Monthly Archives: October 2017

socio linguistics Unit 2 lessons 5 diglossia


code switching

fergusin invented diglossia in 1959#

different langage codes stratified in society

low form is evry day

high form is for academic stuff and law

fergusin sad for a kangyage to be diglssic they must be related linguistically#

swiss german as opposed to high german

#it is  a stable situation. it can be super impsed from abroad or from an earler tme

characterisicts – classical diglssia#

high and low are linguistically related, there are complementary sets of functiins or domains,

H variety has oovert status. it is associate with the state, used by consequential persons.

it has admired literarcy heritage .

#L acquired frm te start.


two other linguists fishan and ralph fassold # they extended the cincept

it also occurs in sicietues wehere unrelated langyages co exist#

sanish and guaranay in paraguay

fassold sai there is a stratification within a single langyage. in any maor language there is ahigh and low

reperoites which are monolingual according to fishman#

alab n Bell said one should say they are in a diglossic relationship

discussion forum activity, are there any codes in a linguistic relationship?

varety based diglossia as per fassold,



can mean a langage r a variety within them

#use more than one langyage in a conversation within an utterance

what ciuns as code swithicng

# intersentential switching

intrasentential switching

# tag switching – switch is in sentence tag

at what level should it be identified.?

switching can mean a single word.

people use irish words in English.

people look at structural switching, carl myers swotten. one language will be domianent] matrix lang frame model. fomiannt one sets structural setting

it will pride order -. some criticises this. they cnten matrix lang can change form one sentcne to the next

which is the embdeeded lang>

code switchin and diglssa are not the same# diglossia may be highly roecitbel domain based code swicthingw e can preict where it will occur becus ther eare distcitn functions in gdlgoissa

code sothcing is not instittuoanlsied nad is a personal choice

#attitues  – similar to bilingualism. attitudes vaery. some oppose.

code switching is routine. it can be denigrtated by thise who code switch themselves. regar4ded as a counted semi lnagueg. Spanglish and chinglisg

code switching accomplish communicative purposes. conveys social meanings#

Oberwart – sUDAN Gal said people switch between languages to onvey a meaning,

swotch to German from Magyar would give argument more force. can express knowledgeability

concept of interactional code switching, john gompers.

how does it operate in conversation, happens in interactions . these are fluent an unitary as monolignual conversation

meaning matters more than linguistic form# some people at enot aware that they are swithcing

we code – minority code or in group

they code – out group or wider society

triggers for switching

these are  =- introducing direct quotation or reported speech.

picking out a specific addressee. bilinguals switch to include or exclude

to interject, well s, so absolutely,

sentence can be reitriated in other language

# qualifying messages

situational code switching and metraphorical code swithing

# sotuaitona; – regialr switch lasts as long as situaiotn lasts

when outsidr enrtered into a local group that coukd trigger a stich from dialect to staar

#d move form bsuienss ot eprosanl subjects

these relft accepted norms for what is appropriate for cerain topics

form for one setting is used in another

# standard form used in an informal conversation#

normally it uses the vernauclar, to claim authority one uses the more formal language or state language

myers scotton market lace model has similarities to gumperz model

switches can be classified as marked which arhe expected choice pr

unmarked wsh is the unepxetc chouce

# these carry expectioan of right and obligaitons.

the use of swahilit in a hite collar office in Nairobia

in this case this is the marked.,

#soieites have norm which frame th interacitona nd social conseuqnce sof choices,#

marked switches redefine the speaker. it can exclude outsiders. they do not comprehend.

this is very similar to situational and metaphorical code switching s the unexpected choice to inject a flavour of one setting into another. .

peter auer used conversation analysis, focus on orderly minutiare of every day conversation turn taking

# auer found language alternationals were inter sentential. rather than intra sententonal

switches could eb trander so siwtches

# transders were lexical  0 insertin words followed by teunt o preiovus langueg or s switch which was changing lamagueb and sticking to it# could be particapbt related

or disocue related, signally what a speaker is goin like changing a tooic

this is contexualtisiaon que

# lsitenrs itnerpest the interaction and tis ocnent.

accoridng to conversation management

bilginaualsim is seen as behaviour not capability this is something that speaker do rather than are unit of analysis is the dosucyr eitsle code woibe can only be understood int he light if t eh choices that have proceeded and followed

code switching is related to style,

style . rampton talked about language crossing. this means using a stule that oen does not normally uses. city speaker style shifts to a rural variety

stylisation of dialects where speakers go beyong the normal way of speaking. comedians use high performance. use feartures of a regional accent#

they use it strategically. they use it to refine conetct and social relationships.

it is related to code switching.








Unit 2 lesson 4. translanguaging


Dr Conchur O’Brolchain


what is translanguaging

it has been around as bilingualism has exited, it has been used to describe more fluid way of using language in the classroom.

braking down boundaries between languages.

dp not see them as two solitude.

it is an approach to bilingualism where speaker switch from one language to another

Ophelia Garcia.

jim cummins popularised it.

this is from Baker – it is te process of making meaning shaping experience and gaining understanding through the use of two languages.

Garcia – repetorie. development of speakers to full repeoitie without regard to the boudnadirs of named nationally and state languages

language is clearly defined nationalistic aims for language teaching

it is about cmmunicaiton not about language itself. learners need to be taken as proficient speakes.

#it is not about language itself. #

we work with student to explore concepts

a child s repertoire might be English and Polish

they should be allowed to use repertoire.

more academic definition of translanguaging – accessing different linguistic features.

do not oblige children to use one language at a time.

people use different languages together. it is about using all language resources.

1980s translanguaging began in wales.

translanguaring in clasroom in NYC

LOOk AT traditional views

two solitudes model. they were kept separate. in ordinary mainstream schools we learn through English.

we do not extend the learning into other classes.

we can learn the two together in  a highly formal and accurate form.

importance of translanguaging. they have been burdened with monoglossic shame. shift to dominant language. robbing them of means of developing bilingualism.

we lack language skills in Eire,

we need to nurture bilingualism

enable them to acquire English. multi lingualism. seen as an asset to the public and school.

we must foster it.

implications for pedagogy ,

it calls for a different type of teacher. a co learner. a teacher can build a classroom with signs in many languages.

we allow them to write and speak. work against linguistic hierarches. any teacher including a monolingual can take up translanguaging.

move to classroom., teaching for transfer. integrated approach. if teachers draw pupils attention to similarities and dissimilarities.

should be corner stone of a language curriculum.

Padraig o dear.

interdependence hypothesis – one learns not just how to read and write in a language. one develops an underlying literacy which is transferable.

they wrote a letter in English. they then did it in Irish.

saves time. draw attention to commonality

literacy skills can move from one language to another.

cross linguistic texts. partner class exchanges. bilingual students can do work in groups.

multilingual signage, culturally appropriate material. multilingual software. teacher learning greeting sin the language. use L1 in formal and informal ways


identity texts for pupils to experience success in their own language in school. pupils own artefacts because they have identities in them.

they become ambassadors of their identities.

they receive affirmation

tom goes to kentucky

using one’s mother tongue one can be helped.

#permit the child to use L1, work in collaboration with parents

#group identity text produced collaboratively.

invite parents to teach their language just a few words.

home -school link

additive nature of multi lingualism. one language is not replacing another

# L1 maintenance matters#

open door policy for parents.

translanguaging as an ideology

bilingualism used to be seen as subtractive

languages are not to be sequential,

CAUTION – it does not work in every context. around pedagogy

across all linguistically diverse contexts is natural.,

lewis, jones and baker.

safeguard minority language.

they pick the easiest language.




Ben SHapiro is a hypocrite.


Mr Shapiro can be seen in this video trashing the argument from authority. #

Yet minutes later he cites a study from a named university to buttress his viewpoint. That is formulating an argument on the basis of his authority. Benjamin Shapiro likes it to be known that he skipped two years of high school and has certain degrees. He has also voiced his reverence for the US Constitution. He often alludes to the constitution to support his reasoning. He does likewise with legal judgments. This is appealing to authority and blinding with rhetoric. He covers his lack of knowledge about sociology with flippancy.

I dislike this chap. He is uptight, judgmental, sadistic, humourless, desiccated, smug and moralistic. This neo-Victorian is generally bad news. Occasionally he makes sense such as when he observes that gender is not a matter of choice. The world should not be obliged to accept someone’s gender misidentification. If a person lies about his or her gender we need not go along with this deceit.

Unit 2 lesson 3 part B. minority languages. A European perspective.


Dr Conchur O Brolchain

15 000 people can speak gaelic out of 5 300 000

18 out of 32 local authorities in Scotland do not offer gaelic.

In scotlad gaelic meodum schools do not disntibyisg between schools for L1 and L2 speakers

41 per cent of people in republica can speak Irish.

swathes of Scotland around Glasgow and Edinburgh and eastern Scotland no gaelic education

socio linguistic landscape is ver differne tin Scotland

61 per cent of people in western isles can speak gaelic

this is bad for gaelic education. 26 per cent of schoolgoers in westnern isles learn throygh gaelic,#gaelic ia  unit within an anglophone school

#only thtee scholls that are gaelic medium in scotland

#minority language gets swapmed

#fresiian is innovative. we can implement things.

we should elarn from canada and wales.

idea that ther would be travelligteahcers.


t   th bus service to parents who wished to avail of gaelic education.

those who wish to go to gaelic schooling but they cannot due to distance.

very string parents association around gaelic education in laba.

#integrated approach, looking for funding and opening extra school – to upskill teachers.

566 000 welsh speakers. mostly in 3 counties. N Wales. 20 per cent of people speak wesh as mother tongue

language map. welsh is main language of large areas but these at every sparsely peopled,

welsh lang schools exist outside of cymrophone areas. all schools offer welsh as a subject.

problem with traditional welsh schools is they cater to L1 and L2 pupils.

one teacher teacher bith welsh and English, English takes over in the classroom . this happens in social interactions. #

if one anglophone comes over then the others turn to English.

educators need to be aware.

cymrophone can use welsh. they need to enrich.

group leaders often turn to English when speaking to L2 learners.

in playgroups . they are inclined to use English. do not use L2 , success of immersion.

make the pupils think that the teacher cannot speak English. otherwise children use English.

one needs to be trained to use L1 and L2

these practices are not in keeping with best immersion

another point – L1 pupils are often grouped to raise the competence level.

teachers are taking very good welsh speakers and putting them in anglophone groups to model cymraeg. it seems like a good idea. but English is strengthened and welsh is dragged down.



SPOKE IN THe Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. old English.

butter bread and green cheese is good English and Frise

643 000 people live in friesland. 350 000 native speakers there. three dialects.

under pressure. three reasons. dutch speakers come in,

language patchwork affected

another factor – parents choosing to raise their children through dutch

only 48 per cent of children raised to speak frisian

dutch is main language of social interaction among Frisian speakers.

majority lang is more alluring

education- Frisian medium preschools are rural.

dutch nurseries are urban.

no Frisian immersion schools at primary

ten to thirty per cent of instruction through ordinary schools

input of trilingual schools in friesland. introduce English, dutch and Frisian. model system 50 -50 until sixth grade.

dual language programmes in USA

40 per cent through Frisian and 40 through dutch and 20 per cent English. one day all day English.

PE, art etc…. through second language.

important achievement is made. said that

enable to maintain Frisian. Frisian is not adversely effected by learning other languages

60 per cent of teachers in friesland have qualifications to teach it. only 70 per cent of schools offer Frisian

only 78 people are taking Frisian as a leaving subject.

parents choose English over Frisian.

should not be either.>or

multilingualism should be seen as the norm.

amny lands allow three langs in school – minority lang, national lang and englsih



Basque country in Spain

minority languages get very little say in France.

they implement special policies in Basque country. language isolated. not related to any other.

it is an isolate.

were they the early Europeans caught there in the ice age.

30 per cent of ppu can speak basque and Spanish. 2 000 000 in basque region. Bilbao is big city. san Sebastian is very hispanophone.

there are efforts to promote it. A model – Spanish main language and a few hours in Basque

model B  – two languages used as medium of instruction

and model D – total immersion. Spanish is a minor subject for 4 hours a week.

not every model is available.

model A, hispanophone. only 4 per cent of children go to this pre school. goes up in primary.

model B . 20 per cent at nursery. 27 at secondary.

model D. the rest. 75 pre school. 70 per cent at primary and 62 at secondary.

it appears that parents like model D.

model A students leave school with minimal basque.

one must immerse oneself to learn a language.

areas to improve. support for basque native speakers. recognise difference between L1 AND L2 speakers. not let them slide to Spanish. oral lang skills emphasised.

lay out aims for hispanophone schools for basque.

raise teachers’ standards

issue in Ireland. many teachers cannot speak Irish properly.




a lot is happening in Eire which is laudable. gaelscoili outside Gaeltacht. parent -led.

Gaeltacht is under severe pressure. may not last 50 years

lang status is crucial. state can confer status as constitution did or acts of the oireachtas. give backbone to language provision

in Scotland a v small number of native speakers were found. define the model

# is it total immersion?

we need a clear definition. huge thing. schools need to spell it out.

#pupil integration is thorny. L1 pupil has a huge amount of different needs from L2

L1 must work with other native speakers and enrichment, need to know local dialect. speak it socially.

anglophones are learning Irish. we are not promiting native gaelophones at the expense of anglophones. native irish speakers ability is reducing.

enable schools to make up their won plans.,

support services for schools – resources, money, buses, teachers, assessment, special needs

assessing bilinguals in the majority language is problematic.


























dream of beirn mugged


I walked by rver in York. thick bushes by the oUSE. Possible mugging, was waene,d saw a blade come out of a bush and swich dwn but jnew it ea sa aranring form one mger to anther not to attempt to rb me. I had puffed my chest it and prtende dto be rbave walke with someone alter chapters do not remmebr] had rdeam abiut quen ethburkags klatelt and lwats night I dreamt I went t manderly. tagt ivnovle sthick bushes. washat can it all mean? Think of criminal life and hat they gained and the risk they ran, bruce reynodnle t al a hufnred years earlier people ike him wer etarbspried.

York scne eod fick turpsin exiuceuton, that is why it came up as well. alaso waters lives there, ata and elif

Socio linguistics. unit 2 lesson 3 a. minority language education


Dr Conchur O Brolchainu

a global perspective  – Hawaii and New Zealand.

”thanks a million” he said. typical Hiberno English.

heritage language areas. Gaeltacht.

department of education looked at heritage language education in Wales, Scotland, Canada and the USA.

immersion education and heritage language education

#gaelscoil system is for anglophones.

gaeltacht is under threat.#

global phenomenon.

23 000 people speak Irish daily – only a quarter of Gaeltacht population it is a minoritised language

language in trouble. dept of educ is looking at different contexts, what can we implement.

children’s competence is declining.

even in stringest Irish speaking areas such as Inish man – English is gaining upper hand among primary school children.

1000 children speak Irish in Ireland;s strongest areas.

A,B and C Gaeltacht areas.

education system is weakening the speaker’s competence.

even though children speak irish they do not speak it so well. English is affecting syntax, vocab and so forth.

10 per cent of teenagers in gaeltactht speak Irish,

social media in Irish.

department tried to support Irish language.

people did reports on education.

education provision through minority languages.

systematic search on databases. they looked at themes around heritage language edication, many labels for the same thing

minority, ancestral, autochtonous, heritage – all mean the same thing

50 50 programmes in USA – Spanish English. two teachers in the class. does not work with minor langage slike dine

dine is navajo langage

24 000 pople speak Hawaiian, only 0.4 percent of peope on Hawaii speak it. one island out of 8 is majority Hawaiian lanhguage

insihamn has 200 people

new zleand an d Hawaii shar eheriatge language related .

Hawaiian system – heriateg language context – it is immersion for English speakers.

1500 pupils in primary immersion – they are on an anglophine campus. if they experience difficulty in immersion school they might then go back to anglophone education.

30 000 in gaelscoils in ireland

how to keep majority language away? 100 per cent immersion for four years.

in gaelscoils  – sometimes there are oe or two years of total immersion. no English taught at all.

acquire skills in Irish and then transfer them into English.

teach English through Hawaiian. instructions in classroom in Hawaiian.

achievements – now post primary education in Hawaiian. you cannot get secondary education through a minority language

in European country one can do secondary education through a minority language

university links to hawaiina schools. one school is on  auni campus. allws research by uni.

#majority langage beats minority lang every time.

Hawaiian and maori – words are similar. they even relate to tagalog and Bahasa Malaysia

maor is in a better place than Hawaiian. 22 000 children learning it. maori is not really heriateg language. the teachrs are L2 speakers of maori.

community input it vital. I

is more tha  just language,

huge emphasis on social cuutrle and relgiou objectives among maori liekwsi among first nation in canada.

social and political activism. tries to change how government treats them.

community input is not big in eire.

maoris – parents come in and help.

maori language – each school defines level of immersion. what do they doo in different contexts, hueg amount of freedom. zero per cent up t 100.

advantages  –  research based direction is good. they have to define what they are doing. write a policy. English is not taught in third class. it will become common.

disadvantage – one teacher might teach through irish 90 per cent. in Gaeltacht parents do not know. in Gaeltacht they may implement total immersion for three years.

problems with assessment. inspectors want to do standardised test through majority language. this causes panic and people want to change to majority language

problem is standardised tests are not in minority language. test them later,

find how effective these tests are. we need date on this

gaeltacht children do well in   English,  maths etc…,

#frnech canada. heritage language contexts . population is 58 per cent English. 22 per cent English. then others. Italian d Arabic population in Toronto. Quebec.

100 000  french speakers in other provinces

quebec has a v storng francophone community. frnehc provison outside quebec.

inves.  1 000 000

children a re francophine at home. they want fench language education . frnehc is safe.

L2 immersion programme designed fr anglophones but as used for francophones.

is there anything we can take back to Ireland. ?

french ahs to be the native language of parens if they want to send the children to the sese special frne schools.

the child must receive frnech.

there is a francization programme for English speakers. try to give them specific immersion programme so they can up skill. francophone parents do not always chose french medium schools. they want the majority language.

in canada parents are choosing English. lack of support.

teachers can share best practise and PPP

francizisation to bring anglophones up to an adequate level.

diluting of french is a problem.

in all these programmes say it is difficult to stop English.

qualitative data shows it is hard to protect a minority language

disadvantages L1 french students.

conclusions – irish language units in anglophone school.  does not work.

success in problematic. no child left behind is problematic.

we need consulation ., pick the best modelr for you area. it defiens hw much teaching time should eb septn on the target language. clears uo rgeya reas. about amount of kgauge sued. oen size foes not fit at all.

curriculum and programme delivery the pincples the resources, ther eis a hueg variation ebwteen all thes eschools,

one must  ot have on rigid strict ste pne needs fleoxbility

up until now we are doing a lot right.

we have good level of status and recognition. we can change some things . we need more relevance .

what is model for gaelscoilana and colaiste

urban gaelsocils are immersion

in limerick there are six gaelsocils. five are total.

PE, art and drama through irish.

some use CILL model,


MIC has an irish language officer. people can become enthusiastic about irish despite not being native speakers, this can have a deleterious effect on Irish speakers.

dichotomy in Irish system  – there is growth in the language. for political reason.

in Gaeltacht the language is going down. outside Gaeltacht the language is thriving.

”bad irish is better than clever english”

we could invite native irish speakers to help out in classes.

problem is the need to break down boundaries. if there are two potent languages that is fine#

but if one language is minority his does not work, can irish be taught through Irish?

there is a change in approach.  there is no mention of immersion one good thing about the curriculum is that te objectives are the same, same high standards,

invite people in to write songs and translate them,.

linking schools. gaelscoil to anglophone one. conference calls.



















socio linguistics. Unit 2 lesson 2. bilingualism


what is bilingualism, appreciate the dimensions,

understand different approaches to multilingualism.


who is bilingual. look at different dimensions. approaches to the study of bilingualism.

terminologu – monolingualism

contentious issue – what does it mean to be bilingual

leonard bloomfield said it was native like control of two languages.

John Edward said everyone is bilingual. everyone knows at least a few words in another language.

six dimensions of bilingualism.

1. individual versus social. some are monolingual but in different languages. overlapping monolingualism

#2. productive versuse receptive bilingualism. can comprehend a language but not produce it. thy can understand their grandparents but not speak to them.

3. primary versus secondary languages. languages acquired naturally. secondary bilingualism one language is acquired through formal instruction. These cannot be distinguished absolutely.

4. additive versus subtractive bilingualism. here acquisition of the second language adds to or subtracts from the original languages, is full competence in the original language retained. adults who emigrate tend not to lose competence in the original language. learning a new language gradually loses the old language

5. toy Crowley – why did Irish make the judgement that English could only be learned if Irish were dropped>

stable versuss dynamic bilingualism, can be stable or  dynamic. adults moved through different levels of capability. emigrant adults can change their competence. .

6. indigenous versus immigrant bb=ilingualis. indigenous language may have been the sole language these may be overwhelmed by one or more new languages. in canada, first languages have regressed due to European languages. New immigrants remain disadvantaged minority. these groups lose their language to the main language within ghtree generations. bilingualsim has been a way station on the road between two monolingualisms.



there are different strands of socio linguistic research. language of whole nation or group. survery question sued to agtehr data

vitality of language is effected by demography, critical mass, status (does it get state support),

survey  questionnaires gather data

critical constructivist approach deconstructs distinct languages# see multilingualism as part of a suite of resource for speaker to draw on

translanguaging  – not about codes people fall back on. how codes are employed to create meaning, gats away from the notion of distinct languages.


bell – investigating language profile of society

we appericate more complete picture of qualitative give sus we still ned d a survery

catrioa brannoch used surveye in


collected demographic info about residency and education.

he asked what language they spoke in the family, at church, language history, language attitudes, identity, thoughts n the future of the language. language maintenance. efforts made at home and by the government to maintain the language


bilingualism is very natural in many lands.

mohanti an Indian linguist uses many langages in different contexts.

langages are mutually complementary,



why was multilingualism not an option as we shifted to English#

they allude to question. why was bilingualism not an option

# gaelic Ireland lacked the intellectual verve which would have led to bilingualism


was Irish seen as low status?

language policy and planning allows for bilingualism

different social groups wish to see languages maintained#

two languages can be official conscious language planning. c reation and implementation of an official policy

it is possible

for social group to ater the coruse of a language.

define language planning to interfere with a language or its variety. language change decisions made about officia use can have a powerful imact on the strength of a language

language contact.. fishman theory that most effots to reverse language shift are only indiffernel susscesufl at best

these can even be counterindiviatve

meyerhoff says that reversing language shift is often successful.,


look ay different language planning corpus changes in structure spelling, grammar, vocabulary this is for standardisation so it can be used for many functions so it can be extended into government and education with the long term goal of maintaining the language status planning c hanges the way it is to be sued in society such as in courts

these are prestigious functions, government can give official status to two or more languages



1958 – THE official version of writing Irish was published.

this laid out grammar and orothography. in official state publications and the media. this allows an extension of the functions of the language.

an caidghean offigiul

official language chosne then codifired.


to provide norms. especially where ther e is a lot of local variation,

modernisaiton. this enables consistent transaltion material. new owrd sdevleiped all the time pricneopela greed for the itnroduciton of loanwaords. technical words are borrowed from English. new word in irish might nt be created

implementation by using it for governmental publication is viewed as the best form.

language policy can be manifested through the provision of education. what language should be taught and from what age and for how long., this applies to all children expect those who arrive in the country after the age of twelve.

content and language integration programmes CLIL. English is taught in biology and maths etc…..#

minority languages are tired to political aspirations. 1831 to 1871 no Irish in national schools.

attitudes have changed, bilingualism is allowed




sociolinguistics. Unit 2 lesson 1. community and language


speech community

we make micor and macro chocies about language.


macro choice – picking between languages

micor choice about pronunciation

people make different choice in different circumsances

variety is based n geogrpahicla oor scial differences. this can be white American English or africn English

variety is dialetctg bt less judgemtna than dialetci

# academic englsh is a variety. academic register

lingusitc codes mean entire anguage and varieties within the, encompasses a whole rnage f varieites .

repertoite – is suite ooc codes which a speakrr can draw on. it can be apied to indivudlas r small groups not to whole nations.

we can have diffene types. monolingual repertoire. differen t dialct of Japanese blilgnaul repretotie allude to two separet langaeg

mutilignaul is for thre er more reetroie

moves away from definite distinction betwee langayegs

socio lignsutics refert to repretot eti eman fluent changes between langayge between childene in mutul etnci setting

trans langaying is define dby ooehla gafica s the devpolytment of speaker full reprtotie without regard to political boundaries between langyages

metro linguing


how to examine the use of linguist cresources to express social identity

speech cmmunitu susually seen as originating with americna linguist leonard bloomfield

Heinz, gumpers and laboff introduced it

what is speech community? Based o n social or linguistic considerations?

speech community shares attitudes to speech and language patterns used by others as well as themselves = spalsky

they speak the same. have the same outlook towards other codes.

speech community share a repertoire

they recognise other varieties. they have a common view on whether that variety is suitable for their use.

Bell’s quotation  – in research socio linguistics identify a group  –  nation, a chat room  a gang

research linguistic behaviour



William labov looked at lower east side of NYC

he said NYC is single speech community. he said there was a single set of norms spalsky s defintion

# regardless whethr memebrs of a peech community know or sue variety they will recognise it and have an opinion o whether it is appropriate  for their use.

they apply a common set of norms

important ssue about speech community s thay of relationshop that exist among speech communiteis

patirkc identofye dtow tupes of relationshop whetehr one community sits inside another rone# new York youth gang can be a speech community in it sown right but it snets within all gang in new yokr this nests woithin NYC #

another concept is that of overlapping.

in comtmperoty londo immgran tyouth from twnty or more background are members of their own group and of qider pan etnic network.s these corss an voerlpa with each ither. concept has been criticised. socio lignsutic tned to come abc to ti it has been cirtiiced for indefintabiluty labov s deifntion of shared normsm has been criticise dit assumes agreement between display placed soicla grou Milroy sys  model which takes account fo clcift rather than conseus sis more approrptue a

aletantiv emdoel for lingsutiv scmmentut8y asw elok at social  entirkq model we loma t commnutiy fo rpacit mode.

concept o social networks

Milroy , Belfast. their work in 70s. they said that despite troubles they were able to itnerive 46 speaksrd on bth sides of sectarian divide. inner city communtieis. iforal social relaitonsh contared by indivuals. how did it affect thtie linguist behaviour. idnvuals speech is affected by type of network. children when they go to scholl might change the way they speak to be I  ine with children in their class.

milrosy found the closer an indovuals netowkr sties are with local immuntiyt the clsor it is to local vernacular

leslie and james, hubsna and wife. they did field work.

netowkrs can be strucutla – who knows who

can be other – knowing throygh work or recrecation

tese can be measured by density, number of people an indivual has ties with

high dnsiyt which also means closed netorwkr.s they itneatc ina d efine tertitory#

contacrs of a given person will all know each oyher, locality or work,

low density  – when people move outside territorial boundadire.s each contact does not necessarily know each ther

plxity – what sort of ties. kin, work , recreation

these are divide dinto. uni plex where the link is oly in oen area  – only throygh work multiplexe wher einteaction is through a number fo ways as in being a colleage and a friend and playing sport with that eprson


Milroy looked at three proletarian communithighies with unemployment#

listened for th in mother. a high netowkr strength score was correlated with use of vernacular i e non standard forms. men who used vernacular were part of tight ntwkr s

women belong to less dense netowkrs. their speech was more standard

there wrr eexcptions. for some vairbales men used non standard ess than women in hammer and cloanrd. more than women thatn expected used non standar dform Milroy said this as due tpp social pressure operating in the cimmuntiies. both had unemppytment rates of about 35 epr cent  men were forced to look for work outside the community, they share dmore in the domecit tasks gender roles bkurre.d women in thes eoccmunities wen tout to work. clonard women belgnt o dense and mutloiex mentowkr,

use of vernacular.

se gave a network strength score to the indivuals. based on knowledge of other people in the cmminity, workplace and lesirue activities. 5 is the hughest netowkr score.

she took part in the community as a friend of a friend,



Milorys found that in Belfast

change across communtieis can resut from weak tires between grousp in servie encounter wher epeople move outside communtiyt og to to thspsitla or to a tavel egent# covnesley in blingual communities storng ties help maintaina  grpuos language

# cgomperz looke dat gemrn slovenain community  – strong tirs kept community, represent local vernaucla rsuprot grouo norms# weak ties allow diference and dovergenc.e people are less subject to group pressure link ebwteen neowkr and classes.


tight netowkr sar eassociate with working clas and upper clas

middle class have loose network and allow more change# labov found the ame

blom and gomperz did a study in Norway. They looked at code switching. , low status speaker interact in a given  territory who know one  another

special network found that the most important contribution is the analysis in which they use linguist variability to indicate loyalty to a particular community lead to  conclusion that speech may change form one network to another# speaker wishes to indicate to a particular community speech may caeg depending on what that community is

accommodation theory


#community of practice.

learning practise theory#  by Penelope eckerton in 2000

group engaged in a joint enterprise. people share goals and attitude which leads to a shared repetotire

people are in a choir a family, book club, sport team

important aspects is focus n practice# what members do together and how they do it.

categories such as class are product of individual practices links with micro and macro

only because of practise as individuals that categories such as class come about. emphasis is on individual and their agencies, how they use their linguistic resources. this is not about group language#



They say we use language to construct identity in different social interactions.

#speech changes form one network to another.

Holmes and Wilson say that we use language to express identity as we move from one community to another. we choose different linguistic resources for different situations.

social and network – community of practice

look at how individual use language to express social identities  these draw on macro level categories such as gender and class.

there are macro identities such as new gang member of youngest child,

language change, the way speaker uses it changes,

speaker innovation



bourdieux notion of lingusitc capital .

different language does have commodities , they have value

language use matters more to some jobs than ever

language use is important to some jobs such as teacher and receptionist they  used highest price language I e standard people are ranked according to how important standard language is for their job

properties of these market poducts language with a certain value

in some market certian prodycta re valued more highly han others produce expression sht are highly valued in the markets concerned speech community

speakers areitby a common set of evaluative norms even though they might be divergent in applying the same






The harassment hysteria in the United Kingdom.


The UK has begun its latest round of moral panic. This time it is about people saying things to other adults. At worst it is touching people through the clothes. As usual much of the press and the liberal-left has reacted with shrieking rhetoric. The excessive vehemence on this issue tends to cloud judgement. There is a lack of a sense of proportion.

I do not know if any of the allegations are true. Many people appear to assume that every accusation is entirely veracious. To reserve judgement is condemned in the most strident tones.

Touching someone through the clothes in certain areas of the body is wrong if it is not wanted. A shoulder touch and a genital touch are clearly very dissimilar. How does one know if such contact is wanted or not? Asking might constitute harassment. One can think whether there has been such consensual behaviour in the past. But that permission may since have been withdraw. Moreover, there is always a first time. One can deduce permission from facial expression, tone of voice, body language and so on. One can misread the signals. People are venturesome. Sometimes a person – usually male – makes an overture towards sexual intimacy. The recipient of such overtures may reject them outright or accept them but perhaps only up to a point.

This is a very unclear area. It is preposterous to think that we can have strict rules for such conduct. Sexual advances will sometimes be rejected. If someone declines and advance that ought to be accepted. However, someone pressing his suit sometimes persists and occasionally the man or woman who originally said no decides to say yes.

There has been a typical over reaction. Feminists are very zealous on this one.

If someone says or does something that I dislike I would probably ask them to stop. If not I might retaliate with behaviour that the other party finds objectionable. To call the police is not a mature or wise response.

The sensationalisation of this issue is dispiriting. There will be more legislation.

An MP allegedly called his secretary ”sugar tits” in a pub. If you agree to go to a pub with someone you must expect some repartee and salty language. If he had called her that at work it would have been different.

Is all persiflage to be outlawed? Are we no longer permitted humour and flirtation? It would be a sad day for humanity if mirth and coquetry were forbidden.

One person has made an allegation. Now dozens have jumped on the bandwagon. It seems like a conspiracy.

I fear that the UK may go the way of the United States. Bill O’Reilly is not my favourite person. He is a conceited demagogue who reinforces some of the worst prejudices of Fox viewers. However, it is absurd that a distinguished broadcaster should lose his career in a case of he said she said. At worst this man said some things that certain people took exception to. O Reilly is now paying out $ 33 000 000 for this. This is grossly unjust. These astronomical damages show how crazy the whole imbroglio is. It also incentivises bogus claims. No sexual harassment can possibly be worth 1% of what O’Reilly is forking out.

Be an adult. Tolerate unpleasant behaviour. You can be disagreeable back.

This is part of a regrettable trend of Western societies becoming more restrictive. More regulation will come in. Our private lives will be policed.

If someone persistently acts in a sexual manner to someone who has clearly rejected such conduct then the wrongdoer should be warned. If he or she carries on then consequences must flow. This could involve dismissal.

#People will be afraid to form liaisons. People who would have accepted flirtation and enjoyed it will not do so. They will think it is harassment because they have been indoctrinated to think that adult conduct is molestation.

These absurd over reactions to questionable conduct extend to other fields. A young Labour MP has been suspended over comments he made 15 years ago. This was long before he became an MP. Poor Jared O’Mara may lose his career. He was foolish and perhaps insulting. It is daft to penalise him years later. Are people to make controversial jokes no longer allowed in Labour? What if they agree with Labour’s manifesto? This is another example of the moral censoriousness of the left. Unfortunately it has infected the right too but to a lesser degree. This self-righteousness and control freakery is unpalatable. Every facet of one’s life is to be controlled and monitored now. Away with hyper sensitivity and cry baby politics.