End of WWI
11 Nov 1918 armistice
Armistice is stopping the fighting while the permanent peace is negotiated
There was a possibility that negotiations would fail and the war would restart
Germany was almost starving due to blockade
January 1918 Allied leaders met in Paris to negotiate peace
Why Paris> France had been main battle zone
Allied leaders negotiated among themselves. Germans allowed to listen but not speak.
Big Three. France PM Georges Clemenceau. US President Woodrow Wilson . UK PM Lloyd George. Sometimes we mention Italian PM Vittorio Orlando.
Lloyd George was fairly harsh on Germany
Clemenceau was the harshest
Wilson said that they should be forgiving. It was easy for him to be so mild because the US suffered much less than the UK and France
Wilson wanted all countries to disarm down to the lowest level consistent with national security. He opposed secret treaties. He suggested setting up League of Nations – an international body to discuss international problems and disputes. To keep the peace.
June 1918 Treaty of Versailles was signed
Allies signed with Germany
Germans signed under protest. They had to sign or the Allies would attack immediately.
Clause 231 – war guilt clause. Germany had to accept they caused the war
Germany had to pay reparations to repair the cost of the war. Allied Reparations Commission set up to calculate this.
Germany lost 13% of its land. All overseas colonies all confiscated.
Anschluss – unification with Austria – was banned.
Austria is German speaking
Hitler was born in Austria
Versailles was a peace by diktat
Germans believed peace would be along lines of Wilson’s 14 Points
French and British said they never agreed to the 14 Points.
14 Points were in January 1918.
Germany signed because they were in no state to fight. June 1919 Germany was in a much weaker position than 7 months earlier.
PARIS PEACE TREATIES
St Germain – Allies and Austria
Trianon – Allies and Hungary
Sevres – Allies and the Ottoman Empire
Neuilly – Allies and Bulgaria