Category Archives: Education

What has gone wrong with education especially in the UK and how to fix it.

lANG in context. 3.5 discourse of friends


discourse of friends.

analuse spoken transcript of friends. generate list f defining characteristics of discourse of friends

hymes 1974 model applied to friends

look at friends from pint of view of st clair and coulathurd Birmingham school model

speaking – nature of friendship. apply hymes to the model

contextual matters. nature of relationship.

symmetric tole relatioshp in friendship. usually equal unlie family,

what are poer rleations. family is at stake – it can end. stable.

one can lose friends, people are careful. people are not so direct.

sme shared knowledge. nature if fixed and astable friendshop varies.

nature f friendshop – appluign speaking model depends on speaking model

friend sfor a log time ma affect symmetry of speaker relations.

type if friendship

friendhsp repertories. different types

close friends v acquaintances. we do things with acquainstance.s best friends foe eotioonal support

socio linguistic variables. look at them for conversation. female friendshops – different lingsutic friendhsop diffeene tform male amle and male female

different social clases and educational abckgrounds.

roles may have imaact n lang in friendship group. diffeen roles. comic in group. manager in grouo,#

roles fiex in family not inf rienhsi groups.


friends 1.

politeness markers. some hedges. vcatives.

Birmingham school.

how can we interept the etxrac ? apply st clair and coulahrd – intiaiton reposne feedback. cosndier evry speke rutrn. how does it function in temr sof intiiton reposne and feedback

rising intonation. tagged as an initiation. these happen as questions usually.

response to initiation,

another intiaitona nd another response.

speaker A LOOKS TO E – feedback on response.

IRF – initiation response feedback

some conversations are invented for teaching.


friends 2.


females. 20s. shared accomm.

initiations. they are often signalled by questions. not all questions are initiations.

some statements are initiations. five initiations

lexical repetition of down.

sometimes it is unclear if something it an initiation or a response.

linguistic features in extract. topic changes. three changes. very rapid. unproblematic. niot signalled. no marker to chnge tpic.

#no lverpapping or interruttpn. more symmetrical. no power to interrupt or overlap. that happesn in families instead

# hugh shared knowledge.

cohension amng friends. backward pointing. lxicla chaining and repetition. synonymety. earrings chain and watch. reformulation nd echoing – idnicatro of informal and intimes speech soldiairyt

nice – reformuasleew t lovley in next turn.

spud ws reformauledt as potato in next turn


no pragmatic marking with like and now. v unusual not to have it.

vague language. kind of copper – common in friends speech. indexed shared knowledge. we like to appar non expert and we approxiaet


friends 3. males watching telly in shared accomm

taboo lang. vocatives. short turnes. ejaculatos. overlpapping.

”I d say did he?” tag questions. pragmatic marker like. echoed ”like”

”i’d say did he” pragmatic marker


friends rapid topic change. little overlap and interruption. shared knowledge often situaitona l. v cohesive.

differing turn lengths.

taboo lang. vocatives. pragmatic markers. socio linguistic variables such as gender. length of friendshop can play a role.

acint more like famil – fewer pragmatic maarkers if they re frinds for yonks.




3.3. lang in context. online discourse


unique. our course is on internet

context of online. linguistic features. blog . twitter. concept of spokeness.


spoken and written lang. can compiter mediate communication is spoke or written or both

how is it different? similarities and differencs. qord drequency and turns

computer mediate communication. CMC produced by humans with cimputers.

compiter medated discurse. pattersn that emerge . application if discourse technqieys.

text based. witten. CMC. discussion fora. FB. twitter. visually presented. medoum is constituted by written lang. unqye environment. largely free from situaiton contexts.

difference. spoken and written. arises out of channel. medoum. supposed to be heard if spoen

written to be rea dby absent

age, acquisition. structure.

how is CMC different. more ile spoken lang. different from written. uses non standard features. less correct less compelx and less coherent.

one elemen. CMC is use of non standard features. computer mediated communication. not all active users of CMC. we do not all have twieet accounts. familiar with non standard efatures. we have not thoyht about them as lingisitics.

spelling nt strict no grammar. abbreviations. hashtags , emojis,

ellipsis. omit pronouns and article.s

uncnvnetional orothography waaaaa. orality

perez Hilton. underlining, bold. does not bother with verbs. capitals

lol. alum.

capitalisation. prosody. dashes are frquet on internet. unique to CMC – hyperlinks. nods. nod to twitter. appeal to shared knpwledge. here is ne of the onvetions of twieete.r solidarity built up,

hermes corpus. twitter corpus. 100 million. 7 million tweets.

frequency list – @word, I, to , the, rt (retweet_). interactivity.


bring voice from other items into tweet.

hash tag invites comments.

compare frequency list with spoken list. other items.

how is CMC different? Turn taking. different to written lang. more elements of spokenness.

#long haps between turns on CMC. not sp ins peech

#disrputed turn adjacenct

#twitter. recognised dispruted tun adjanceyc. turn takinf sstem is fragmebetd. unpredicatbailuty. adapted turn takinf system.

time stamp on tweets. tweets linked

turn taking – twitter allows one to emebd message on wishes to reply to.

favourite function feedbacl

there is spoknenss is not really written. orality and brief . ifnroma;l


does not bother with puncitaiton and speleing. abbrwviations. wavi

chat 2. formal saying good afternoon proper gramma,r ucntioan and spelling.




Unit 3.1 lang in context


like pragmatic marker

what are they?

analse in conyext

like used to hedge

carter and mccarhty – a class of times that operate outside the structure of the clause

terms for pragmatic markers proliferate – often called discourse markers.

features that make pragmatic markers – phonologically reduced. difficult to place in word classes

also optional. we do not need to include them.

choice is significant.

their position can be initital . called discourse markers. text structuring markers.

positionally – located towards the end of the utterance.

paragmatic markers at end. little or no propositional meaning. features fof spoken markers, stylistically sitgmatised. can be gender specific.

they are polysymous – thy are multifunctional. fulfill more than one function simultaneously.

they have many features.

anyway, actual, as it were. basically a bit. I think. I mean, in a way.

tag questions – can be pragmatic markers. so can vocatives.

properties of pragmatic markers. v fruqnet in speech

they are key in spoken lang.

remove vocalisaiton and paralinguistic info. they are key in LCIE word freuqnyc

”sure” and ”kind” are commn in LCIE.

”kind of” pragmatic marker.

like – it I v frequent .

Joe Connor ”like gets a lot of bad press but it is an interesting feature but in a way it is almost parodied. ”

who used like? Young lower class people – less educated.

valley girls – like.

it has been cmmented on. Frabk Zappa commented on it in 1982 song. not in a grammatical class. emerged form California.

they are middle and upper clases from san Fernando valley.

# like in deoth. functions. grammatical – it is used as a verb. he likes rugger.

it can be a preposition – she is like her father. it tatses like pineapple.

her voice is so like ….

optionality – all likes can be removed without any grammatical effect on structure of what is said. it will impact intention and interpersonality.

like is often utterance final

like can be an exemplifier – as in ”in this way”

like can appeak for solidarity. other orientated. please agree with me

it can be a hedge

like can mean ”that is obvious”  it is softend by saying ;;like” instead

”you know” can co occur with like

like can be v interpersonal

hedging  – means to make things less blunt or certain. if we have to correct or disagree. asking them ti agee. if we wish t aovid offenc.e to make people thinkw e are nice or cool


concordance of like

what is function. sometimes grammatical sometimes not

  1. preposition
  2. preposition
  3. hedge
  4. prep
  5. pragmatic
  6. pragmatic
  7. hedge
  8. preposition
  9. hedge
  10. pragmatic
  11. hedge
  12. hedge
  13. hedge
  14. hedge
  15. hedge
  16. hedge
  17. hedge
  18. hedge
  19. prep
  20. prep


lang analysis 2,5 vocatives in contexts


what are vocatives. ?

hwo are they used?

a vocative is

”brian, come here”

brian came here yesterday – Brian has grammatical fuction

first one  – birian ia a vocative

in first sentence is is optional

vocatives – pet, dalring, sir, prof mr

# formala nd informal

famliliariers  – lads, guys

pet, nicknames such as Jim

mum and cONNOr – sometimes to identify the person

sometimes used to interrupt.

function of vocative. saying a person’s name when speaking to that person. politeness.

deliver bad news and use the vocative – name

hon is a vocative.

vocative sometimes to show whom one is speaking to.

adding name to end of a request? to be more appealing

vocatives used for – summons (get attention of that person),relational (compliments, requests – maintains friendship), turn management ( to select next speaker)

disambiguate in multi party talk.

topic management

badinage – vocatives.

tpic management, vcatives.

mitigator. vocatives.

vocatives are used a lot in family.

used a lot for turn management.

used most as a mitigator and for summons#

vocatives index formality and iformality. we do not have pronomial system as in tu and vous.

approaches to lang 2.4 Taboo lang in context


features of lang. phenomenon of swearing.

meaty issues until now. problematized by theory.

use of taboo lang

what is it?

warning – swearing

taboo – Anderson  and trudgill is to stay an area of life is regulated by conscious and unconscious rules.

taboo around sex, death. faith, gays, ethnic

social and cultural rules are legal. some are imposed by context

taboo items. shit fuck cunt arse tits prick cock

fuck is top and cunt

weakest – damn, drat,

acceptanle – friends and pub

unaccebpta – work, formal  with children, in church

why ? intimacy informality. relaxing

unaccebptable – acting formal being polite not letting oneseful town dignity

taboo – they have literal and metaphorical meaning

informality. marker of it.

covert prestige. people strop swearing when microphone is on. showing off. demonstrating independence, naturalness, forcefulness,

used by males

swear words signal intimate. group affinity. stringer group affinity.

use of tabbo lang differs according to age. young more. linekd t gender social clas and educ background

all impact on social class.

words that are taboo lose this status and are replaced. damn was once seen as foul

racist words are not banned

frequency lists. used by males. fucking is among them. fuck. yeah, right aye.

women most frequeny use I. Christmas.

males use response tokens and

said is a quotative. ”she said” is v common among women – used among spoken narrative


age freuwncy lists

under 35s say fucking and mum

over 35s – yes, well , mmm


social class

upper  – yes really okay


lower. 0 – he said fucking


back channels – yes, really, ok, right


archetypal users  youn lower class males

taboo lang used informally. more in evening. to unite. signa machismo

used between friends. young use more. used to appeal to solidairyt. express disapproval. heighten emotion

stenstrom – swearing is about group affinity. signal intimacy. builds chummy ambience

swearing fr more common among friends than family

lemma. we group tgether vairnats of one word. fuck, fuckers, fucking, fucks

taboo items in family when friends are abnset


lang analysis 2.2 Diexis


deixis used every day In speech and writing

what is it. use on context

”meet me here at noo tomorrow with a stick this big.”

need to udnersand me , here and this big and tomorrow

we need context

”I was born in limerick and have lived there since.”

deictic items are ponting words – to time, places and to what has been said r will be said

”there” refers to places. indicates conveesation is not in limerick

contextual knowledge.

deixis allows us to see who we are speaking about

deixis is ubiquitous

person deixis – personal pronouns

place deixisies – adverbs, deictic demonstratives,

proximal distinction – here

there is further

time deixis – proximal and distal distinction

discourse deixis – this that thse

can fcus info. therefore,

social deixis. manifested in terms such as mum or lads. in English not that complex.

we do not have tu vous distinction

empathetic deixis . how personally involved we feel. here not there. now not then.


dexis  – world involves around you. around a marego – deictic session

here is centre and now is centre. reference of context.

LCIE word frequency. first 15 words

I, the, me you. it . to  etc…………….

I and you are deictic actions. it is person discourse and empathetic deixis.

that is multifunctional item. pronoun and determiner


this, that , now are used deictically. get meaing from context

they are also used non deictically.

when they are used in play scripts. Now to explain present tense.

use of personal pronouns in formal and informal speech situations

frequency counts. a lot of results are v similar. I, you, we and they are v common among family and results

differences. prnouns he and she. used a lot in family less in friends. she more common in family than among friends

why is this?

family can invoke more contexts due too higher shared knowledge.

he and she are v involved in narrative

stories used to bond

empathetic deixis. an English and Irishman and a scotsman

we used historic present in a joke.

we used present tense in tales to increase immediacy. enhances emotional conncetions. marer of empathetic deizis.

appeals to listners to get involved in a story

family and friends. family and friends discourse. frequency. today, tomorrow and yesterday

diurnal reference to days of the week.

today is most frequwnt. tomorrow as frequent among family and friends

yesterday – used a lot more among family than friends






Malaysia is a country in Asia. This nation is located in the region of South-East Asia. This country is just north of the Equator. It is south of the Tropic of Cancer. The country is hot all through the year.

The neighbours of Malaysia are Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. Singapore is an island. At the nearest point it is only 500 metres from Malaysia. A bridge connects the two countries. Malaysia consists of Peninsular Malaysia (This is the area that borders Thailand) and the northern part of the island of Borneo.

Malays are not the original inhabitants of this land. There are some Oran Asli who are autochthonous. However, there are precious few of them. The Malays have lived here for centuries. The Malays are Mongoloid people. They have the same phenotype as Thais and Indonesians.

Centuries ago Arab traders came to this land. They proselytised for Islam. Hence Malays are all Muslims. Various kingdoms (sultanates) were founded. Each has a king (sultan) In the 16th century Dutch, Portuguese and British sailors arrived. These people purchased land and sometimes fought the Malays.

In the early 19th century the British started to rule Malaysia. In those days they called it Malaya. They made agreements with the sultans. The sultans ruled their own sultantes internally. They relied on the Britishers for foreign affairs and defence. British rule was a boon for Malaysia. The country was connected to the world economy. Modern science and engineering made life enormously better. Modern medicine saved countless lives.

The Cameron Highland are in Peninsular Malaysia. Plantations were established there growing tea, coffee and rubber.

India was then part of the British Empire. India had been trading with Malaysia for centuries. Under British rule some Indians chose to relocate to Malaysia. These Indians mostly hailed form the south-eastern state of Tamil Nadu.

China was in a state of turmoil through much of the 19th century. Near constant civil war and incursions by other countries reduced China to debility.  Many Chinese decided to shift abroad. Chinese people voted with their feet and came to reside in British Malaysia. Japanese people also came to live in Malaysia. They were spies – part of a long term Japanese plan to prepare to annex the country.

In 1942 the Japanese invaded Malaysia. British, Australian and Indian troops defended the land. However, theirs was a losing battle. The Japanese moved very fast on bicycles. They had men hold up planks of wood as bridges over streams. The Japanese had a resounding victory. It was an ignominious British reverse.

Japanese rule was cruel and exploitative. Many civilians were slain by the Japanese Army. People were enslaved and worked to death on building projects. The Malayan People’s Anti Japanese Army resisted the occupation. The MPAJA was mostly communist.

In 1945 the Japanese surrendered. Normality was restored. However, the MPAJA was also anti British. They soon started an anti-British revolt. The MPAJA drew succour only from a segment of the Chinese minority.

Gerald Templer was the British general sent to quell the communists in Malaya. He introduced passes, protected villages and food rationing. He was assassinated but his plan worked.

In 1957 Malaysia became independent. The sultans take it in turns to rule for 5 years. There are 9 sultans. The sultan who is the ruler of the whole of Malaysia has the title ”Agong.”

Kuala Lumpur is the main capital of this country. Its name means ”Muddy Delta.” Can you guess which word is which? Most people can guess from the sound of the words. In Bahasa Malaysia the word ”Kuala” is ”delta” and ”Lumpur” is ”muddy.” The Parliament is here as is the residence of the Agong.

Putrajaya is the administrative capital of Malaysia. It was built in 1998 and houses the civil service. The states have different laws. Some of them have Shari law and alcohol is prohibited. It is permitted in Kuala Lumpur.

The Flag of Malaysia has thirteen red  and white strips – one for each state. The ensign of the flag is blue with a yellow crescent moon and star. These emblems symbolise Islam. The flag is consciously modelled on that of the United States.

Most of the people live in Peninsular Malaysia. The Malays are about 60 per cent of the people. The rest are divided between the Chinese, the Indians, Oran Asli and others.

The language of Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia. It is written in Latin letters. English also has official status.

The economy of this country is growing rapidly. Malaysia recently became a developed country. Malaysia Airlines is a major earner for the country. The nation has a good financial services sector. The country has manufacturing and industry. The currency is the Rupiah.



  1. On which continent is Malaysia in?
  2. Name three neighbours of Malaysia?
  3. Which country is connected by Malaysia by bridge?
  4. Which island is partly in Malaysia?
  5. What are the two capitals of Malaysia?
  6. Translate Kuala Lumpur.
  7. Draw the flag of Malaysia. Five marks.
  8. What is the currency of Malaysia?
  9. What are the two official languages?
  10. What are the three main ethnic groups? Three marks
  11. What are earners for this country?
  12. Which country invaded Malaysia in 1942?