fergusin invented diglossia in 1959#
different langage codes stratified in society
low form is evry day
high form is for academic stuff and law
fergusin sad for a kangyage to be diglssic they must be related linguistically#
swiss german as opposed to high german
#it is a stable situation. it can be super impsed from abroad or from an earler tme
characterisicts – classical diglssia#
high and low are linguistically related, there are complementary sets of functiins or domains,
H variety has oovert status. it is associate with the state, used by consequential persons.
it has admired literarcy heritage .
#L acquired frm te start.
EXTENSION OF DIGLOSSIA#
two other linguists fishan and ralph fassold # they extended the cincept
it also occurs in sicietues wehere unrelated langyages co exist#
sanish and guaranay in paraguay
fassold sai there is a stratification within a single langyage. in any maor language there is ahigh and low
reperoites which are monolingual according to fishman#
alab n Bell said one should say they are in a diglossic relationship
discussion forum activity, are there any codes in a linguistic relationship?
varety based diglossia as per fassold,
can mean a langage r a variety within them
#use more than one langyage in a conversation within an utterance
what ciuns as code swithicng
# intersentential switching
# tag switching – switch is in sentence tag
at what level should it be identified.?
switching can mean a single word.
people use irish words in English.
people look at structural switching, carl myers swotten. one language will be domianent] matrix lang frame model. fomiannt one sets structural setting
it will pride order -. some criticises this. they cnten matrix lang can change form one sentcne to the next
which is the embdeeded lang>
code switchin and diglssa are not the same# diglossia may be highly roecitbel domain based code swicthingw e can preict where it will occur becus ther eare distcitn functions in gdlgoissa
code sothcing is not instittuoanlsied nad is a personal choice
#attitues – similar to bilingualism. attitudes vaery. some oppose.
code switching is routine. it can be denigrtated by thise who code switch themselves. regar4ded as a counted semi lnagueg. Spanglish and chinglisg
code switching accomplish communicative purposes. conveys social meanings#
Oberwart – sUDAN Gal said people switch between languages to onvey a meaning,
swotch to German from Magyar would give argument more force. can express knowledgeability
concept of interactional code switching, john gompers.
how does it operate in conversation, happens in interactions . these are fluent an unitary as monolignual conversation
meaning matters more than linguistic form# some people at enot aware that they are swithcing
we code – minority code or in group
they code – out group or wider society
triggers for switching
these are =- introducing direct quotation or reported speech.
picking out a specific addressee. bilinguals switch to include or exclude
to interject, well s, so absolutely,
sentence can be reitriated in other language
# qualifying messages
situational code switching and metraphorical code swithing
# sotuaitona; – regialr switch lasts as long as situaiotn lasts
when outsidr enrtered into a local group that coukd trigger a stich from dialect to staar
#d move form bsuienss ot eprosanl subjects
these relft accepted norms for what is appropriate for cerain topics
form for one setting is used in another
# standard form used in an informal conversation#
normally it uses the vernauclar, to claim authority one uses the more formal language or state language
myers scotton market lace model has similarities to gumperz model
switches can be classified as marked which arhe expected choice pr
unmarked wsh is the unepxetc chouce
# these carry expectioan of right and obligaitons.
the use of swahilit in a hite collar office in Nairobia
in this case this is the marked.,
#soieites have norm which frame th interacitona nd social conseuqnce sof choices,#
marked switches redefine the speaker. it can exclude outsiders. they do not comprehend.
this is very similar to situational and metaphorical code switching s the unexpected choice to inject a flavour of one setting into another. .
peter auer used conversation analysis, focus on orderly minutiare of every day conversation turn taking
# auer found language alternationals were inter sentential. rather than intra sententonal
switches could eb trander so siwtches
# transders were lexical 0 insertin words followed by teunt o preiovus langueg or s switch which was changing lamagueb and sticking to it# could be particapbt related
or disocue related, signally what a speaker is goin like changing a tooic
this is contexualtisiaon que
# lsitenrs itnerpest the interaction and tis ocnent.
accoridng to conversation management
bilginaualsim is seen as behaviour not capability this is something that speaker do rather than are unit of analysis is the dosucyr eitsle code woibe can only be understood int he light if t eh choices that have proceeded and followed
code switching is related to style,
style . rampton talked about language crossing. this means using a stule that oen does not normally uses. city speaker style shifts to a rural variety
stylisation of dialects where speakers go beyong the normal way of speaking. comedians use high performance. use feartures of a regional accent#
they use it strategically. they use it to refine conetct and social relationships.
it is related to code switching.