguay along the border with Brazil people speak Portuguese.

Uruguay is a republic. In the 20th centuries it experienced various coup d’etats. Communism became popular among the poor. Some people were persuaded that Communism would offer them a better life. There was a right wing dictatorship which tried to prevent the Communists taking over the country.

The first Football World Cup was played in Uruguay . The host nation won!

The capital city of the country is Montevideo. This means ‘I see the mountain ‘ in Latin.

Uruguay is a republic. It has a temperate climate. It is not wealthy. In the west of the country there are many cattle ranches. There the land is very flat.

 

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QUESTIONS

Write in full sentences. There is one mark for each question unless you are told otherwise.

  1. Which continent is Uruguay in?
  2. What is the name of the capital?
  3. What ocean is it beside?
  4. What colours are on the flag?
  5. Why is the flag so similar to that of Argentina?
  6. Which famous Italian fought in the Uruguayan War of Independence?
  7. What symbol is seen o the flag?
  8. Which two countries border Uruguay? Two marks.
  9. What is the official language of Uruguay?
  10. Which langage is spoken along the border with Brazil.
  11. What is the weather like?
  12. What river is between Argentina and Uruguay?
  13. What does ‘Montevideo’ translate as?
  14. Which country won the first Football World Cup?