Author Archives: Calers

About Calers

Born Belfast 1971. I read history at Edinburgh. I did a Master's at UCL. I have semi-libertarian right wing opinions. I am married with a daughter and a son. I am allergic to cats. I am the falling hope of the not so stern and somewhat bending Tories. I am a legal beagle rather than and eagle. Big up the Commonwealth of Nations.

how to write an essay============================


what it is? attempt

no write and wrong

formal English. father not dad. no contractions. isn’t

informative. argumentative

precise. quotations. statistics. names of people and organisations. names of events. dates.

4 paras


intro. define terms.



conclusion. use word conclusion

In conclusion…. This essay concludes…. reword question into an answer. reservation




fees, would not put a dog in there

innovations school


Samir valiyev. owner. father MP. owns odlar uyrdu.

besti agarzayeva. PGCE.

health safety. lock fire escape

high staff turnover,

lying. native speakers

speak to internations. chat rooms.

communication lesson 4.


communication lesson 4

live forever

time conjunctions; if, unless, when , until, as soon as

verbs as prepositions

future conditionals

first conditionals- if unless



Some people like the idea of living forever. Religious people often believe that after they die they will go to heaven if they have been good.

In Ancient Greece there was a myth about someone who asked the gods for eternal life. This was granted. However, this person became decrepit and lived to the age of hundreds of years. Eventually this person asked to be released from this suffering and his wish was granted. Eternal youth was said to be more desirable than eternal life. The Greeks believed that there was a special potion called elixir which ensured a person would stay young forever.

The Bible has a story of Methusaleh living to the age of 800. In recent times scientists have been able to manipulate the genes of mice and feed them a healthy diet to make them live several times longer than normal. They were called Methusaleh mice.

A Frenchwoman lived to the age of 122. There are tales of people living to fabulous figures of hundreds of years. But this woman had a birth certificate and there is no doubt that she really was 122 when she died.

In highly developed countries women live longer than men. This is because men tend not to take care of their health so well and they do dangerous things. In less developed countries the men usually live longer than women. This is because women there tend to have several children and it is a strain on their health.

Countries with very long life expectancy include Denmark, Norway and Japan. Superb healthcare, a seafood diet and plenty of exercise help increase longevity. The Mediterranean diet is said to be the best in the world for this – fish, olive oil, fresh fruit and vegetables every day. Having a loving family and plenty of friends also extend lifespan.

In the most advanced countries life expectancy is 81. This does not mean that everybody dies in their 81st birthdays! The average is affected by a few infants dying. There are plenty people who live much longer than 81. Some people live to over 100. In Denmark becoming a centenarian is a banality. In the United Kingdom anyone who reaches 100 will receive a telegram from the Queen. The Queen no longer signs them personally because there are so many of them.

  1. What do religious people believe will happen to them once they die if they have been good?
  2. Who was Methusaleh?
  3. What is the Mediterranean diet?
  4. What is elixir?
  5. What was the nationality of a woman who lived to 122?
  6. Name three countries with a very long life span.
  7. What do British people receive on their 100th birthday?
  8. In advanced countries do women live longer than men?
  9. Would you like to live forever if it were possible? (Five sentences)



‘If’ is a conjunction and it relates to conditionals. The word ‘if’ precedes a condition to be fulfilled. Here are some examples:

‘If you eat well you will live long.’

‘I would not go there if I were you.’

‘If she studies hard she will pass.’

‘Have some fruit if you like’

Write four more ‘if’ sentences.

‘Unless’ is also for conditionals but it is about saying that a certain condition needs to be satisfied for else something else shall occur. Here are some examples:

‘Come here unless you want trouble’

‘Do not turn on the alarm unless there is a fire.’

‘Do not buy it unless you need it.’

‘You must be on time unless you have a good excuse.’

Write four more sentences with unless.

‘When’ is about the time that something occurs. Here are examples:

When I was young I was good looking.

When it was his birthday he received a gift.

When the plane took off I was relieved.

When did you last meet him?

Write four more ‘when’ sentences?

‘Until’ means ‘up to that time.’ Here are some examples

You must stay at school until you are 16.

I did not learn Spanish until I went to Spain.

Until you behave you will get no pocket money.

I could talk until the cows come home.

Write four more until sentences.

‘As soon as’ means ‘when a condition is fulfilled another thing will happen immediately.’ Here are examples:

As soon as you hear the alarm evacuate the building.

As soon as my dad comes home I hug him.

I will buy a car as soon as I can.

I will lose weight as soon as I can afford to join the gym.



Prepositions are words about position or place.

Some examples are; under, over, above, through, to from and beside. These do not have to be physical positions or places but sometimes they are physical. There are well over 100 prepositions.

Here are sentences using verbs with prepositions.

Go over there.

Come up here.

She is reading a book by Mike Hazelhurst.

He is with his aunt.

Write four more preposition sentences including a verb.



Future conditionals are about ‘if’ something happens later then another thing will happen as a result of that first happening. It is about a condition being fulfilled in future.



“First conditional” refers to predictive conditional sentences (see above section); here, normally, the condition is expressed using the present tense and the consequence using the future:
If you make a mistake, someone will let you know.
if + present tense + future tense

If she gets it wrong she will be upset.

If Hector is petulant he will regret it.

If the princess is petulant I shan’t be surprised.

If Mehetabel gets married I shall be elated.

Write four more sentences using this grammatical structure.






“Third conditional” is the pattern where the condition clause is in the past subjunctive form of the present perfect (now identical with the past perfect even for the verb “be”), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional perfect. This is used to refer to hypothetical, counterfactual (or believed likely to be counterfactual) situations in the past
if + had + would have + 3rd form of verb
If you had called me, I would have come.

Here are examples

If she had been wiser she would not have got into trouble.

If he had been cautious he would not have been caught.

If they had been another race the police would not have shot them.

If he had not gone to the hospital he would have been fatally ill.


Write four more sentences like these ones.





Loyalists. Chapter 4


Loyalists chapter 4.

Dinner with the priests


Duncan knocked on the door of the presbytery. A tall and hefty middle aged woman with the face of an ogress opened the door. Her facial features were over large and sagging

”Hello you must be Mr Self?” said the woman. She wore a faded blue dress with a floral pattern.

”Yes, I am. I have been invited for dinner and you are?” said Duncan

”I am Mrs Philbin the housekeeper. Now come in” said Mrs Philbin

Duncan made great play of wiping the soles of his shoes on the doormat before stepping over the threshold

”Mr Self” said Boyle loudly. The amiability on his face was unmistakable. They shook hands.

”Thank you for inviting me father” said Duncan.

The house was small but well furnished and spotless. He was brought into the drawing room that also functioned as a dining room. On the walls there were images of the Infant of Prague, a Pieta, St Anthony of Padua and of St Patrick.

Fr Forrester dressed in black silk jupes rose to meet him. ”Ah Mr Self so good of you to come. We have been so looking forward to it.”

”Thank you father” said Duncan ”I never thought I would have dinner with Roman Catholic priests”

”Catholic clergy have often got on well with Protestants” said Forrester ” I was reading about the bishops of Derry. They often had a good relationship with the Church of Ireland.”

”With the Church of Ireland? But the Bishop of Derry is…Oh of course. You mean your Bishop of Derry. There are two bishops of Derry” said Duncan

”We believe there is only one Bishop of Derry. Another man may style himself Bishop of Derry” said Boyle seriously.

”Now now – let’s not talk about that” said Forrester.

They all sat down and the housekeeper served tea.

”Tell me Mr Boyle about this new man in town – this pastor Savage as he calls himself. Leading his flock astray so far as I can see. Preaching anti Catholic invective all the time” said Forrester.

”Yes” said Self ”I am proud to say I have never heard his rants. All fire and brimstone and denouncing Catholics as Gog and Magog. It is very worrying. Some of the dimmer boys are taken in by him. His sons are at our school – Wycliffe, Tyndale and Coverdale they are called. Savage is always talking about Protestants martyrs.”

”Only fair I suppose. We are always talking about Catholic martyrs” said Forrester.

”there can be no comparison between dying for the truth and dying for a lie” said Boyle.

”Fr Boyle – you forget yourself. We have a Protestant guest” said Forrester. ”Find something pleasant to say to this man.”

”Mr Self I admire the Protestant choral tradition and music. Even Orange bands are good to listen to.” said Boyle

”That is better” said Forrester.

”Thank you father Boyle. I am not an Orangeman though” said Duncan

”Yes we know” said Boyle ”I do wish some Orangies would not say kick the pope and all that.”

”You architecture is the best. People have told me some cathedrals in France are sublime” said Duncan.

They moved to the dining table. Fr Forrester said grace and they then chorused amen.

As the housekeeper served the food she said ”there you go monsignor”

Later Duncan inquired, ”Excuse me Fr Forrester why are you called monsignor?”

”Because I am the senior of the priests here” said Forrester ”It is Italian.”



A few nights later



communication lesson 3


Working life

fields of work

jobs and work

present perfect simple v continuous

had better/ should/ ought to



Most adults work. People usually being their working life around the age of 18. Bear in mind that the majority of people do not go to tertiary education. Most people retire in their 60s. So a person could easily spend 50 years working. Therefore the majority of a person’s life is spent working.

Most people working five days a week. Many people only have a couple of weeks off work per year. Therefore you had better like what you do!

There is an adage. It goes ‘do something you love and you will never have to work a day in your life.’ This adage is because if you greatly enjoy tennis and you become a professional tennis player you will be doing your hobby for a living. If healing gratifies you and you become a doctor then your work will not feel like work. If you find playing the piano very satisfying and you become a concert pianist then your pastime will become your job.

However, the proverb is misleading. All jobs involve some drudgery. Take the tennis star. He or she will not just be playing tennis. This person will have to jog, swim, do weights, go to physiotherapy sessions, observe a special diet and do tennis drills. It is hard work for long hours and not all of it is fun.

Doctors face a lot of grief. They have to see upsetting things.

There is some truth in the proverb. If you do a job that is your calling in life then you are more likely to be successful than if you do something that you detest.

People can work in many different fields. A field means a sector of the economy. Some people want to work outdoors so they work in agriculture. Such a person could be a farmer or an arborist. Some people wish to work in the financial services sector. Therefore this person might become a banker, an actuary, an accountant or an insurance broker. Education is another field to work in. Healthcare is another field and this is for doctors, nurses, dentists and the like.

  1. What age do people usually start work?
  2. Are people children for most of their lives?
  3.  In what decade of life do most people retire?
  4.  How many days a week is it typical to work?
  5. What is the adage about working?
  6. Give examples of jobs that some people love. Three examples.
  7. What three jobs can you name in the financial services sector?



Most people work for someone else. They are said to be employed. They work for an individual or an organization.

Some people work for themselves. They are self-employed. They might be teaching online, they could be freelance journalists, they could be architects with their own practice and so on.

Some people do not have jobs and they are unemployed.

Some people work for the government. They work in the public sector. These people include police officers, civil servants, soldiers, firemen and many doctors and teachers.

Some people work for the private sector. These people work for all sorts of businesses like banks, hotels, restaurants, factories and construction companies.

You need to have suitable abilities for your job. If you are fantastic at Maths you can be an accountant. But if you are terrible at languages you cannot be an interpreter. If you cannot cope with fear then do not be a soldier. If you love animals then you can be a zookeeper.

  1. What is the public sector?
  2. What is the private sector?
  3.  Name three public sector jobs?
  4. What does it mean to be self-employed?
  5. What does it mean to be employed?



Present perfect simple is about past actions. This tense needs the verb ‘to have’. The form of ‘to have’ is changed to suit the subject of the sentence. For example, I have, you have, she has… Then we have the main verb in its past form. For instance, ‘to speak’ becomes ‘spoken’ and ‘go’ becomes ‘gone.

”She has returned.” In this case the word ”has” is the present part of present perfect. The word ”returned” is the perfect part. It is perfect inasmuch as it is complete. Perfect here does not mean flawless.

I have spoken to her.

She has gone home

We have bought socks.

They have written tales.

Write four sentences in present perfect simple.



This is for past actions that have been completed and happened over a long time. This is for an ongoing action that is still continuing or which finished recently.

Here are some examples:

”I have been seeing her every day”

She has been coming to the playground for a week.

Simon has been stealing from everyone.

Pauline has been getting into trouble.

Write four more examples.

Communication lesson 2


communication lesson 2

A True friend

friends and enemies


past simple v continuous

as/then/as soon as

past simple v past perfect simple



Most people have friends. Friends make us happy. Trust is important in any friendship. Friends tend to share similar personalities and pastimes. People who like classical music spend a lot of time together and become friends. Other people loathe and may share a passion for sports. These sporty people might become friends.

However, sometimes friends have different but compatible personalities. Imagine that Joan is a very chatty and domineering person. Her dear friend Philomena is Byronic and passive. They share a love of mountain climbing. Philomena is happy to led her friend take the lead and do the talking. Philomena is great at reading maps which helps Joan who is bad at reading maps. Although these two have different personalities they have a close friendship. They each bring something different to it. Joan is the dominant one. There is a power imbalance but that does not have to be a problem. Some people like to be leaders. Others prefer to be led.

Some children misspell friend as ‘freind’. One way to remember the correct spelling of friend if this mnemonic. ”I shall be your friend to the end.” This is because the last three letters of ‘friend’ make the word ‘end.’

A true friend will offer you emotional support. Some people talk about one person being their best friend forever or BFF. They then call this person ‘bestie’.

Not all of your friends will be very close. Sometimes a person knows that he is in the outer circle of someone’s friends and not the inner circle. Some people can accept this.

Friends drift apart. It can be hard to maintain a friendship over time.

In Spanish speaking countries Valentine’s Day is celebrated as ‘El dia de la Amistad’. This means ‘The Day of Friendship.’

Some people greet total strangers as ‘my friend’. Others perceive this as dishonest.

Social media has broadened the definition of ‘friend’. Sometimes a person has only met another person once but still send a friend request on social media. Are these people real friends? It is doubtful.

Occasionally friends fall out. They may have a row. This nasty argument can lead to a break down in the friendship. Sometimes one person is brave enough to recognize that he or she is in the wrong and apologises. The other person might be magnanimous enough to forgive that person. Sometimes an apology is insufficient and there needs to be something done to put right the hurt that has been caused.

If your friend betrayed you would you forgive this person? To forgive once might be noble. But if this person continually betrays you it is foolish to keep forgiving.

  1. What are important qualities in a friend?
  2. Describe Joan’s personality.
  3. Describe Philomena’s personality.
  4. What is a good way to remember how to spell ‘friend’?
  5. What does BFF stand for?
  6. What does El Dia de la Amistad mean in English?
  7. What does it mean to be magnanimous?
  8. Who is your best friend and why do you like this person so much? If you cannot choose just one person then write about a small number of people. (Three sentences).
  9. ==================



An enemy is the opposite of friend. There is a cynical saying ”friends come and go but enemies accumulate”.

It is best not to make enemies. Sometimes it is unavoidable. You might be an entirely good person and someone might take an instant dislike to you and it is not your fault. You can ask yourself what the cause of the enmity between you?

Occasionally you can reach reconciliation with your enemy. You might be to turn your enemy into a friend.

Someone’s worst enemy is called an arch enemy. In war time the enemy is a deadly enemy.

There are old fashioned words for enemies such as ‘foe’ or ‘nemesis.’

  1. What is an enemy?
  2. Is it always your fault if someone is your enemy?
  3. What is enmity?
  4. What is reconciliation?
  5. What are old fashioned words for enemies? (Two marks).
  6. =============


Past simple is the past tense we use for things that happened some time ago. This tense does not specify how long ago the event occurred or whether it is ongoing. Here are some examples:

I went to Australia.

She had breakfast.

We watched a film.

They swam today.

Write four more sentences in past simple.


Past continuous is a tense used to describe things in the past that took some time. These events are often interrupted in the sentence which is why we use past continuous. Here are some examples.

I was walking along the street when I saw Suzy. (Note that this sentence starts in past continuous and then becomes past simple.)

Suzy was studying at Heathfield School but she decided to leave. (This one also start in past continuous and turns into past simple).

Lysander was living in Venezuela last year. (This one implies that he left the country).

Jocasta was dancing every evening.

Write four sentences in past continuous. You can add a past simple clause to the sentence if you want.

Read the following past simple sentences and turn them into past continuous.

We sailed to Greece.

Solomon was king.

They sang.



‘As’ can be used to help with comparisons. ‘As fast as lightning’ , ‘as big as a house or ‘as nice as pie.’ These are similes – one thing is similar to another.

It can also be used as a conjunction in other contexts. A conjunction is a joining word (sometimes called a ‘connective’ because is connects words). Here ‘as’ can be used to mean ‘in view of the fact that…’ or ‘with regard to….’  or ‘in this way…’ Here are some examples;

As you are on your feet please bring me a plate. As it is Christmas can we have a party? As luck would have it my niece is smart.

‘Then’ is an adverb of time. It is usually used to list something in time suggesting that one event occurred after another. Here are examples: Hercules came into the cave and then he sat down. Lysistrata married the man and then they had a baby. Put the food into to the oven and then wait 30 minutes.

We also use it to mean ‘in that case.’ Here are examples: ‘Then you should be happy.’, ‘Sit down then.’, ‘That is ok then’


As soon as is a phrase which states that once one event occurs another one will follow consequent on the first event.

Here are some examples: As soon as the rain stops we will go out. As soon as the food is ready take it out of the oven. Come home as soon as you can.

Write three more ‘as soon as’ sentences.