Monthly Archives: October 2017

socio linguistics Unit 2 lessons 5 diglossia


code switching

fergusin invented diglossia in 1959#

different langage codes stratified in society

low form is evry day

high form is for academic stuff and law

fergusin sad for a kangyage to be diglssic they must be related linguistically#

swiss german as opposed to high german

#it is  a stable situation. it can be super impsed from abroad or from an earler tme

characterisicts – classical diglssia#

high and low are linguistically related, there are complementary sets of functiins or domains,

H variety has oovert status. it is associate with the state, used by consequential persons.

it has admired literarcy heritage .

#L acquired frm te start.


two other linguists fishan and ralph fassold # they extended the cincept

it also occurs in sicietues wehere unrelated langyages co exist#

sanish and guaranay in paraguay

fassold sai there is a stratification within a single langyage. in any maor language there is ahigh and low

reperoites which are monolingual according to fishman#

alab n Bell said one should say they are in a diglossic relationship

discussion forum activity, are there any codes in a linguistic relationship?

varety based diglossia as per fassold,



can mean a langage r a variety within them

#use more than one langyage in a conversation within an utterance

what ciuns as code swithicng

# intersentential switching

intrasentential switching

# tag switching – switch is in sentence tag

at what level should it be identified.?

switching can mean a single word.

people use irish words in English.

people look at structural switching, carl myers swotten. one language will be domianent] matrix lang frame model. fomiannt one sets structural setting

it will pride order -. some criticises this. they cnten matrix lang can change form one sentcne to the next

which is the embdeeded lang>

code switchin and diglssa are not the same# diglossia may be highly roecitbel domain based code swicthingw e can preict where it will occur becus ther eare distcitn functions in gdlgoissa

code sothcing is not instittuoanlsied nad is a personal choice

#attitues  – similar to bilingualism. attitudes vaery. some oppose.

code switching is routine. it can be denigrtated by thise who code switch themselves. regar4ded as a counted semi lnagueg. Spanglish and chinglisg

code switching accomplish communicative purposes. conveys social meanings#

Oberwart – sUDAN Gal said people switch between languages to onvey a meaning,

swotch to German from Magyar would give argument more force. can express knowledgeability

concept of interactional code switching, john gompers.

how does it operate in conversation, happens in interactions . these are fluent an unitary as monolignual conversation

meaning matters more than linguistic form# some people at enot aware that they are swithcing

we code – minority code or in group

they code – out group or wider society

triggers for switching

these are  =- introducing direct quotation or reported speech.

picking out a specific addressee. bilinguals switch to include or exclude

to interject, well s, so absolutely,

sentence can be reitriated in other language

# qualifying messages

situational code switching and metraphorical code swithing

# sotuaitona; – regialr switch lasts as long as situaiotn lasts

when outsidr enrtered into a local group that coukd trigger a stich from dialect to staar

#d move form bsuienss ot eprosanl subjects

these relft accepted norms for what is appropriate for cerain topics

form for one setting is used in another

# standard form used in an informal conversation#

normally it uses the vernauclar, to claim authority one uses the more formal language or state language

myers scotton market lace model has similarities to gumperz model

switches can be classified as marked which arhe expected choice pr

unmarked wsh is the unepxetc chouce

# these carry expectioan of right and obligaitons.

the use of swahilit in a hite collar office in Nairobia

in this case this is the marked.,

#soieites have norm which frame th interacitona nd social conseuqnce sof choices,#

marked switches redefine the speaker. it can exclude outsiders. they do not comprehend.

this is very similar to situational and metaphorical code switching s the unexpected choice to inject a flavour of one setting into another. .

peter auer used conversation analysis, focus on orderly minutiare of every day conversation turn taking

# auer found language alternationals were inter sentential. rather than intra sententonal

switches could eb trander so siwtches

# transders were lexical  0 insertin words followed by teunt o preiovus langueg or s switch which was changing lamagueb and sticking to it# could be particapbt related

or disocue related, signally what a speaker is goin like changing a tooic

this is contexualtisiaon que

# lsitenrs itnerpest the interaction and tis ocnent.

accoridng to conversation management

bilginaualsim is seen as behaviour not capability this is something that speaker do rather than are unit of analysis is the dosucyr eitsle code woibe can only be understood int he light if t eh choices that have proceeded and followed

code switching is related to style,

style . rampton talked about language crossing. this means using a stule that oen does not normally uses. city speaker style shifts to a rural variety

stylisation of dialects where speakers go beyong the normal way of speaking. comedians use high performance. use feartures of a regional accent#

they use it strategically. they use it to refine conetct and social relationships.

it is related to code switching.








Unit 2 lesson 4. translanguaging


Dr Conchur O’Brolchain


what is translanguaging

it has been around as bilingualism has exited, it has been used to describe more fluid way of using language in the classroom.

braking down boundaries between languages.

dp not see them as two solitude.

it is an approach to bilingualism where speaker switch from one language to another

Ophelia Garcia.

jim cummins popularised it.

this is from Baker – it is te process of making meaning shaping experience and gaining understanding through the use of two languages.

Garcia – repetorie. development of speakers to full repeoitie without regard to the boudnadirs of named nationally and state languages

language is clearly defined nationalistic aims for language teaching

it is about cmmunicaiton not about language itself. learners need to be taken as proficient speakes.

#it is not about language itself. #

we work with student to explore concepts

a child s repertoire might be English and Polish

they should be allowed to use repertoire.

more academic definition of translanguaging – accessing different linguistic features.

do not oblige children to use one language at a time.

people use different languages together. it is about using all language resources.

1980s translanguaging began in wales.

translanguaring in clasroom in NYC

LOOk AT traditional views

two solitudes model. they were kept separate. in ordinary mainstream schools we learn through English.

we do not extend the learning into other classes.

we can learn the two together in  a highly formal and accurate form.

importance of translanguaging. they have been burdened with monoglossic shame. shift to dominant language. robbing them of means of developing bilingualism.

we lack language skills in Eire,

we need to nurture bilingualism

enable them to acquire English. multi lingualism. seen as an asset to the public and school.

we must foster it.

implications for pedagogy ,

it calls for a different type of teacher. a co learner. a teacher can build a classroom with signs in many languages.

we allow them to write and speak. work against linguistic hierarches. any teacher including a monolingual can take up translanguaging.

move to classroom., teaching for transfer. integrated approach. if teachers draw pupils attention to similarities and dissimilarities.

should be corner stone of a language curriculum.

Padraig o dear.

interdependence hypothesis – one learns not just how to read and write in a language. one develops an underlying literacy which is transferable.

they wrote a letter in English. they then did it in Irish.

saves time. draw attention to commonality

literacy skills can move from one language to another.

cross linguistic texts. partner class exchanges. bilingual students can do work in groups.

multilingual signage, culturally appropriate material. multilingual software. teacher learning greeting sin the language. use L1 in formal and informal ways


identity texts for pupils to experience success in their own language in school. pupils own artefacts because they have identities in them.

they become ambassadors of their identities.

they receive affirmation

tom goes to kentucky

using one’s mother tongue one can be helped.

#permit the child to use L1, work in collaboration with parents

#group identity text produced collaboratively.

invite parents to teach their language just a few words.

home -school link

additive nature of multi lingualism. one language is not replacing another

# L1 maintenance matters#

open door policy for parents.

translanguaging as an ideology

bilingualism used to be seen as subtractive

languages are not to be sequential,

CAUTION – it does not work in every context. around pedagogy

across all linguistically diverse contexts is natural.,

lewis, jones and baker.

safeguard minority language.

they pick the easiest language.




Ben SHapiro is a hypocrite.


Mr Shapiro can be seen in this video trashing the argument from authority. #

Yet minutes later he cites a study from a named university to buttress his viewpoint. That is formulating an argument on the basis of his authority. Benjamin Shapiro likes it to be known that he skipped two years of high school and has certain degrees. He has also voiced his reverence for the US Constitution. He often alludes to the constitution to support his reasoning. He does likewise with legal judgments. This is appealing to authority and blinding with rhetoric. He covers his lack of knowledge about sociology with flippancy.

I dislike this chap. He is uptight, judgmental, sadistic, humourless, desiccated, smug and moralistic. This neo-Victorian is generally bad news. Occasionally he makes sense such as when he observes that gender is not a matter of choice. The world should not be obliged to accept someone’s gender misidentification. If a person lies about his or her gender we need not go along with this deceit.

Unit 2 lesson 3 part B. minority languages. A European perspective.


Dr Conchur O Brolchain

15 000 people can speak gaelic out of 5 300 000

18 out of 32 local authorities in Scotland do not offer gaelic.

In scotlad gaelic meodum schools do not disntibyisg between schools for L1 and L2 speakers

41 per cent of people in republica can speak Irish.

swathes of Scotland around Glasgow and Edinburgh and eastern Scotland no gaelic education

socio linguistic landscape is ver differne tin Scotland

61 per cent of people in western isles can speak gaelic

this is bad for gaelic education. 26 per cent of schoolgoers in westnern isles learn throygh gaelic,#gaelic ia  unit within an anglophone school

#only thtee scholls that are gaelic medium in scotland

#minority language gets swapmed

#fresiian is innovative. we can implement things.

we should elarn from canada and wales.

idea that ther would be travelligteahcers.


t   th bus service to parents who wished to avail of gaelic education.

those who wish to go to gaelic schooling but they cannot due to distance.

very string parents association around gaelic education in laba.

#integrated approach, looking for funding and opening extra school – to upskill teachers.

566 000 welsh speakers. mostly in 3 counties. N Wales. 20 per cent of people speak wesh as mother tongue

language map. welsh is main language of large areas but these at every sparsely peopled,

welsh lang schools exist outside of cymrophone areas. all schools offer welsh as a subject.

problem with traditional welsh schools is they cater to L1 and L2 pupils.

one teacher teacher bith welsh and English, English takes over in the classroom . this happens in social interactions. #

if one anglophone comes over then the others turn to English.

educators need to be aware.

cymrophone can use welsh. they need to enrich.

group leaders often turn to English when speaking to L2 learners.

in playgroups . they are inclined to use English. do not use L2 , success of immersion.

make the pupils think that the teacher cannot speak English. otherwise children use English.

one needs to be trained to use L1 and L2

these practices are not in keeping with best immersion

another point – L1 pupils are often grouped to raise the competence level.

teachers are taking very good welsh speakers and putting them in anglophone groups to model cymraeg. it seems like a good idea. but English is strengthened and welsh is dragged down.



SPOKE IN THe Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. old English.

butter bread and green cheese is good English and Frise

643 000 people live in friesland. 350 000 native speakers there. three dialects.

under pressure. three reasons. dutch speakers come in,

language patchwork affected

another factor – parents choosing to raise their children through dutch

only 48 per cent of children raised to speak frisian

dutch is main language of social interaction among Frisian speakers.

majority lang is more alluring

education- Frisian medium preschools are rural.

dutch nurseries are urban.

no Frisian immersion schools at primary

ten to thirty per cent of instruction through ordinary schools

input of trilingual schools in friesland. introduce English, dutch and Frisian. model system 50 -50 until sixth grade.

dual language programmes in USA

40 per cent through Frisian and 40 through dutch and 20 per cent English. one day all day English.

PE, art etc…. through second language.

important achievement is made. said that

enable to maintain Frisian. Frisian is not adversely effected by learning other languages

60 per cent of teachers in friesland have qualifications to teach it. only 70 per cent of schools offer Frisian

only 78 people are taking Frisian as a leaving subject.

parents choose English over Frisian.

should not be either.>or

multilingualism should be seen as the norm.

amny lands allow three langs in school – minority lang, national lang and englsih



Basque country in Spain

minority languages get very little say in France.

they implement special policies in Basque country. language isolated. not related to any other.

it is an isolate.

were they the early Europeans caught there in the ice age.

30 per cent of ppu can speak basque and Spanish. 2 000 000 in basque region. Bilbao is big city. san Sebastian is very hispanophone.

there are efforts to promote it. A model – Spanish main language and a few hours in Basque

model B  – two languages used as medium of instruction

and model D – total immersion. Spanish is a minor subject for 4 hours a week.

not every model is available.

model A, hispanophone. only 4 per cent of children go to this pre school. goes up in primary.

model B . 20 per cent at nursery. 27 at secondary.

model D. the rest. 75 pre school. 70 per cent at primary and 62 at secondary.

it appears that parents like model D.

model A students leave school with minimal basque.

one must immerse oneself to learn a language.

areas to improve. support for basque native speakers. recognise difference between L1 AND L2 speakers. not let them slide to Spanish. oral lang skills emphasised.

lay out aims for hispanophone schools for basque.

raise teachers’ standards

issue in Ireland. many teachers cannot speak Irish properly.




a lot is happening in Eire which is laudable. gaelscoili outside Gaeltacht. parent -led.

Gaeltacht is under severe pressure. may not last 50 years

lang status is crucial. state can confer status as constitution did or acts of the oireachtas. give backbone to language provision

in Scotland a v small number of native speakers were found. define the model

# is it total immersion?

we need a clear definition. huge thing. schools need to spell it out.

#pupil integration is thorny. L1 pupil has a huge amount of different needs from L2

L1 must work with other native speakers and enrichment, need to know local dialect. speak it socially.

anglophones are learning Irish. we are not promiting native gaelophones at the expense of anglophones. native irish speakers ability is reducing.

enable schools to make up their won plans.,

support services for schools – resources, money, buses, teachers, assessment, special needs

assessing bilinguals in the majority language is problematic.


























dream of beirn mugged


I walked by rver in York. thick bushes by the oUSE. Possible mugging, was waene,d saw a blade come out of a bush and swich dwn but jnew it ea sa aranring form one mger to anther not to attempt to rb me. I had puffed my chest it and prtende dto be rbave walke with someone alter chapters do not remmebr] had rdeam abiut quen ethburkags klatelt and lwats night I dreamt I went t manderly. tagt ivnovle sthick bushes. washat can it all mean? Think of criminal life and hat they gained and the risk they ran, bruce reynodnle t al a hufnred years earlier people ike him wer etarbspried.

York scne eod fick turpsin exiuceuton, that is why it came up as well. alaso waters lives there, ata and elif

Socio linguistics. unit 2 lesson 3 a. minority language education


Dr Conchur O Brolchainu

a global perspective  – Hawaii and New Zealand.

”thanks a million” he said. typical Hiberno English.

heritage language areas. Gaeltacht.

department of education looked at heritage language education in Wales, Scotland, Canada and the USA.

immersion education and heritage language education

#gaelscoil system is for anglophones.

gaeltacht is under threat.#

global phenomenon.

23 000 people speak Irish daily – only a quarter of Gaeltacht population it is a minoritised language

language in trouble. dept of educ is looking at different contexts, what can we implement.

children’s competence is declining.

even in stringest Irish speaking areas such as Inish man – English is gaining upper hand among primary school children.

1000 children speak Irish in Ireland;s strongest areas.

A,B and C Gaeltacht areas.

education system is weakening the speaker’s competence.

even though children speak irish they do not speak it so well. English is affecting syntax, vocab and so forth.

10 per cent of teenagers in gaeltactht speak Irish,

social media in Irish.

department tried to support Irish language.

people did reports on education.

education provision through minority languages.

systematic search on databases. they looked at themes around heritage language edication, many labels for the same thing

minority, ancestral, autochtonous, heritage – all mean the same thing

50 50 programmes in USA – Spanish English. two teachers in the class. does not work with minor langage slike dine

dine is navajo langage

24 000 pople speak Hawaiian, only 0.4 percent of peope on Hawaii speak it. one island out of 8 is majority Hawaiian lanhguage

insihamn has 200 people

new zleand an d Hawaii shar eheriatge language related .

Hawaiian system – heriateg language context – it is immersion for English speakers.

1500 pupils in primary immersion – they are on an anglophine campus. if they experience difficulty in immersion school they might then go back to anglophone education.

30 000 in gaelscoils in ireland

how to keep majority language away? 100 per cent immersion for four years.

in gaelscoils  – sometimes there are oe or two years of total immersion. no English taught at all.

acquire skills in Irish and then transfer them into English.

teach English through Hawaiian. instructions in classroom in Hawaiian.

achievements – now post primary education in Hawaiian. you cannot get secondary education through a minority language

in European country one can do secondary education through a minority language

university links to hawaiina schools. one school is on  auni campus. allws research by uni.

#majority langage beats minority lang every time.

Hawaiian and maori – words are similar. they even relate to tagalog and Bahasa Malaysia

maor is in a better place than Hawaiian. 22 000 children learning it. maori is not really heriateg language. the teachrs are L2 speakers of maori.

community input it vital. I

is more tha  just language,

huge emphasis on social cuutrle and relgiou objectives among maori liekwsi among first nation in canada.

social and political activism. tries to change how government treats them.

community input is not big in eire.

maoris – parents come in and help.

maori language – each school defines level of immersion. what do they doo in different contexts, hueg amount of freedom. zero per cent up t 100.

advantages  –  research based direction is good. they have to define what they are doing. write a policy. English is not taught in third class. it will become common.

disadvantage – one teacher might teach through irish 90 per cent. in Gaeltacht parents do not know. in Gaeltacht they may implement total immersion for three years.

problems with assessment. inspectors want to do standardised test through majority language. this causes panic and people want to change to majority language

problem is standardised tests are not in minority language. test them later,

find how effective these tests are. we need date on this

gaeltacht children do well in   English,  maths etc…,

#frnech canada. heritage language contexts . population is 58 per cent English. 22 per cent English. then others. Italian d Arabic population in Toronto. Quebec.

100 000  french speakers in other provinces

quebec has a v storng francophone community. frnehc provison outside quebec.

inves.  1 000 000

children a re francophine at home. they want fench language education . frnehc is safe.

L2 immersion programme designed fr anglophones but as used for francophones.

is there anything we can take back to Ireland. ?

french ahs to be the native language of parens if they want to send the children to the sese special frne schools.

the child must receive frnech.

there is a francization programme for English speakers. try to give them specific immersion programme so they can up skill. francophone parents do not always chose french medium schools. they want the majority language.

in canada parents are choosing English. lack of support.

teachers can share best practise and PPP

francizisation to bring anglophones up to an adequate level.

diluting of french is a problem.

in all these programmes say it is difficult to stop English.

qualitative data shows it is hard to protect a minority language

disadvantages L1 french students.

conclusions – irish language units in anglophone school.  does not work.

success in problematic. no child left behind is problematic.

we need consulation ., pick the best modelr for you area. it defiens hw much teaching time should eb septn on the target language. clears uo rgeya reas. about amount of kgauge sued. oen size foes not fit at all.

curriculum and programme delivery the pincples the resources, ther eis a hueg variation ebwteen all thes eschools,

one must  ot have on rigid strict ste pne needs fleoxbility

up until now we are doing a lot right.

we have good level of status and recognition. we can change some things . we need more relevance .

what is model for gaelscoilana and colaiste

urban gaelsocils are immersion

in limerick there are six gaelsocils. five are total.

PE, art and drama through irish.

some use CILL model,


MIC has an irish language officer. people can become enthusiastic about irish despite not being native speakers, this can have a deleterious effect on Irish speakers.

dichotomy in Irish system  – there is growth in the language. for political reason.

in Gaeltacht the language is going down. outside Gaeltacht the language is thriving.

”bad irish is better than clever english”

we could invite native irish speakers to help out in classes.

problem is the need to break down boundaries. if there are two potent languages that is fine#

but if one language is minority his does not work, can irish be taught through Irish?

there is a change in approach.  there is no mention of immersion one good thing about the curriculum is that te objectives are the same, same high standards,

invite people in to write songs and translate them,.

linking schools. gaelscoil to anglophone one. conference calls.