Category Archives: Education

What has gone wrong with education especially in the UK and how to fix it.

tongue twisters and April Fool’s Day


April Fools’ Day

People celebrate April Fools’ Day on 1st April in the Western World. This means that people will try to trick people on this day in a funny way. People will tell friends and relatives an incredible lie to see if they believe it.

The April Fools’ Day jokes are about seeing if people are gullible – if they believe something which is obviously untrue. For example, people post on Facebook ”I am about to have an operation to get a third arm attached.” Some people will believe this ridiculous statement. There are other examples like saying ”the Queen of England has announced that she going to become a clown”, ”my dog has learnt to read” or ”the government has is banning the word ‘the’ starting from tomorrow ”,   ”did you know that you will live ten years longer if you only ever drink through your nose?”    People will pretend to suddenly totally change their attitude. A well known vegetarian  might say she is going to start eating meat three times a day. A person might pretend to have totally changed his political opinions. A man who hates the European Union will suddenly say ”I absolutely love the European Union.” If someone believes such a foolish claim then you will say ‘April Fools’ Day’ loudly.

Some media organisations played April Fools’ Day jokes on the public. In the 1950s the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) showed a news item about special trees that grew spaghetti. Many people believe that spaghetti grew on trees! In 2008 the Guardian newspaper published an article saying that French President Sarkozy used special technology to make him look 10 centimetres taller than he really was. Notice the technology did NOT make him taller – it only made him LOOK taller by bending the light around him. It was an incredible thing to publish. But many people did not notice that it was 1st of April.

On April Fools’ Day most news items will be real! However, some media organisations will put in one joke news story to see if their readers or viewers notice. The next day the newspaper or new channel will tell their readers and viewers what the false story was. Some people think it is irresponsible of television channels and newspapers to publish such false stories. The public look to the media for information and not disinformation. Perhaps jokes should be on comedy shows and not in serious newspapers or on news broadcasts. But others argue these bogus stories are useful. It reminds people of the proverb ‘do not believe everything that you read in the newspapers’. It makes readers become more analytical and skeptical.

I am starting to build a bridge to the moon today.

  1. When is April Fools’ Day?
  2. Give an example of an April Fools’ Day joke.
  3. What is unusual about newspapers and news broadcasts on April Fools’ Day?
  4. If someone believes your crazily false claim on 1st April what should you say to them?
  5. Do you believe the claim about someone starting to build a bridge to the moon?
  6. Make up an April Fools’ Day claim – it should be something ridiculous. People should not believe it. Remember you are trying to see if people will fall for it.



Wunwun was a race horse

Tutu was one too.

Wunwun won one race today.

Tutu won one too.

1 1 was a race horse 2 2 was 1 2 1 1 1 1 race 2 day 2 2 1 1 2.


She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore.
The shells she sells are sea-shells, I’m sure.
For if she sells sea-shells on the sea-shore
Then I’m sure she sells sea-shore shells.


Betty Botter bought a bit of butter.
The butter Betty Botter bought was a bit bitter
And made her batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter makes better batter.
So Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter
Making Betty Botter’s bitter batter better


Shep Schwab shopped at Scott’s Schnapps shop;
One shot of Scott’s Schnapps stopped Schwab’s watch.


A Proper Copper Coffee Pot.
The sixth sitting sheet-slitter slit six sheets.
Irish Wristwatch, Swiss Wristwatch.
Pad kid poured curd pulled cold.
Peggy Badcock.


Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. How many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?


Sequel ne’er equaled prequel.


Proper prior planning prevents pitifully poor performance.

Yally Bally had a jolly golliwog. Feeling folly, Yally Bally Bought his jolly golli’ a dollie made of holly! The golli’, feeling jolly, named the holly dollie, Polly. So Yally Bally’s jolly golli’s holly dollie Polly’s also jolly!


How much wood could Chuck Woods’ woodchuck chuck, if Chuck Woods’ woodchuck could and would chuck wood? If Chuck Woods’ woodchuck could and would chuck wood, how much wood could and would Chuck Woods’ woodchuck chuck? Chuck Woods’ woodchuck would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood as any woodchuck would, if a woodchuck could and would chuck wood.


Longest word in the English language:


Anti dis e stab lish ment ar i an ism.


flocc i nocc i ni hil pil if ic a tion


What is special about this sentence below?

The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy sleeping dog.






Felicity lesson 7. 20th century Western art=================================================


Felicity lesson 7. 20th century Western Art.

The very early 20th century was known as La Belle Epoche ( French for ‘the beautiful era’). There was progress in all areas of life. Impressionism was all the rage and had become mainstream.

Moving images came out in the 1890s. These were films. At first films were very grainy and there were hardly any cinemas existed. Gradually picture quality improved. By 1912 Hollywood, California was the centre of the film industry.

In 1914 the First World War broke out. It was the bloodiest conflict the West had ever known. Propaganda art was produced for the war. This was mostly based on much older styles.

The First World War had a profound effect on Western art. Impressionism was more or less killed by the war. Memorialism became the dominant theme for a while. War memorials, gravestones and tombs were erected. There were triumphal arches and cenotaphs built. There was grief and mourning in art.

Anti-memorialism was a reaction against the lugubrious and macabre nature of memorialism. Some people preferred to look forward and celebrate life. Anti-memorialists said that memorialism was militaristic and glorified war.

The regimentation of society during the war angered many. Many people became anti-establishment. They disliked army officers and traditional types. Those who were horrified by the war moved to new artistic styles.

Dadaism was an artistic movement of the 1920s. It was an absurdist movement. Dadaists did things liked make a telephone with a model of a lobster as the earpiece. They were ridiculing convention and everything that was old fashioned.

Surrealism grew out of Dadaism. ‘Surreal’ means not real – it is about fantasy. Dadaism had blown open the doors for art. Surrealism experimented with images that could not possibly be real. Dreamlike imagery was produced.

Salvador Dali was perhaps the renowned surrealist. Dali was Spanish but spent much of his life in France. Dali painted melting clocks and crazy scenes. His imagery was even frightening.

In 1927 The Jazz Singer came out. This was the first film with sound. Before that words appeared on the screen to represent dialogue. A pianist played whatever music he considered best for the film. Actors in silent films had to express even more with their faces because they could not say anything.

Abstract art became a major movement in the 20th century. Art usually represents something outside itself. A painting of a woman looks like her. A sculpture of a dog resembles a dog. A drawing of a forest glade looks like its subject – a forest glade. However, abstract art went against this. Paintings were painted that did not look like anything. These would be colours on canvas. This was a very radical idea. Drawings and sculptures were made that did not resemble anything else. Some people found this aesthetically pleasing and artful. Others complained that abstract art was craftless and pointless.

In the 1930s colour photographs were invented. Colour photos were very expensive. Moreover, the colours tended to be garish and the images were unclear. Most photographers preferred black and white until the 1950s.

There was an artistic movement in the 1920s and 1930s called Bauhaus. It started in Germany. It was about curves and simplicity. It rejected the grandeur and formalism of previous styles. In terms of painting and drawing it was about smooth and round imagery with warm colour. It was unthreatening and homely.

Totalitarian governments in Germany and the Soviet Union produced neo-classical art. It favoured gargantuan sizes and stylised imagery. This was true of architecture, sculpture and painting. It was a very macho style.

By the 1930s cinemas were all over the Western world. Cinema became the most crucial artistic medium. The first colour film was The Wizard of Oz which was released in 1939. It was a worldwide sensation.

After the Second World War pop art became widespread. This favoured cartoon like images. It was partly abstract but also expressionist. Images in pop art were recognisable as people, houses, plants or whatever but pop art did not try to make them at all realistic. It was sparse in its construction and unreal in its colour schemes.

Jackson Pollack was an American artist who threw paint at canvases. Was this art? Or just a mess. Modern forms of art were very unrealistic.

Some people are more traditional and prefer art that requires a gift for art and an effort to be made. They hold that art must look like something else.

In the 1950s most people in the Western world had televisions. Television became a very important artistic medium. People did not go to art galleries so much or read newspapers or books so much. Films were often shown on TV.

In the late 20th century the divide between high art and popular culture broke down. High art was intellectual, costly and exclusive. People ceased to paint on canvases much.

Installation art became popular in the late 20th century. Household items such as fridges, sofas and beds were displayed as art work. Some people thought that this was fascinating and artful. Others said that installation art was worthless and stupid.

In the late 20th century a group called Young British Artists (YBA) emerged in the UK. YBA were keen on installation art. Tracey Emin was a prominent member of YBA. Damien Hirst was another prominent YBA person. Hirst famously cut up a dead cow and displayed it as art. He won the very prestigious Turner Prize for this. Some commentators said that slicing up a cow was not art. What does it mean? A dead cow is not beautiful or thought provoking. Artists strove to be controversial. As they had to try to hard to get attention perhaps this means visual art is no longer so vital.

By the late 20th century cinema was the most important form of art. In the United States people say ‘movie’ whereas in the United Kingdom people say ‘film’. In the USA people go to a ‘move theater’ (note the spelling of ‘e’ before ‘r’ in the American spelling of theater). In the UK people go to a cinema to watch films. When talking about movies or films as an art form people tend to call it ‘cinema’. The art of film making is called ‘cinematography’.

There are art house films. These will be high brow (high intellectual level) and low budget. The plot will not be obvious and the actors are not famous. These demand a lot from audiences and are often strange.

Mass market films are produced by Hollywood. These have huge budgets and stars who are world famous. The story will be easy to follow and the visuals will be fantastic. These films are usually low brow.

The Oscars is the most famous cinema awards ceremony. It takes place each spring in Hollywood, USA. There are different categories such as best picture. By ‘picture’ they mean film/ movie. There is best male actor, best female actor, best male actor in a supporting role, best female actor in a supporting role , best score (music) , best foreign language film (i.e. not in English) and so forth.

Sculpture has declined as an art form. Likewise not many paintings are produced particularly not oil paintings. Very wealthy people sometimes have their portrait painted in oil paints.



  1. What was La Belle Epoche?
  2. What was memorialism?
  3. What was anti-memorialism?
  4. What is Dadaism?
  5. What is Surrealism?
  6. Who was Dali?
  7. What is abstract art?
  8. When did colour photographs come out?
  9. What is bauhaus?
  10. What styles did totalitarian governments favour?
  11. What is pop art?
  12. What did Jackson Pollack do?
  13. What is high art?
  14. What does YBA stand for?
  15. Who is Tracey Emin?
  16. What was Hirst’s famous piece of art?
  17. What prize did Hirst win?
  18. What is installation art?
  19. Is abstract art really art? Five marks.
  20. What is low brow?
  21. How do Americans spell ‘theatre’?



Felicity lesson 6. Western Art – the 18th and 19 century.=========================================


Western Art from the 18th and 19th century

In the 18th century Western Art was quite rigid. Artists still produced work based on classical themes and Christian themes. But it was rather conventional. There was a right way to do things and a wrong way to do things. Innovation and individuality was frowned upon. Painting was fairly realistic and mostly in oils. People painted on canvases that were sometimes very large – several metres wide and high. They would show several people looking at the artist. As there were no photographs they showed people as realistically as possible. Painting had to serve the function that photos do now – to record images.

Because of classical influence people were sometimes shown wearing togas as they would have in Ancient Rome. Architecture was still often neo-classical or baroque. Churches and courthouses were built to resemble temples in Ancient Rome.

Edinburgh, Scotland had its New Town built in the late 18th century. It conformed so much to neo-Classicism that people called it the ‘Athens of the North’. No one called Athens the Edinburgh of the South!

Fashion was also very contrived. The wealthy wore silk as much as possible. Men and women often wore white wigs. People who had plenty of hair still wore wigs! People usually want to look young. These days if someone has grey or white hair he or she might dye hair dark or blond to look young. In the 18th century even teenagers wore white wigs – this made them look older! Men and women wore makeup – whitening their faces. They sometimes put on rouge to give themselves very pink or red cheeks. They stuck on beauty spots – to make it appear that they had black moles on their cheeks. These forms of fashion were very artificial.

Men wore clothes in which they could ride because many of them rode horses. They wore breeches – trousers that came down to the knees. They wore knee high socks. Men as well as women wore high heels. Sometimes men wore riding boots.

In the late 18th century there was a counter cultural that appeared. This was the Romantic Movement. It rejected the prevailing artistic norms. The romantics believed that nature was good and people should be natural. They rejected the existing artistic conventions as false and unnatural. The Romantic Movement disliked the affectations of mainstream society.

The key paradigm is the garden. The conventional 18th century view is that a garden should be perfectly tidy with manicured lawn, well tended flowerbeds and trees all in the row and all planted at the same time. So the rows of trees would all be same the height. A garden should be symmetrical and uniform. It should be manmade and under control.  There would be landscape gardening with man made hills and ditches dug. It must be orderly. A romantic would take a totally different view of the ideal garden. The romantic idyll would be a wild garden – flowers would grow wherever. Bushes would be higgledy piggledy. The trees would not be in straight lines nor would they all be the same height. The garden would be disorderly and untamed. Romantics believed that nature should not be conquered. We should embrace our inner animal and delight in being wild.

The Romantic Movement felt the same about all forms of art. In painting, drawing, sculpture as well as written art forms they tried to be true to nature. They strove to show the world as it is – often disorderly. They showed all sorts of people – not just good looking ones. They painted the poor as well as the rich. They painted natural scenes – not just manmade ones of buildings and gardens. The romantics disliked the falsity and regimentation of the existing order.

In the late 18th century ladies often wore Roman dresses. These dresses had a very high waistline – up at the chest. They often wore their hair in Roman styles. Men stopped dressing in such an effeminate style. Wigs were cast aside unless you were bald.

In the early 19th century Western art embraced heroic themes. Much of Europe had been fighting in the Napoleonic Wars. The romantic movement declined in the 1820s.

In the 1850s an artistic movement emerged in the United Kingdom called the Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood or PRB. The PRB was a group of young men who looked back to artistic styles from before Raphael. Raphael was a famous 15th century Italian artist. The PRB wanted to rediscover medieval styles. They painted, drew, sculpted and made wallpaper. William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti were leading lights in the PRB. At the bottom of their paintings they would write the letters PRB. The rhapsodised about the Middle Ages. The PRB was a protest against industrialisation. Many factories and railways were being built. Cities were becoming noisy, polluted and crowded. The PRB felt that life was too fast and disagreeable. They harked back to the simplicity and loveliness of medieval purity. Their nostalgia was probably misplaced. The Middle Ages were horrid for most people who lived not far from starvation. Paintings became unrealistic and idealised. They often painted and drew medieval themes.

In the 1870s a new artistic movement started called Impressionism. The Impressionists were mainly French. They included Monet, Gaugin,  Pagnol, Toulouse-Lautrec and van Gogh. The Impressionists only sought to produce an ‘impression’ of what they were painting. They did not try to be lifelike. They would be imaginative in their uses of colour and light. They were very inventive and showed images as blurry. They avoided strict lines. The impressionists rejected classical themes and styles. They were modern and moved on. Some people felt that impressionists were talentless and dishonest.

Photographs were invented by the Daguerre brothers in the 1830s. Photos were originally called Daguerreotypes. As photos could record images accurately there was less need for paintings to do so.

Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch artist who was part of the Impressionist Movement. He was born in the Netherlands the son of a clergyman (religious leader). He was a misfit and his brothers had conventional careers. Vincent’s brother became an art dealer in Paris. Vincent moved to Arles in the South of France.

The splendid buildings of Arles did not appeal to van Gogh at all. He only depicted the natural world. He tried to make a living as a painter with little success. Impressionism was too radical and did not sell well. His movement was criticised for being false – in not showing things the way they really are. But van Gogh would only paint things he was looking at. He would never paint from memory or imagination. He shared a house with a French painter and they quarreled.

Much is known about Vincent van Gogh due to the weekly letters he sent to his brother in Paris. Vincent’s brother tried to sell his artwork for him. But impressionism was not fashionable and it was difficult to sell such paintings. A psychiatrist sent van Gogh to a mental hospital after the Dutchman cut off some of his ear and gave it to a woman. While in hospital van Gogh painted a picture called ‘Starry Night’ which is an image of the sky. It is counted as one of his finest works.

After van Gogh was released from hospital he moved to Paris. He was staying with a doctor who was treating him for mental illness. One day van Gogh walked out of the house to a field. He was shot in the stomach and found some time later. Van Gogh was treated but did not recover – he died. Did he shoot himself? Was it an accident or suicide? We will never know. Van Gogh died poor. Since his death he had become one of the most celebrated artists of all time.

In 1990 Van Gogh’s painting ‘The Sunflowers’ sold to a Japanese bank for USD 20 000 000.



  1. What was Western Art like in the early 18th century?
  2. What did rich men wear in the early 18th century?
  3. Early 18th century art looked back to which ancient civilisations?
  4. Why is Edinburgh called the Athens of the North?
  5. Why did many 18th century men dress ready to ride?
  6. What were the beliefs of the Romantic Movement?
  7. How did the Romantic Movement disagree with convention about gardens?
  8. What was the PRB?
  9. Name two PRB artists?
  10. Name three impressionists?
  11. What did impressionists believe?
  12. What nationality was van Gogh?
  13. How do we know so much about van Gogh?
  14.  Did Vincent van Gogh make lots of money?
  15. What did the Daguerre brothers invent?
  16. What job did van Gogh’s father do?
  17. Why was Vincent van Gogh’s brother useful to him?
  18. Why did a psychiatrist send Vincent to a mental hospital?
  19. Which painting did Vincent paint in hospital?
  20. How did Vincent die?
  21. Which is Vincent’s most illustrious painting?
  22. Which artistic movement do you like and why? Five marks.


Henry VI


Henry VI Comprehension

In 1421 Henry VI was born. His father was King Henry V of England. His mother was Catherine de Valois. The Valois family ruled France so Catherine de Valois’ father was King Charles VI of France.

France had been defeated by England in 1420. As part of the peace treaty Catherine de Valois had been given as a bride to Henry V. It was agreed that Charles VI could rule France as long as he lived. But when Charles VI died his kingdom would be ruled by Henry V. Henry V would be King of England and King of France. Charles VI was mentally ill. He was known as Charles the Mad. Charles VI believed he was made from a piece of glass. He had iron bars fitted to his clothes so if he fell over he would not shatter.

In 1422 Henry V died. Henry VI was proclaimed king at the age of nine months. As an infant he could not rule. A regency council was impaneled. His uncle the Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Gloucester were to rule in his stead.  The Duke of Gloucester was Lord Protector of the Realm. Bishop Beaufort was also part of the regency council.

Henry VI’s government effectually ruled most of France. He went to Paris and was crowned King of France at Notre Dame Cathedral. He is the only King of England to have been crowned in France as well. However, Henry VI had a French uncle called Charles VII. Charles VII controlled eastern France and did not accept that Henry VI was King of France.

Charles VII claimed to be the rightful King of France. His claim was based on several reasons. His father Charles VI had been king. The treaty said that Henry V would be king after Charles V but Henry V died first. Moreover, a mad man’s agreement does not count. Charles VII began to fight back against the English. He was aided by a 17 year old girl called Joan of Arc. This young woman claimed to have been divinely inspired. Astonishingly she was given command of the French Army. She lifted the Siege of Orleans. Joan of Arc was known as the Maid of Orleans. Joan of Arc was later captured by the Burgundians. Charles VII could have tried to rescue her but did not lift a finger to help her. He did like the military glory going to her.  She was later sold to the English. They put her on trial for heresy in Normandy. She defended herself impressively. She did not fall into any of the traps set by the questions. Nonetheless the kangaroo court found her guilty. She was burnt at the stake. An English soldier made a cross for her to hold as the flames were lit. As she died he cried ”we have burnt a saint.” Almost 500 years later she was canonized.

As Henry VI grew to maturity he exhibited some unusual traits. He was exceptionally religious even for a deeply religious epoch. His religiosity shaded into insanity. His Majesty was also extraordinarily erudite. The king loathed bloodshed and he was also a man of his word. He was too good to be great.

In the 1430s the English started losing the war in France. Castle after castle fell to Charles VII. He retook Paris. His symbol was the Cross of Lorraine. It has a vertical bar with two horizontal bars.

Burgundy is an area in eastern France. In those days it was considered almost a separate country. The Burgundians had been on the English side at first. However, in the late 1430s they switched sides. This was a death knell to English rule in France. Henry VI paid little attention to the conflict. He was fixated with faith and learning. He wrote a Latin prayer which is now sung at Eton College. He also composed a verse in English.

In 1440 Henry VI founded Eton College. It was to produce leaders for the church and the state. The king set it up only two miles from Windsor Castle. It was modeled on Winchester College. The college was for 70 poor scholars. However, boys from the very poorest classes were excluded. This was an era when only a small minority of boys went to school. Very few girls went to school. The king was given some splinters of wood from the true cross to grant to Eton. Pilgrims came to Eton to gain indulgences. That meant that the person could have his or her relatives released from Purgatory. The boys of Eton College had to pray for the repose of the souls of Henry VI’s parents. The king believed this would assure that they went to heaven. The school was a prayer factory. The school was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

In 1441 the king founded King’s College, Cambridge. King’s College is part of Cambridge University. It is perhaps the most magnificent of any Cambridge college. The idea was for boys from Eton to go on to King’s aged 14. It is notable that he was spending more time on educational policy and neglecting the war.

Henry VI married. He was not close to his wife. She came from a French aristocratic family.

In 1450 there was a large scale revolt led by Jack Cade. Cade’s Rebellion was put down only with great difficulty. Most of the army was in France. People were despondent due to years of foreign war and the heavy imposts required to fund the prosecution of the same.

In the 1450s Henry VI descended into insanity. Some surmised that His Majesty was afflicted by the same lunacy such as his maternal grandfather had suffered from. The king spent hours at prayer and refused to meet foreign dignitaries. Some historians speculated that he was not as spiritual as has been claimed. Saying ‘the king is at prayer’ was a convenient excuse to furnish to VIPs at the royal court when the king was so raving mad as to be unpresentable. He treated the birth of his only child, Edward of Westminster, with complete indifference.

In 1454 Henry VI recovered somewhat. He founded All Souls College, Oxford. This college was founded to commemorate all the souls of the people killed in the Hundred Years War. This was a series of wars between France and England. The college still exists and is for graduates only. It is the most eminent intellectual community in the Commonwealth.

In 1455 Henry VI faced a challenge to his kingship. This was the start of the Wars of the Roses. Henry VI was a descendant of Edward III. Edward III had five sons. The descendants of those five sons began fighting each other. The two sides in the Wars of the Roses were the Yorkists (White Roses) and Lancastrians (Red Roses).  Henry VI was a Lancastrian.

The attempt to oust Henry VI found him out of sorts. His mental incapacity weakened his side. He had totally inapposite reactions. At the First Battle of St Albans he rolled on the ground laughing hysterically. Nevertheless his side was able to hang onto the Throne – for a while.

In 1460 Henry VI was deposed. As he was not compos mentis he does not appear to have grasped the gravity of the situation. He responded phlegmatically.

In 1470 the Lancastrians gained the upper hand once more. Henry VI was restored. In 1471 he was overthrown again. He was detained in the Tower of London. This was a royal castle like many others and not simply a place of imprisonment. It has since become notorious for its dungeon and as a place of execution. Henry VI’s son Edward of Westminster was a teenager and proving himself to be a consummate military commander. The Lancastrians suffered a crushing reverse at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Edward of Westminster was slain. That being done it was decided to terminate Henry VI’s life. He was killed in his cell. The Yorkists announced that the monarch had died of a broken heart on learning of his only son’s demise. However, this is widely believed to be fallacious. On 12 May, his anniversary, Eton College and King’s College Cambridge lay a red rose at the sight of his murder. In the decades after the king’s death people gathered at his tomb. Miracles were attributed to his intercession. Some wanted him to be beatified.

  1. In which year was Henry VI born?
  2. Who was his father?
  3. Who was his mother?
  4. Who was his maternal grandfather?
  5. What malady did Charles VI suffer from?
  6. When did Henry VI become king?
  7. How old was he when he became king?
  8. He was King of England and which other country?
  9. Who was Henry VI’s French uncle?
  10. Which of Henry VI’s uncles ruled England for him?
  11. What was Henry VI’s attitude to religion?
  12. Which school did he found?
  13. Which college did he found at Cambridge University?
  14. At which battle did the king laugh and roll on the floor?
  15. How did he react to the birth of his son?
  16. What was the name of his son?
  17. What relic did Henry VI give to Eton?
  18. What was the Wars of the Roses?
  19. In which year was Henry VI overthrown for the first time?
  20. When was he restored?
  21. When was he ousted for the final time?
  22. In which year did he die?
  23.  How did he die?
  24. What is the date of his death?
  25. What were the major achievements of Henry VI’s reign? (five marks)
  26. What were Henry VI’s main failings? (five marks)
  27. What is meant by the description of this king ‘he was too good to be great.’? (five marks)
  28. What was the Wars of the Roses? (five marks)
  29. What is your overall assessment of Henry VI? (five marks)




communication lesson 14


communication lesson 14.


Football has existed many centuries. However, football was often very different in past times. There were many different types of football in each region. In some places people were allowed to pick up the ball. In other regions this was forbidden. In some areas shin hacking was allowed and in other places this was prohibited. Shin hacking was kicking the shins. In some areas there were 10 players on each time and in other areas it was 20 players a side. Some villages said there was no limit to the number of players. Some places had lines drawn on a field to mark the area of play. In other regions there were no lines marking the pitch.
When people from one region traveled to another region to play football they often found that they were playing by different rules to their opponents. Because railways had been built people could travel further and faster than before.
In 1863 the Football Association was founded in England. This organisation is known as the FA. The FA got together football players from around the country. They discussed the various versions of the rules of football. That year the FA published the rules of football. The FA considered these the best rules. This marks the start of football as a properly organised sport.
Workers had Saturday afternoon off work from that time. Workers began to play football in their free time. The famous teams often grew out of teams made up of men who worked in a particular place. Manchester City Football Club was for railway workers. Arsenal F C was for those who worked at the Royal Arsenal making guns for the army. That is why there is a cannon on the symbol of Arsenal. Arsenal are known as ”the Gooners” – as in ”Gunners”. Football became very popular. People came to watch. Soon football clubs put up fences and would only allow people in to watch if they paid. Football clubs became rich organisations. At first only railway workers were allowed to play for Manchester City. Then the club changed the rule and allowed anyone to play. They just wanted excellent players. Likewise Arsenal at first only selected players from among men who worked at that factory. They abolished that rule and they searched for talented players from wherever.
The players began to take their sports more seriously. It was no longer just for fun. It was competitive. They would play a match on Saturday but they would train a few times a week. They began to work less on their ordinary job. The club paid them to train and play. Football became a professional sport.
Football spread around the world. The first international match ever was between Scotland and England in 1870.
Soon many countries were playing football. International matches became more common after 1900. Improving transport made it possible for teams to travel the world.
More newspapers were being printed. Improved transport allowed these newspapers to be taken around the country. Exciting accounts of football matches enthused many people. Newspapers began to print photos of the matches. Football became so popular that clubs could not just let people stand by the pitch to watch. They started to build stadiums so more people could watch the game. Companies began to sponsor clubs and pay for advertising in clubs.
In the 1920s radio broadcasts began. They often broadcast live commentary on the match. In the 1930s television broadcasts began and football matches were shown on television. At first televisions were extremely expensive and only a few people had tellies.
In 1930 the first football world cup was held. England refused to participate. They thought it would distract from club matches and club football was more important than international football.
The 1930 World Cup was held in Uruguay. The host nation won.
In 1934 the World Cup was held in Italy. Italy was ruled by a fascist dictator called Mussolini. Mussolini said Italians were superior. He had to make sure his people won. He bribed the referees. Italy won 2-1 against Czechoslovakia in the final. Italy was a formidable football nation. Even without cheating they would have done well but probably not won.
The 1938 World Cup was held in France. Italy beat Hungary in the final 4.2.
1. When was the FA founded?
2. What does the FA stand for?
3. Which two countries played in the first international football match?
4. What is an arsenal?
5. Who was originally allowed to play for Manchester City?
6. Which country hosted the 1934 World Cup?
7. Why did England not take party in the 1930 World Cup?
8. Who won the 1930 World Cup?
9. What was the result in the 1938 World Cup Final?
10. DO YOU like football? Explain you answer. (6)




There are many tenses in English. That last sentence was in present simple.

I am writing this. That last sentence was in present continuous as it used the ‘ing’ form for the verb.

I wrote a sentence in past simple. This sentence is in present simple but the one before is in past simple.

I have been to China. That previous sentence is present simple. I had been to India before I went to China. That sentence mentioning ‘India’ was in past perfect tense.

I will go to Brazil soon. That was in future simple.

I will be going to Brazil in July. That is future continuous.

I was traveling around Thailand in 2001. That sentence is past continuous.

I had had a good time there. That is past perfect tense.

Now write one sentence in each of these tenses: present simple, present continuous, present perfect, past perfect, future simple and future continuous.



There are several parts of speech in English.

A noun is a part of speech. A noun is a person, place or thing. Nouns are subdivided into proper nouns, common nouns and abstract nouns.

Felicity is a noun because ‘Felicity’ is a person – so is ‘George’, so is ‘Mildred’ and so is ‘Suzy’. The name of any person is a noun. These are proper nouns because each person is unique. A proper noun begins with a capital letter even if it is not at the beginning of a sentence.

China is a noun since it is a place. This is a proper noun because it is an exact place. Likewise Shanghai, San Francisco and Paris are proper nouns. A proper noun is the name of any city, street, country, organization, the title of a book, the title of a film etc… A proper noun must be exact. ‘The street’ is not a proper noun since it is not exact. ‘Oak Street’ is a proper noun since it is a precise place. ‘My country’ is not a proper noun since there are many countries. ‘Spain’ is a proper noun because there is only one Spain.

A common noun is any object – table, pencil, leg, frog, the sky etc….

An abstract noun is a noun that cannot be touched. These are things like ‘happiness, sleep, idea, goodness, truth, lies, future, wellness, hope and fear’. These things exist and can be experienced but they cannot be touched. They often exist in the mind. That is what abstract means – something which is not tangible.



Verbs are doing words. They all have an infinitive which is the core form of the verb. Some examples of infinitives are: to go, to come, to be, to have, to eat and to think. The infinitive is usually prefaced with the word ‘to’.

We used to say a ditty: Verbs, verbs – doing words!

Verbs do not have to be physical. Some non-physical actions are ‘to decide, to feel, to realise, to think, to be and to analyse’.


These replace nouns. Rather than say ‘Felicity’ I could say ‘she’ or ‘her’ depending on the context. The other pronouns are ‘he, him, it, that, these, those, we, us, they and them’.

There are possessive pronouns which show possession. Possession is about ownership or belonging. The possessive pronouns are ‘my, mine, ours, theirs, his, hers and its.’



A conjunction joins words together. The word ‘junction’ is about ‘joining.’ Remember a ‘junction’ is a railway station where two or more lines cross. Do you see the similarity between junction and conjunction? It is about connecting or joining.  Here are examples: ‘and, but, however, rather, moreover, therefore, because, furthermore, so’ etc….

These words connect others which is why the other name for conjunctions is ‘connectives’. Conjunctions and connectives are exactly the same thing. These are two different words for the same thing.


This word is pronounced ‘PREP o zish unz’ . However, it is easier to understand if you say it is ‘PRE poz ish unz.’. This is because prepositions are about the POSITION of words. Prepositions are words of position or direction. Here are examples: ‘up, down, in, out, above, below, beside, within, without, behind, beneath, away, far, under, over, along, around, by, with, to, from and many more.



  1. Define a noun. Then give ten examples – these can a mixture be from any of the noun classes i.e. proper nouns, common nouns and abstract nouns.
  2. Define a proper noun. Then give ten examples
  3. Define a common noun.
  4. Define an abstract noun.
  5. Define a conjunction. Give five examples.
  6.  Define a preposition. Give five examples.
  7.  Define a verb. Give ten examples.










Westminster School===========================================



Westminster School is in the centre of London. This area of London is called ‘Westminster’ because it is beside Westminster Abbey. St Paul’s Cathedral is the main cathedral in London. St Paul’s is 10 km to the east of Westminster. Then a new cathedral (‘minster) was built in the 11th century. It was to the west of St Paul’s. This new cathedral became known as Westminster. Originally London and Westminster were separate cities. In Mediaeval Christendom every city had a cathedral. A city could not have two cathedrals. A very large town was a town and not a city if it did not have a cathedral.

In the 1530s Henry VIII closed down many schools. This was part of his Dissolution of the Monasteries. Religious houses were suppressed. These were places that monks and nuns lived. They provided education. Henry VIII said that the monks and nuns were continuing the old form of Christianity – Roman Catholicism. Henry VIII had set up the Church of England. This form of Christianity was called Anglicanism as in it was founded in England (Anglia).

In 1558 Elizabeth I became queen. She decided to fill the educational gap created by his most illustrious father. She set up many schools. One of these is Westminster School. It is right beside Westminster Abbey. This is the royal church. Coronations take place there. Kings and queens are laid to rest there. Royal weddings have taken place there. The tomb of the Unknown Soldier is there. There is poets’ corner in which poets are memorialized. The throne there is St Edward’s Throne – as in it was sat upon by Edward the Confessor. Some have called it a national Valhalla. It is inspiring indeed for a young historian. Westminster scholar are allowed to take part in the coronation.

Westminster Abbey is one of the most historic places of worship in the realm. Edward the Confessor built it in the 1050s. The coat of Arms of the Saxon kings is etched into its stone. There were Benedictine monks there. The large community of monks was called an abbey. The head monk had the title of abbot. The abbey was closed in the 1530s and the monks were sent away. Despite that the word ‘abbey ‘ still applies to the cathedral there.

Those who win scholarships to Westminster care called Queen’s Scholars. This is because of Elizabeth I. There are also pupils who pay fees. At first the school was for boys only.

The curriculum was originally about Latin and Ancient Greek. There was some history and divinity. These were taught through Latin. Over time other subjects assumed greater importance such as Maths, the sciences, modern languages, art, technology and drama.

Many boys from the school went on to the two great English universities. This was a school for well to do professionals. It was unusual for the sons of the gentry to attend this school but some did.

Old boys of the school are called Old Westminsters. Many most distinguisher personages have attended this estimable school. Among them are Sir Christopher Wren, Kim Philby, St John Philby, Samuel Pepys, Cowper, Nick Clegg and Chris Huhne.

The school is very close to Parliament. Therefore there is a strong political connection.

For the past few decades girls have been able to attend the school in sixth form. There is a prep school called Westminster Under School.


  1. Which city is Westminster School in?
  2.  How did the City of Westminster get its name?
  3. What is an abbey?
  4. Is this school well regarded?
  5.  Do any of the pupils go to university?
  6.  Are there girls at the school?
  7. What is the name of the prep school?
  8.  Is the school near Parliament?
  9.  Name three famous pupils?
  10. Who founded the school?

Winchester College=============================



Winchester College is one of the most renowned schools in the Commonwealth. This school is located in the City of Winchester which is in the United Kingdom. Winchester is in the County of Hampshire. Hampshire is on the southern coast of England. It is a very historic city. In the 9th century it was the capital. The royal treasury was held there for centuries afterwards.

Winchester College is for boys aged 13-18. The word ‘college’ can mean a secondary school in the UK.

William of Wykeham (pronounced WIK um) was a bishop in 14th century England. He was known as ‘of Wykeham’ because he came from the town of Wycombe (pronounced ‘WIK um’). A bishop is a high Christian religious leader. Well-educated people were almost all clergy (religious leaders) in those days.

Richard II was the king at the time. He decided to found a new school. He gave a charter to the school set up by William of Wykeham. The college was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The motto is ‘manners maketh the man.’ This is ‘manners make the man’ in modern English. Richard II founded New College, Oxford. Boys from Winchester would finish the school and go on to New College, Oxford to complete their education. Those who attended Winchester were called Wykehamists because of the founder.

There is a large chapel in Winchester College. This is because the purpose of the school was partly religious. The school mainly taught Latin and Ancient Greek. It was founded for poor scholars. However, soon wealthy boys were allowed to attend but had to pay fees. In time other subjects gained more importance such as Modern Languages, Science and Mathematics.

This school developed its own form of football. It was known as Winchester College Football. People call it Win Co Fu. Cricket and mainstream sports are popular there.

By the 18th century it was a very distinguished school. However, it did not have as much cachet at Eton and Harrow. Aristocratic families tended to have their sons at one of the duopoly or Westminster School. Moreover, Winchester was too far from London.

Only one Prime Minister attended Winchester. He was Joseph Addington. He was the son of a doctor. Physicians were not considered upper class back then. They had to touch patients and do unhygienic things. Addington went on to Brasenose College, Oxford. From there he was called to the bar. Addington was mocked for his father’s profession.  He was eclipsed by Pitt the Younger who was a far more celebrated Prime Minister. There was some doggerel about him ‘Pitt is to Addington / As London is to Paddington.’

In the 19th century the college became known for producing senior civil servants by the dozen. Solicitors, accountants and solid but unimaginative people were said to attend Winchester.  New College, Oxford started taking non-Wykehamists in the 1860s. Now there is not much of a connection between New and Winchester.

In the early 20th century some leading socialist intellectuals emerged from Winchester College. Among these were Tony Crosland and Stafford Cripps. They were Labour Party politicians.

John Betjeman wrote a ditty about Wykehamists ‘Broad of church and broad of mind/ Broad before and broad behind’.

Sir Oswald Moseley attended the college. He served with enormous heroism in the First World War. He was elected to Parliament aged 22.  He then founded the British Union of Fascists. Moseley was imprisoned during the Second World War. Moseley was a hate figure for many. The college would prefer to forget that he ever attended.

In recent years the college has been short on star names. Geoffrey Howe was there. He was Deputy Prime Minister under Thatcher. There is one Hollywood actor who attended and that is your lot.

The school is exceedingly academic. It is not thought to be fabulous at sports or theatre. There are some Chinese pupils. This is a boys only school. Most pupils are boarders.


  1. Which country is Winchester in?
  2. Which county is Winchester in?
  3. When was Winchester the capital?
  4. Why was it important after the capital shifted to London?
  5. What is a bishop?
  6. Which bishop founded Winchester?
  7. Which king granted a charter to the college?
  8. What is Win Co Fu?
  9. In which century was the college founded?
  10.  Are there boys at the school?
  11. What other subjects are studied there?
  12. Which Oxford college was connected to Winchester?
  13. Which prime minister went to Winchester?
  14. Name two Labour MPs who went there?
  15. Which fascist went there?
  16. Which deputy prime minister went there?
  17. How do you pronounced Wykeham?
  18. What is the motto of Winchester?
  19. Are there day pupils?
  20. Are there any Chinese there?’
  21. What is your opinion of this college?