Category Archives: Education

What has gone wrong with education especially in the UK and how to fix it.




Bosnia-Herzegovina is a country in Europe. It is called Bosnia for short. This country borders Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia and Kosovo. The winters are cold and the summers are mild. Much of the land is pine forest.

The people of this country are called Bosnians. This nation is in south-east Europe in a region called the Balkans. This country is in the Balkan Mountains. The land is very hilly.

Bosnia is largely hilly or mountainous. It is fertile but not very suitable for arable farming. The winters are cold and the summers are warm.

This country has been part of several empires. The Romans were here. So were the Ottomans and the Austro-Hungarians.

The people of that land were almost all Christians. The Ottomans came and some of them settled. The Ottomans were Muslim. Some Christians converted to Islam.

The country is made up of Bosniaks who are Muslims. They are a plurality of the country. Then there are Orthodox Christians who mostly identify as Serbs. Then there are Catholics who mostly see themselves as Croats. Serbian and Croatian are almost the same language except the former is written in Cyrillic and the latter in Latin letters. Bosnian is very similar to the other two languages and is written in Latin letters. There are small ethnic groups like Slovaks, Germans, Italians, Jews, Macedonians and Hungarians in this country.

In 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. The organization that killed him was Mlada Bosnia – Young Bosnia. Its aim was a united and independent Bosnia in alliance with Serbia. It tried to appeal to Bosnians of all ethnicities and faiths.

After the First World War a Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and SLovenes was formed. It included Bosnia. It later renamed itself Yugoslavia. It was Serb dominated. The King of Serbia became King of Yugoslavia.

In the Second World War this country was occupied by the Axis. The Serbs were treated barbarously. Some Croats and Bosniaks helped the Axis. Others fought in the partisans against the Axis forces.

After the Second World War those who had assisted the Axis were severely penalized. Yugoslavia was recreated. The country became a socialist republic. It was ruled by Tito. He died in 1980.

In 1984 Sarajevo hosted the winter Olympics.

In 1990 some republics seceded from Yugoslavia. Bosnia was one of these. The country was divided into three major ethnic groups. Many Serbs wanted the country remain part of Yugoslavia. The Croats and Muslims helped each other.

Sarajevo was under siege for over a year. Many civilians were slain. The United Nations intervened.

At Srebrenica the Serbian forces killed several thousand Muslim civilians.

In 1995 the war came to an end with the Dayton Accords. Lord Owen and Cyrus Vance brokered the deal. The Muslims and Croats shared most of the time. The east of the country was Republika Srpska.

Bosnia gradually recovered from the conflict. Many people emigrated.

The flag of the country has a blue field. There is a yellow triangle on it and several stars

The currency is the convertible mark.

Sarajevo is the capital city. It means ”palace” in Turkish.

The European Rapid Reaction Force is there.

The word Herzegovina is derived from the word for ‘duke’.

This country is the bottom of the rich country group.


  1. Which continent is this country in?
  2. What is the climate like?
  3. Name the neighbours of this land. Five marks.
  4. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  5. What is the name of the capital?
  6. What is the currency?
  7. What are the two main faiths?
  8. What are the three main ethnic groups? Three marks.
  9. Name three empires this country was part of?
  10. Which country was this land part of from 1918 to 1990?
  11. Who was slain in Sarajevo in 1914?
  12. What is the landscape like?
  13. Is this a rich land?
  14. Which agreement ended the conflict in 1995?
  15. Who ruled Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1980?






Canada is a country on the American Continent. This country is in the subcontinent called North America. This nation has but one neighbour – the United States.

The climate of this country is exceptionally gelid in the winter and very warm in the summer. This is the second largest country in the world in terms of area. Therefore there is huge regional variation in climate. The country has much territory north of the Arctic Circle.

The Atlantic Ocean is to the east of Canada and the Pacific Ocean is to the west. Canada has a very long coastline. Hundreds of islands pertain to Canada.

The original inhabitants of this country are called First Nations people. They are divided into hundreds of nations each with its own language.

Vikings landed in this country over 1 000 years ago. They named it Vinland because of its vines. The Vikings did not last many years in Canada.

Europeans started permanent settlements here in the 16th century. French and British people set up villages in Canada. One of these Europeans asked a First Nations person where this place was. The man replied in his local language ‘Canada’ which meant  ‘the village.’

The French ruled eastern Canada until the 1760s. The British had Thirteen Colonies on the east coast of America. The Seven Years War was fought at that time. The British Army under General James Wolfe stormed the Heights of Abraham – this was near the City of Quebec. The British won the battle. They then seized Quebec – this was the French ruled area of Canada. At the end of the war France ceded the land to the United Kingdom. However, the British agreed that the French-Canadians could keep their language and they would not be discriminated against for being Catholics.

British immigrants started to move to Canada. Canada expanded to the west. The American Revolution came in 1776. Canadians fought on the British side. American revolutionaries invaded Canada without success. When the revolution was over some American loyalists fled to Canada.

In the 1860s Canada became internally self-governing. Canada is divided into provinces. The nation had to choose a capital. Toronto was and is the largest city. It is in Ontario – an anglophone province. Some favoured Montreal which is in francophone Quebec. Instead a new capital was built at Ottawa in between the two cities.

The First Nations people were made citizens. They started to learn one of the two official languages of Canada – French and English.

Canada turned itself into a democracy. The country experimented with banning alcohol.

In the First World War Canadian people served in the army. They fought in Western Europe. Canada received huge numbers of European immigrants after the war. People from other land such as India and Japan moved to Canada.

In the 1920s the United States outlawed alcohol. Canada had abandoned such a policy. Canada whisky was exported to the USA.

In the Second World War Canada chose to fight alongside the United Kingdom. Canada was independent at that time but still valued the Commonwealth.

After the Second World War Canada again took in many immigrants. They often came from Western Europe.

This country was a founding member of NATO in 1949. The nation sent troops to fight in Korea on a UN mission.

Canada retained a cordial relationship with the United States. However, she did not send troops to Vietnam. Some draft resisters fled to Canada.

In the 1970s Canada was ruled by a Liberal prime minister named Trudeau. At that time the separatist movement flourished in Quebec. In the 1960s the French president de Gaulle visited the country. He irritated Canadians by saying ”Vive Quebec Libre.” This implied Quebec was not free already and was an insult. It was interfering in domestic politics. Moreover, it was encouraging separatism.

In the 1980s Canada was governed by Brian Mulroney. He was a prime minister who led the Progressive Conservatives. That party is nicknamed the Tories. He ruled for years. However, by the mid 1990s his party was deeply unpopular and an election was very close. Rather than go down in flames he stepped aside as prime minister. He was replaced by Kim Campbell who was the first woman to be Prime Minister of Canada. She only governed for a month.  She led her party into the election and was heavily defeated.

The Liberals dominated the next few years. The Progressive Conservatives were in disarray.

The Prime Minister at the moment is Justin Trudeau. He is a Liberal and son of a previous PM.

Constitutional monarchy is the system in Canada. The head of state is Elizabeth II. She is the same person as Queen of the United Kingdom.

The national anthem is ‘O Canada’. It speaks of ”the true north strong and free.”

The flag has red, white and red vertical bars. In the middle there is a red maple leaf.

This country has a superb ice hockey team.

Canada is a very prosperous country. It has oil and gas. But it does well mainly through services and high tech. Maple syrup is a popular Canadian export.

There are black Canadians, white Canadians, Oriental Canadians and South Asian Canadians.

Canada Dry is a popular export.

The national airline is Air Canada.

The currency is the Canadian Dollar.

Quebec, Ottawa, Toronto and Montreal are all well preserved cities. They are historic.

The northern bank of Niagra Falls is in Canada.


  1. Which continent is Canada in?
  2. What is the climate like?
  3. Which country does this one border?
  4. Which two oceans is this country beside?
  5. Who were the first people to live in this country?
  6. When did Europeans arrive?
  7. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  8. Which party was Mulroney in?
  9. Which party do the Trudeaus belong to?
  10. Who is the Queen of Canada?
  11. Which sport is this country best at?
  12. What is the currency?
  13. Is this a poor country?
  14. Name the capital.
  15. What are the two official languages? Two marks.
  16. What non-European countries sent many immigrants to Canada in the 20th century?
  17. Would you like to visit this country?



Cote d’Ivoire



Cote d’Ivoire is a country in Africa. This country is located in the west of the continent. It is beside the Atlantic Ocean.

The climate of Cote d’Ivoire is hot all year round. This is because the country is located just north of the Equator. The land is mostly flat. This is a fertile country but it gets a little drier in the north.

This country is mostly inhabited by Bantu people. Almost all the people of this country are black. There is a small Lebanese and white community. The people of the country are divided into several tribes. These tribes often span the borders of next door countries.

In the 16th century European merchants sailed here. They purchased ivory from the local people. This is why the French named this country Cote d’Ivoire which translates ‘Ivory Coast’. The country asks that it be known by its  French name even in English.

The people of West AFrica frequently fought each other. Those who were defeated were enslaved. These unfortunate captives were sometimes sold to European traders. The white traders or pirates took these poor people across the ocean in dreadful conditions. Many hostages died on the voyage. These people were forced to work as slaves in the American continent.

The French annexed this land in the 1880s. They did this by agreement with indigenous chieftains as well as invasion. The French made their language the official language of the country. So it remains today.

The French improved the infrastructure of the country enormously. They also brought education. There had been no literacy there before. They brought the Christian faith. Most Ivorians are Christians.

In the 1950s a doctor’s aid named Felix Houphet-Boigny was elected as a representative of the Cote d’Ivoire. He went to Paris to the National Assembly.  The French Union – the then name for the French Empire – allowed representatives from all French colonies to have power.  This man later became President of the Ivory Coast. He led the country to independence in 1960. Houphet-Boigny retained a cordial relationship with France.

His surname means ”rubbish ram”. This is because ram is an auspicious beast. To have such a name on its own would be vain so the family took a stigmatised name too.

Houphet-Boigny was an anti-communist. He helped to bring down pro-Soviet governments in other countries. He also maintained dialogue with the apartheid government in South Africa. This president amassed an enormous fortune. He also spent a staggering sum on the largest church in the world. Houphet-Boigny died in 1993.

The flag of this country is orange, white and green vertical bars. It is like the Irish Tricolour but with the colours in the opposite order.

The capital is Yamassoukoro . This is Houphet-Boigny’s home town. It used to be Abidjan but he shifted it. Abidjan remains the largest city.

The currency is the CFA.



  1. What does Cote d’Ivoire mean in English?
  2. Which ocean is this land beside?
  3. What is the climate like?
  4. Which hemisphere is this country in?
  5. What is the official language?
  6. What is the capital city?
  7. Who was the first president of this nation?
  8. What is the major religion?
  9.  Draw the flag. Five marks.
  10. Which is the former capital of this country?




Croatia is a country in Europe. This nation is beside the Adriatic Sea. This country borders Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia.

The climate of Croatia is cool in winter and very warm in summer. There are mountains where it snows. The land is hilly and dry. There are many moors and pine forests.

The coast of Croatia has hundreds of islands. Krk and Var are some of the famous ones. Marco Polo was born on a Croatian island.

Croatia was part of the Roman Empire. The Emperor Diocletian had his palace built at Split in this country. The Roman Empire later broke up. Christianity came to this country under the Romans. In ancient times this land was called Illyria.

The Croats speak a Slavonic language called Croat. It is penned in the Latin script. This country was independent for centuries.

The Ottomans conquered this country in the later Middle Ages. Later the Ottomans were driven out. Croatia became part of the Austrian Empire. This was ruled by the Habsburg family in Vienna.

The coast of Croatia was sometimes called Dalmatia. This is where Dalmatian dogs come from. There are large white dogs with black spots. They are best known from the film ”101 Dalmatians.”

The Croats have a lot in common with their neighbours. The Serb language is almost the same as the Croat language only it is written in Cyrillic letters. Slovenian is not too different. The Bosniak Muslims speak a language that is very similar too. Some people believed in uniting all South Slavs.

In the First World War the Austro-Hungarian Empire was defeated and broken up. Yugoslavia was created. Croatia formed part of this. The name mean South Slav Land.

This country was a kingdom. The language was Serbo-Croat. In the Second World War it was invaded by Germany and Italy.

Ante Pavelic led a Croat fascist movement called Ustase. He formed the Independent State of Croatia. This was with the blessing of Germans and Italians. The Ustase regime killed many civilians.

At the end of the Second World War Ustase was crushed. Pavelic fled to Argentina. Yugoslavia came back into being.

Tito ruled the whole of Yugoslavia. It was a socialist state. Many tourists came to the country. A lot of Croats went to work abroad in Germany, Sweden, Australia and Switzerland.

In 1990 Croatia became independent. There was fighting over Bosnia-Herzegovina. That country consisted of three ethnic groups – Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. They were defined by their faith – Orthodox Serbs, Catholic Croats and Muslims Bosniaks. Most people were not very religious but faith became an identity marker.

The fighting finally ended in 1995. Croatia had been ruled by Franjo Tudjman for the first few years of independence.

The country joined the European Union in 2014.

The flag had red, white and blue horizontal bars. There is a red and white chequered symbol in the middle.

The capital is Zagreb meaning ”behind the mountain”.

This is a high income country.


  1. Which continent is this country in?
  2. Which sea is this beside?
  3. Describe the climate?
  4. Name the capital.
  5. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  6. Which ancient empire ruled this country?
  7. Which religious denomination are most people here?
  8. Which Middle Eastern empire ruled this land?

4.4 discourse and pragmatics. exploring impoliteness


people want to cause disharmony by impoliteness

does this use same concepts as politeness? Culpepper tried to find out.

rude words.  fuck shit.

what speech acts are rude. swearing insults.

culpepper. 1996. model of impoliteness.

derek bousefield worked ith Jonathan Culpepper

Culpepper ”impoliteness is an intentional and purposeful attack on a hearer’s face. ”

successful impoliteness – when insult is perceived as sushc by the hearer.

impoliteness when speaker communicates speech attack intentionally.

impoliteness is the hearer.

drill sergeant is impolite to degreade them and assert control

#systematic use if impoliteness

culpepper said there is an anatomy of impoliteness. he used brown and levinson’s face threat theory

bald impoliteness. no redress. designed to explicityly creat damage to face. clear unabigious and precise.

withhold politeness. not saying thanks.

positive m neave and off record impolitenss

positive politeness.

ignore. sub. exclude from activity

the pers no logner feels iked repeete or valued

appearing not to care wgat soemoen says =


negative impoltieness

behaviour explcitylu diegsned to damage negative face wants we do not wnt to be itnerfeed with by others

dircule invade spaces.


impoliteness. Anne Robinson

her strategies saying that his job title is inflated. she condescends an belittle s him. sneers at his town.

scous accent is stigamtised

calling eope fat or smelly – threatening to hit. impolite. bald.


children ruder to each oother when parents not there

no extra lingustc mitigation such as laughter to repair impoliteness in some situations



threatd, silencers. insults, curses, ,non supportive intrustions, unpalatable questions. dismissials

#off record impoliteness. not explicit. no speifc frmulae

most frequent way. sarcasm

saracasm and prosody go hand in hand. prosody is tone and rhythm. other visual elements is needed.

doing th dozens. is this

rob mcmaddy

insult teeth. insult mum. fatness. stupidity. penury. promiscuity.

calling somone an animals. racial slurs.  hair. ugly.




Dominican Republic



The Dominican Republic is a country in the American Continent. This country is part of an island in the Caribbean Sea. The name of the island is Hispaniola. It used to be called Santo Domingo. The western third of the island is Haiti. The eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republican.

The autochthonous people of this island were Amerindians. The Spanish arrived on the island in the late 15th century. Exposure to European maladies put paid to the inhabitants of the isle. Christopher C

The Spanish found the island to be exceptionally fertile. The land is very hot and tropical. The Spanish sailed to Africa. African countries fought each other. Those who were vanquished were often made chattel slaves. These captives were sometimes sold to Spaniards. The Spanish sailors took these people across the ocean. The enslaved people were subjected to the most horrific brutality. They were forced to work by whipping and torture.

The plantations in this country made a pretty penny for the Spanish masters.

The Dominican Republic ceased to be a Spanish colony in the 1820s. It became an independent state. The Spanish planter class still ruled the land. The black people gained their freedom in the late 19th century.

In the 1960s this country was ruled by a tyrant named Alejandro Turjillo. He was violently anti-communist and therefore had a good relationship with the United States.

The Dominican Republic has often had a vexed relationship with Haiti. There has been violence between people of the two nationalities sometimes.

Most people are Christians.

The flag of this country is blue and red.

The people of this country are mostly black. Some are Hispanic. Many people are mixed race. A few are white.

Tourism is a major part of the economy. The country is not very safe. Tourists often go around with armed guards.

There is beautiful plant life and there are many fabulous beaches.


  1. Which island is this country on/
  2. What sea surrounds the isle?
  3. This nation has a land border with which other nation?
  4. What is the official language?
  5. What is the main religion?
  6. What race are most Dominicans?
  7. How did so many black people come to live here?
  8. Would you like to visit this country? Five marks.
  9. Who ruled this country in the 1960s?




Ethiopia is a country in Africa. This nation is in the east of the continent in a region called the Horn of Africa. This country has several neighbours – Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Kenya and Somalia.

This is the most mountainous country in Africa. It has many abysses hence the former name Abyssinia. The climate is hot. However, in the mountains it can be cool.

The Queen of Sheba ruled this land in Biblical times. She wed King Solomon. Jews came to Ethiopia millennia ago. They are Falasha Jews.

Christianity came to this nation in ancient times. Most Ethiopians are Christians. They are Coptic Christians. Their form of Christianity is the same as in Egypt. Copt and Egypt are etymologically linked. Egypt was called ”Gpt” by some. The Coptic Christians observe Jewish dietary laws. They refrain from pork. In church they speak a language called Ge’ez – men and women sit on opposite sides of the aisle. They all wear white prayer shawls and their day of worship is Saturday.

When Islam started the Muslims were persecuted in Arabia. Some of them sought refuge in Abyssinia. The King of Abyssinia gave them shelter. Islam spread to all the nearby countries. Muslims tried to conquer Abyssinia. But because of the mountains they could not.

In Medieval Europe people had heard of a Christian monarch in the Near East or Africa. They believed he was called Prester John.

Coffee is cultivated in this country. Because of the high altitude it grows very well. There is a town there named Kaffa. This may well be where the word coffee comes from.

The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic. The main ethnic group is the Amharas. There are several ethnic minorities with their own languages. Amharic has its own alphabet. It is the only written language in Africa to have its own alphabet.

The Amharas are Nilotic and not Bantu. So is their language.

Ethiopia fought her neighbours a lot. She conquered some Somali land – the Ogaden.

In the 19th century the country came into contact with the British Empire. A British ambassador was sent to Addis Ababa (New Flower) which is the Ethiopian capital. The Emperor of Ethiopia was Twedros (Theodore). He had a row with the ambassador and had him imprisoned. The British sent an expedition to free the ambassador. It cost a fortune and was very difficult owing to the mountains.

The British defeated the Ethiopians and rescued their man. Tewdros fought to defend his palace. He committed suicide as the British and Indians entered the palace. The British then withdrew – they could have easily annexed the land.

In the 1890s Italy conquered Eritrea which was the coastal region of Ethiopia. The Italians then tried to conquer the rest of Ethiopia. In 1896 they were defeated at the Battle of Adoua. Italy lost the war. It was unprecedented for a European country to be defeated by an African one.

In 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia again. This time the Italians carried they day. They used poison gas. Italian occupation was brutal and there were many massacres.

In 1940 the Allies drove the Italians out of Abyssinia. The Emperor Haile Selassie was restored.

Selassie’s admirers in Jamaica founded a religion called Ras Tafari. This is after the man’s former title. Ras is like duke and Tafari is a city.

In the 1970s Marxist army officers overthrew Selassie. He was imprisoned and later slain. The new government tried to create a communist state. There were rebellions against them.

In the 1980s the country was ruled by a tyrant called Mengistu Haile Mariam. A horrific famine broke out. Concerts such as Live Aid were held to raise funds. A song called Feed the World do they know its Christmas time was sung. Many people were saved.

In the 1990s communism was overthrown. The country transitioned to democracy and capitalism.

This country has a cordial relationship with China. Many Chinese work there now.

The Ark of the Covenant is in Ethiopia. One monk guards it. Only he is allowed to see it.

The currency is the Birr.

The flag is red, yellow, green bars and a blue disc in the middle with a yellow symbol on it.


  1. Which continent is Ethiopia in?
  2. What is the former name of this nation?
  3. What is the landscape like?
  4. What is the climate like?
  5. What is the main religion of this country?
  6. What is the official language of Ethiopia?
  7. What is distinctive about Amharic?
  8. What is the main ethnic group of Ethiopia?
  9. What is the capital city?
  10. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  11. Which European country defeated this one in the 19th century?
  12. Which country lost the Battle of Adua?
  13. In which year did Italy successfully invade Abyssinia?
  14. Who was the Emperor of Ethiopia in the 1940s?
  15. Which religion worships Haile Selassie?
  16. What are Ethiopian Jews called?
  17. What is unusual about Ethiopian Christianity? Five marks.
  18. Who was the ruler of this country in the 1980s?
  19. What disaster struck the country in the 1980s?
  20. What holy artefact is in this country?
  21. Which Asian land does a lot of trade with this one?
  22. What is the currency?
  23. Name five neighbours of this country. Five marks.
  24. Would you like to visit this country? Five marks
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