Monthly Archives: October 2020

John Major



John Major-Ball was born in 1943 at London. His father was old and was a gnome manufactuter. His father had once been a circus ringmaster. John later dropped the second part of his surname. The Major family lived in Brixton.

Major did poorly at school. He left at 16. He could not pass the maths exam to be a bus conductor. Major joined a bank.

John Major worked in Nigeria for a few months. He was in a car accident there. Then he returned to London.

In the 1970s Major was a Tory councillor in Brixton. Some Tories there were anti-black. Major was not. In the 70s Major married Norma. They had two children.

In 1979 Major was elected MP for Huntingdon. He was promoted to the cabinet in a few years. In the 1980s he had an affair with Edwina Curry MP.

In 1988 Major was Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was a Thatcher loyalist. In 1990 he came Foreign Secretary. He disagreed with Thatcher over the the Exchange Rate Mechanism. He was in favour.

In 1990 Thatcher resigned. Major stood for the leadership. He led in the first ballot. Hurd and Heseltine were the other candidates. They both withdrew. Major was made Prime Minister.

Major led the UK in the Gulf War against Iraq. His ratings were very high. He replaced the community charge.

Some panned Major as son of Thatcher. However, his leadership style was very different. He was less ideological and more collegial.

In April 1992 Major held an election. Labour had been ahead. Major clawed it back. Labour wrecked it with triumphalist rally. The Tories won. Major had a majority of 20.

Major was a europhile. He signed the Treaty of Maastricht. There was a large eurosceptic faction of his own party. Major refused to hold a referendum on the treaty.

There was black Wednesday in 1992. The UK was forced out of the ERM. Billions were spent trying to keep the UK in.

The British economy then grew. But the Tories fell behind Labour. The NHS and schools were failing. Crime was rising.

The Tories started tearing each other apart. Major announced a back to basics campaign. It was about personal morality. The party was hit by many sex scandals.

In 1997 another election was held. Labour won by a mile. Major resigned.

Major has been knighted. He declined to be a lord. He was a guardian of Princes William and Harry.

Thatcher. super advanced course lesson 18



Margaret Roberts was born at Grantham in 1926. Her family was South British but she was one eighth Irish. Her father owned three corner shops. He had grown up working class and left school. He was very hardworking and parsimonious.

The Roberts family was Methodist. They were cloyingly respectable. Mr Roberts was elected an alderman (councillor). He later became mayor. Mr Roberts had been a Liberal. He then left the Liberal Party because it was becoming collectivist. He was elected as an independent. Mr Roberts had close relations with the Conservative Party but never joined the party.

Margaret was clever and studied very hard. She worked in her family business and had no time or money for entertainment. Margaret later wrote, ”there was little colour or sparkle in my childhood.” She was not close to her mother or sister who were not as brainy as she was. Margaret only needed to sleep four hours a night. This gave her more time for study.

The family hardly ever left Grantham. Her father knew what it was to be poor. He was parsimonious. He insisted that they wash in cold water to save money.

Alfred Roberts taught his daughter Victorian values. He believed in self-reliance, hard work, thrift and responsibility. He strove to behave respectably.

Margaret did not have the time or money for fashion, dating or entertainments. Her schoolmates laughed at her for being a swot. Margaret had to spend much of her free time working in the family shop.

In 1944 Margaret went to Somerville College, Oxford. Very few females went to university then. She studied chemistry. Margaret was active in the Conservative Association. She later wrote ”there was an ugly streak of contempt towards the middle class among the patrician undergraduates in the association.”

Upon graduation Margaret applied for jobs. One interviewer wrote ”the woman is dangerously headstrong.” She got a job doing the chemistry for Mr Whippy Ice cream.

Margaret was called to the bar. She met a divorced man ten years older than her name Dennis Thatcher. She married him. They had twins name Mark and Carol.

Margaret was elected to Parliament for Finchley. She was soon made a minister. In the 1970s she was Education Secretary. She abolished free school milk. People called her ‘Maggie Thatcher Milk Snatcher.’

In 1975 there was a leadership contest in the Tory Party. To general astonishment Thatcher won. Mrs Thatcher was scornfully dubbed the Iron Lady by a Soviet magazine. She embraced it with relish.

In the late 1970s the Labour Government was performing badly. But Callaghan was still more popular than Thatcher. In May 1979 an election was held. The Conservatives won. The Queen appointed Mrs Thatcher as Prime Minister.

On the steps of Number 10 Downing Street Mrs Thatcher quoted the words of St Francis Assisi, where there is discord may we bring harmony. Her policies were anything but harmonious.

Mrs Thatcher had told children in the early 1970s that there would never be a woman prime minister in her lifetime. Just 5 years later it had happened.

Thatcher was cautious at first. Some of her cabinet did not respect her. They were older than her and upper class. She was the only woman in the cabinet. Those who were against her she called Wet. They were pathetic and no on board with her monetarist policies. However, she was not strong enough to sack them all.

Unemployment got worse. She prioritised keeping inflation down over tackling unemployment. Scotland and northern England were badly hit by unemployment.

There was a miners’ strike. Thatcher folded quickly as she could not beat it.

Labour was then led by a loony left Worsel Gummidge called Michael Foot. He was not credible.

In 1981 some terrorists committed suicide by starving themselves in prison. Thatcher did not give in to lies and threats. She did not make the concessions that the terrorists wanted.

In 1982 the Argentines invaded the Falklands. Thatcher chose to fight. The British prevailed. Her ratings soared.

The Social Democratic Party broke away from Labour. The SDP enjoyed excellent ratings.

In 1983 Thatcher called an election. The Tories polled 44% and won a landslide victory. Labour was reduced to a paltry 209 seats. The SDP won many votes but only 25 seats.

Thatcher was far more confident. She purged wets from her cabinet. The words Thatcherism and Thatcherite were coined.

In 1984 the miners went on strike. Thatcher was ready for them. She wanted to close a few pits to keep mining viable. The government won after a year.

Unemployment was still high. Tax even went up.

In 1987 there was another election. The Tories won. There was a stock market crash later that year.

Thatcher signed the Single European Act. She then became eurosceptic.

In 1989 the community charge was introduced. This was commonly called the poll tax. It was very unpopular and many refused to pay. There were protests and riots.

In 1989 Thatcher gave her Brouges Speech. She denounced the EEC’s excessive and growing power. ”We have not rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain only to see them reimposed at the European level.”

There was talk of joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism. Thatcher was against. But most of her cabinet was in favour.

In 1989 an unknown MP stood against her for the leadership. Sir Anthony Meyer won 20% of the votes. It was still far more than anyone expected.

In 1990 Thatcher was suspicious of German reunification. She eventually agreed after chivvying from George Bush senior.

In November 1990 the Deputy PM Sir Geoffrey Howe resigned. Thatcher was challenged for the leadership. She stood against Michael Heseltine. 55% of Tory MPs voted for her. That was not enough to save her. She was worried that if she lost on the second ballot Heseltine might become PM. He was a wet and a europhile. She was persuaded to resign. This would let her dries take over. Mrs Thatcher was driven away from Downing Street. For the first time she wept in public. It was 22 November 1990.

Thatcher stood down from the Commons in 1992. She became Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven. She was Chancellor of Buckingham University: the only private one in the UK. She continued to speak out on political affairs.

In 2013 Thatcher died. She was the first commoner since Churchill to get a state funeral.

  1. When was Margaret Thatcher born?
  2. What was her maiden name?
  3. What was her home town?
  4. What subject did she read at university?
  5. What profession did she qualify in?
  6. Which university did she attend?
  7. What was her party?
  8. Name her children.
  9. When did she become PM?
  10. When did she cease to be PM?
  11. When did she die?
  12. What is your opinion of her? Five marks.

James Callaghan



James was born in 1912 at Portsmouth. His father was in the Royal Navy. When James was a child his father was killed in the Great War. The boy, his mother and sister grew up in straitened circumstances on a modest pension. James liked school but was obliged to leave for financial reasons as a teenager.

The Callaghan family was English despite their name. James’ great grandfather had run away to sea and changed the name from Carogan to prevent his parents tracing him.

Joining the civil service James rose rapidly. He was also active in trades unions. He was a member of a Nonconformist church. He met his wife through church. They had several children.

James joined the Labour Party. In the Second World War he enlisted in the Royal Navy. He became a chief petty officer.

In 1945 James was a Labour candidate in Cardiff. He expected to his lose. To his overwhelming surprise Labour won all four seats in Cardiff.

James Callaghan was known as affable, approachable, reasonable and uncontroversial. His cheerful disposition won him the soubriquet ‘sunny Jim.’

In the 1950s James rose to the shadow cabinet. He was a moderate in the party. In 1964 he became a cabinet minister. He was soon Chancellor of the Exchequer.

In 1976 Wilson suddenly retired. James Callaghan was elected leader of the Labour Party. The Queen made him Prime Minister. He was stunned that he was PM without having been to university.

James appointed his son in law ambassador to the United States. James’ daughter had an affair with a well known journalist Seymour Hersh.

James had to contend with many strikes, economic stagnation, inflation and the Ulster Conflict. He had a razor thin majority. His party was very fractious.

In the autumn of 1978 James Callaghan was urged to call an election. He declined to do so.

In 1978 there was the Winter of Discontent. Many unions went on strike. Rubbish piled up in the streets. The dead went unburied. James went to a Commonwealth Conference in the midst of this. He was photographed going swimming one morning. This was used to make him seem self-indulgent and indifferent to the suffering of his people. On flying back into the UK he was buttonholed by a journalist who asked how he felt on returning to mounting chaos. James said he had been at a conference and no one there thought the United Kingdom was in mounting chaos. The Sun reported this with the headline ‘Crisis? What Crisis?’

In March 1979 James held a referendum in Scotland and Wales. They could vote on devolution. 75% people in Wales voted No. The law said that 40% of registered voters must vote yes for devolution to be introduced. In Scotland 52% voted for devolution but this was only 38% of registered voters.

In May 1979 there was an election. The Tories won a comfortable victory.

James stayed on as leader until 1981. His party had become unleadable. In 1987 bowed out of the COmmons. He became Lord Callaghan of Cardiff. He sponsored a law to extend the intellectual copyright on Peter Pan. It was over 50 years since J M Barrie’s death. The royalties went to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Lord Callaghan had the royalty rights extended.

Lord Callaghan became a farmer in later life. Callaghan died in 2005 days after his wife.

Edward Heath



Edward was born in Kent in 1916. His father was a successful builder. Edward attended an independent school in Chatham. He was very bright and musically gifted. He applied for an organ scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford. He won it. Edward was so over the moon that he carried the telegram with him bearing the good news for most of his life.

Being the first in his family to attend university, Edward was anxious. He wrote to his teacher that he did not see how some people could ”hit Oxford in their first week”.

Edward joined the Oxford University Conservative Assocation (OUCA). He was a moderate Tory. The Spanish Civil War broke out. Edward was unusual in backing the Republicans.

Edward travelled to Germany in the 1930s. He met some top Nazis but not Hitler.

In his last year Edward was elected President of the Oxford Union. He graduated and went to London read for the bar.

The Second World War broke out. Edward volunteered for the army. He was commissioned as an officer.

After the war Edward worked as a civil servant, a journalist and a banker. He was elected an MP for Bexley and Old Sicup in 1950. He was convinced that the United Kingdom must unite with other European democracies. This was an unfashionable opinion at the time.

Edward had hobbies such as conducting orchestras and sailing. He was very cultured.

Edward Heath rose up the ministerial ranks. In the 1960s he visited Spain and met Franco. Heath had been anti-Franco in the 1930s.

In 1965 Heath was elected Leader of the Conservative Party. The party was in opposition. He was the first person to be formally elected to that position. The Conservative Party had been led by very upper class men. The Tory party was keen to shake off its patrician image. They therefore chose a leader from an ordinary background.

The Tories lost the 1966 election. But Heath maintained his leadership.

In 1970 Heath’s Tories won the election. The UK face several serious problems. The economy was slowing. Inflation was rising as was unemployment. Trades unions were going on strike more and more. The Northern Ireland Conflict had broken out.

Heath had a prices and income policy. He achieved little success in improving the economy. He tried to solve the Northern Ireland issue by defeating terrorism and providing a more popular political settlement. He failed in both.

Edward Heath persuaded Parliament to pass the Act of Accession to the Treaty of Rome. Heath went to sign the Treaty himself. On New Year’s Day 1973 the UK joined the EEC along with Denmark and the Republic of Ireland. This was Heath’s signal achievement.

In late 1973 the miners went on strike. The lack of coal meant that power stations could not provide enough electricity. There had to be a three day week. In February 1974 Heath called an election on the slogan ‘Who governs Britain?’. ”Not you, mate” was the answer of the electorate. If he even had to ask the question then he was feeble. The Tories got more votes but Labour won more seats. Heath tried to form a coalition with the Liberals. Talks with Jeremy Thorpe proved fruitless. The Liberals insisted on a referendum on proportional representation.

In January there was a Tory leadership election. Heath was beaten by Thatcher.

Heath remained in the Commons until 2001. He sulked all the way through the Thatcher years. He was father of the house for 9 years. Heath never wed. He died in 2005.

sean connery =============


died aged 90

edinburgh. w c. catholic

left school teenager. royal navy

myr universe

acting. derby o gill


marriages. children

switzerland. bahamas

world educ fund for scotland

1970s interview with palyboy wife beating

bond womaniser. grabbing and pushing.

robin hood. medicine man. the untouchables

poor actor. limited. affable. unpretentious



Harold Wilson



Wilson was born at Huddersfield in 1916; the same year as his archrival Edward Heath. Harold Wilson’s father was an industrial chemist. The family were Protestants.

In the 1920s and 1930s Harold’s father was out of work much of the time through no fault of his own. This had a deep effect on Harold. When he was a teenager Harold’s father found work in Liverpool. The family moved there.

Harold excelled scholastically. He was made headboy of his school. He won a scholarship to Oxford University. This was almost unheard of for a middle class boy from Liverpool.

Jesus was Harold’s college. It was a college with close connections to Wales. Harold initially read history. He then changed to Philosophy, Politics and Economics. His academic record was superstellar. He took a first class degree. Harold was in the Liberal Party.

Upon graduation Harold was made a fellow of University College, Oxford. He taught there until the war broke out. During the Second World War he was a civil servant. He lived in London at Richmond Green. Harold wed Mary and they had two children. Harold’s experiences caused him to change allegiance to the Labour Party. He was appalled at the penury and suffering he witnessed. Harold thought that social inequality was injust and needed to be tackled. He joined the Labour Party. Labour had ending poverty as its top priority.

In 1945 Wilson was elected MP for Huyton. This is a tough working class town just outside Liverpool. It was close to where he spent his teenage years.

Wilson rose rapidly up the Labour ranks. He was seen as one of the more radical in the party.

In 1951 Labour lost the election. Wilson was soon in the shadow cabinet. He became one of the best known faces of Labour.

In 1963 the Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell suddenly died of lupus. Some suspected that he was poisoned by the Soviets. Harold Wilson stood for and won the leadership. He became Leader of Her Majesty’s Most Loyal Opposition.

Wilson had been on trips to the USSR with his secretary Marcia Falkender. She was married. Some believed that they were having an affair. Had they been covertly filmed in flagrante delicto? People put two and two together and possibly made five. Some said that Wilson was blackmailed by Soviet intelligence. Others dismissed this as bogus and said that the two were platonic friends.

Wilson led Labour to a narrow victory in the 1964 election. He became Prime Minister. He was cautious for the first 18 months. Wilson suspended the death penalty.

In 1965 Rhodesia declared independence illegally. The United Kingdom had been pressing the white minority government there to democratise. Wilson imposed sanctions on Rhodesia.

In 1966 Wilson called an early election. The economy was going reasonably. Labour won handily.

In 1967 Labour passed the Abortion Act and decriminalised homosexuality. The economy suddenly shrank and the pound lost a lot of value.

Wilson chose not to send troops to help the Americans in Vietnam. The US pressed him to do so.

Wilson asked the European Economic Community (EEC) to let Britain join. The French vetoed the UK.

In 1969 the Northern Ireland Troubles broke out. Wilson failed to quell the violence or improve the political situation.

In 1970 Labour called another election. The party’s popularity had improved. Labour looked like they would narrowly win. In fact the Tories won.

Wilson was leader of the Opposition against. In 1972 he went to Dublin for secret talks with the IRA. His bid to end the Troubles came to nought.

In February 1974 Heath called an early election on the issue of: who governs Britain? He was irate about endless strikes.

Labour won more constituencies but fewer votes than the Conservatives. Heath negotiated with the Liberal leader Jeremy Thorpe. However, they failed to form a coalition. Heath then resigned.

The Queen appointed Wilson as Prime Minister again. He had a majority of 4. There was rising unemployment, rising infation and the Ulster.

In October 1974 Wilson called an early election. It was the only year apart from 1910 to have two elections. Labour won slightly more votes than the Tories and more seats but Labour’s majority was almost the same. The SNP won a substantial number of seats for the first time. This put a chill wind in Labour’s mind.

The trades unions demanded higher pay. This was very tricky for Wilson because the Labour Party had grown out of the unions and was dependent on them for funding. There were many strikes.

Labour had opposed entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. This was not on principle but due to the terms of accession. Wilson was a europhile at heart. He decided to call a referendum. Collective cabinet respoonsibility was suspended on this single issue. Wilson and most of the Labour front bench campaigned for staying in the EEC. So did most Tories and the Liberals. The SNP and Ulster Unionists were against.

In June 1975 two-thirds of people voted for the UK to stay in the EEC. It killed the eurosceptic movement for two decades.

Wilson appeared on Morecambe and Wise’s Christmas Special.

In April 1976 Wilson had had enough. He had reached the age of 60. He made a surprise announcement that he was retiring. He ennobled Marcia Falkender.

Wilson stayed quiet and seldom commented on public affairs.

Wilson died in 1995. His wife lived to the age of over 100.

Douglas Home



Alexander Douglas-Home was born in North Britain in 1903. He was known as Alec. He came from a noble house. His grandfather was the Earl of Home (pronounced ‘Hume’). Alec was the eldest of several children. His ancestry was Scots and English. He grew up in the rural Scots Lowlands. His brother William was a well known playwright. William’s most celebrated works were Lloyd George knew my father and an autobiography ‘Home pronounced Hume.’

Alec went to prep school in South Britain. He then attended Eton. He was a gifted cricketer and universally popular. Alec was self-assured and appeared to be effortlessly superior. However. Alec was only medium academically. Cyril Connolly wrote in 1939 that if Alec had lived in the 18th century he would have been Prime Minister by the age of 30.

After Eton Alec went to Oxford University. It was not hard for those with the right schooling to get in. He played cricket for the Varsity. Alec did not join the Oxford Union which is a debating society. He seemed indifferent to politics. Upon graduation he played club cricket.

Alec then joined the Conservative Party. He was elected to Parliament. He inherited the courtesy title Lord Dunglass. This did not put him into the House of Lords. Alec was an aide to Chamberlain when the latter was Prime Minister.

When Chamberlain returned from Munich he had Alec by his side. Alec advised the PM not to show the piece of paper that Hitler had signed. Chamberlain ignored the advice and provided the worst photo opportunity of the century.

In 1939 the Second World War broke out. Alec Douglas-Home was promoted again. He was clubbable and his views were conventional Toryism.

In 1951 Alec became a junior minister for Scotland. By that time he had inherited the title the Earl of Home. Then he was made Colonial Secretary. He was lukewarm about decolonisation. He clashed with his colleague Iain MacLeod. MacLeod was a fellow Scot who believed in precipitate decolonisation and paying no heed to white immigrants in Africa.

By the 1960s Douglas-Home was in the cabinet. In 1963 Macmillan announced his intention to stand down. Who should be the new PM? The Tory doyens took soundings. Four of the five men considered were Old Etonians. The only serious rival to Douglas-Home was RAB Butler. Butler had been seen to be overly circumspect on Suez. Macmillan advised her Majesty to send for Douglas-Home.

In October 1963 Douglas-Home kissed hands as Prime Minister. He was still the Earl of Home. No PM had been in the Lords since 1902. George V has passed over Lord Curzon as PM in 1923 because Curzon was in the House of Lords. Labour had almost no one in the House of Peers. Could this work?

A recent act allowed peers to disclaim their titles. They could then take a seat in the House of Commons. Douglas-Home availed himself of this law which had been passed to help Anthony Wedgwood-Benn (Viscount Stansgate) who was a Labour MP. Douglas-Home divested himself of his earldom. There was a by election coming up in a safe Tory seat in Scotland: Kinross and West Perthshire.

For two weeks the PM was neither in the Lords nor the Commons. The by election took place and he was elected an MP.

Harold Wilson was the Labour leader. Wilson mocked the PM, ”after half a century of social advance the Tories are led by a 14th earl.” Douglas-Home riposted that Wilson was more than the 14th Mr Wilson.

The Conservative Government was unpopular. The economy was slowing. The Tory party was perceived as scandalous and decrepit.

In a review of a biography of Lord Randolph Churchill, RAB Butler wrote about the Tory leadership succession of 1963. RAB had lost out in this. RAB said that a ”golden circle” of Old Etonians had handed the leadership to Douglas-Home in an unfair and opaque process. RAB had been discriminated against because he had been to a minor public school. In future Conservative leadership contests were open and involved MPs voting.

The Conservative clawed back its position in the polls. In October 1964 there was an election. Labour was considerably ahead. In the end Labour won by 1% of the vote and only a few seats.

Douglas-Home was PM for one year less three days. He remained as Tory leader into 1965. Then he stood down and Edward Heath took over.

Alec Douglas-Home remained in front line politics. In the early 1970s he was Foreign Secretary. He retired from the Commons and was given a life peerage: Lord Home of the Hirsel. The Hirsel was his family seat. His hereditary title had gone to his son.

In 1995 Douglas-Home died.

Harold MacMillan



Macmillan was born at London 1894. His mother was American and his father British. Harold’s father owned a publishing company that bears his name. It still exists.

The family was Church of England. Harold’s mother was anti-Catholic.

As a child Harold heard of the Russo-Japanese War. He sympathised with the Japanese as a fellow island race.

Harold was the man’s middle name but he always went by it.

Harold went to Eton. He was on a king’s scholarship there. His brother had a gay relationship with John Maynard Keynes whilst there.

In 1909 he played the Wall Game. That was the last time a goal was scored in the St Andrew’s Match.

In 1912 Harold went to Oxford University. He entered Balliol College. He was elected President of the Oxford Union: the debating society. He was about to take over as president and then the Great War broke out.

Harold joined the Grenadier Guards. He served with enormous courage. When the war ended he chose not to return to Oxford. He said it was a city of ghosts: so many of his friends had been killed.

Harold became an aide de campe to a duke who was Governor-General of Canada. He wed the duke’s daughter and had children. His wife later had several affairs. Harold remained faithful.

In the 1920s Harold returned to the United Kingdom. He was elected MP for Stockton as a Conservative. He was a moderate in the party. Harold Macmillan liked to say his grandfather was a crofter. It was in fact his great grandfather.

In the 1930s Harold considered setting up a middle of the road party and inviting Conservatives and Labour people to join. He was deeply troubled by unemployment.

In the 1940s he was the UK’s minister in the Middle East. When the war ended he arranged for Soviets who had served Germany to be returned to the USSR. He did this despite knowing the gruesome fate that awaited the returnees.

In the 1950s Harold was promoted. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1956. Eden stood down in 1957. The Queen appointed Macmillan as Prime Minister.

Mamillan presided over a growing economy. He told people ”you have never had it so good.” He pursued a policy of Butskellism – the same economic policies as Labour.

Harold Macmillan accepted that imperialism was over. He went to address the Parliament of South Africa. He said ”whether we like it or not a wind of change is blowing throughout this continent. The growth of nationalism is a political fact.” He was saying that white minority rule had to end. The Prime Minsiter of South Africa was aghast. In the UK the Monday Club was founded to oppose decolonisation. It had that name since the speech was delivered on a Monday.

Macmillan visited the USSR. He tried to achieve rapprochement. Guy Burgess, a Briton who spied for the USSR, was there. Burgess had a message sent to the PM asking if he could come home without fear of prosecution. Macmillan said no.

In 1963 there were several scandals. The Minister for War was having an affair with Christine Keeler. She was also sleeping with a Soviet naval attache. The British minister lied in the House about his affair.

The economy was slowing. The Tories were far behind in the polls. Macmillan had an attack of prostate problems. He resigned in 1963. He was unable to go to the Palace. The Queen came to see him. He advised her to send for Douglas-Home as the next PM.

Harold Macmillan was elected Chancellor of Oxford University. He was elated with this. On going there one August and finding no undergraduates he said they would all have gone to Scotland for shooting.

Macmillan remained a voice for moderation. He wondered whether the Falklands Campaign would fail. He advised people never to take on the Brigade of Guards, the trades unions or the Catholic Church. He died in 1986. His grandsons were both Tory politicians.