Category Archives: Education

What has gone wrong with education especially in the UK and how to fix it.

Armenia

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ARMENIA

Armenia is a country which can be regarded as part of Europe or part of Asia. This country is in the Caucasus Mountains. Her neighbours are Georgia, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran.

The climate of Armenia is cold in winter and mild in summer. This country has no coastline so the climate does not vary hugely. The country is mountainous. The land is fairly fertile and very well watered.

The Armenian language is almost unique. It has its own alphabet. The letters often looks like letter ”U”.

The Christian faith came to Armenia very early. This is the first officially Christian country in the world. It is now secular. The Armenian church is autocephalous.

In the Dark Ages Armenia was much larger. At one point this nation ruled land from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. At other times the Armenians ruled much of what is now Azerbaijan.

Various empires have conquered this land such as the Byzantine Greeks. The Turks attacked this land too in the 10th century AD.

Armenia does not have natural resources to speak of. Armenians moved around the world as merchants. They traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire and beyond. They settled in Romania, India and as far afield as Singapore.

The Armenians were surrounded by Muslim Empires. The Ottoman Empire was Muslim as was Iran. The Iranians conquered Georgia which was a nearby Christian land. Armenia’s only star of hope was Russia. Armenia formed an alliance with Russia.

Armenia became part and parcel of the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Russians moved to the country. Many Armenians learnt Russian. The Russians built the railways and factories. The Armenians and Russians usually got along very well. Socialist nostra were disseminated in Armenia. Some Armenians joined radical groups such as the Bolsheviks. One Armenian Bolshevik was Stepan Shaumpanian. He organized revolutionary activity in Azerbaijan.

There was an Armenian area of the Ottoman Empire. In the 1890s many Armenian civilians were killed by some Turkish people. In 1915 the Armenian Genocide took place. Some Turkish soldiers killed hundreds of thousands of Armenian civilians. They were killed directly by being shot and indirectly by being forced marched for hundreds of miles without food. Many Turks were innocent and some courageously saved the lives of Armenians.

Socialist nostra spread in Armenia prior to the Great War. In 1917 the Bolshevik Revolution took place in St Petersburg. A new communist government was proclaimed. Lenin became the Russian leader. V I Lenin proclaimed that non-Russian countries of the empire were allowed to become independent. Armenia became independent.

There was a significant Armenian minority in Azerbaijan. There was fighting between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. Many Azerbaijani civilians were slain.

Two years later V I Lenin had a change of heart. He decided that he wanted Armenia to be a communist state and to be united with Russia. Lenin was in touch with the Turkish Government. Turkey and Russia had been at daggers drawn for centuries. Turkey and Russia hatched a plot. They invaded Armenian simultaneously. Armenia was bested. She was forced to be the Armenian Socialist Soviet Republic. In 1922 Armenia became part of the newly formed Soviet Union. Armenia was briefly united with Georgia and Azerbaijan in the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic.

In the 1930s collectivization came to Armenia. Farms were taken off peasants. Communist ideology was rammed down people’s throats. Those who were suspected of wanting independence were arrested by the secret police. They were interrogated under torture and sent to slave labour camps in Siberia. Many people were executed. There was a lively terror.

In 1941 the Great Patriotic War broke out. Armenians were conscripted into the Red Army. Many served with distinction.

After the Second World War more people from other republics moved to Armenia. By this time almost all Armenians were fluent in Russian which was the prestige language.

In the 1960s Anastas Mikoyan, an Armenian, became the Soviet head of state.

In the late 1980s the Soviet Government freed political prisoners. Freedom of speech was allowed. People campaigned for independence. There was fighting between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.

In 1991 Armenia became independent. Nagorno Karabakh was an Armenian region which Stalin gave to Azerbaijan. Armenia liberated this area. But in doing so the Armenian Army killed thousands of Azerbaijani civilians particularly at Khojali.

The war came to a close in 1994. But it is still a frozen conflict. There is sniping across the ceasefire line. Armenian controls 20% of Azerbaijan. Armenia is heavily reliant on Russian arms sales.

Many Armenians work abroad such as in Russia and Turkey. There are large Armenian expatriate communities in the USA, France, the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Lebanon and Syria. Some of them are the tennis player Andre Aggasi, Cher and Dr Kevorkian. France recognized the Armenian Genocide for what it was. President Sarkozy was hailed as a hero in Armenia.

Surnames from Armenia end in ”ian”.

Brandy from Armenia is famous and highly prized.

The capital city is Yerevan.

The currency is the Dram.

Armenian Airlines in the national carrier.

Armenian is the official language.

This is not a rich country at all.

The Flag of Armenia is orange, blue and red horizontal bars.

Serzh Sargasyan was the president until 2018. He retired. He shoehorned his protégé into office. This man was forced out by huge protests.

 

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  1. Which two continents can this country be regarded as belonging to? Two marks.
  2. Is this a country with a littoral?
  3. What is the capital of this land?
  4. What is its currency?
  5. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  6. What is the official language?
  7.  Does it use the Latin language?
  8. What is special about the coming of Christianity to Armenia?
  9. Is the Armenian Church part of a wider church?
  10. Which country did Armenia fight in the 1990s?
  11. Was Armenia part of the USSR?
  12. Why did Armenia have an alliance with Russia in the 18th century?
  13. Which Armenian was the Soviet head of state?
  14. What was the Armenian Genocide? Five marks.
  15. Name three famous émigré Armenians. Three marks.
  16. What distinguishes Armenian surnames?
  17. Name five countries with significant Armenian communities?
  18. Is this a rich land?
  19. Name the neighbours of Armenia. Four marks.
  20.  What is the climate like?
  21. What is the landscape like?

22. Why do many Armenians speak Russian?

23. Which country attacked Armenia in 1920 along with Russia?

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Bangladesh

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BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is a country in Asia. It is located in a region called South Asia. It can be regraded as part of the Indian Subcontinent. This country has India and Myanmar as neighbours. Bangladesh has a very hot climate. It is beside the sea – the Bay of Bengal. The River Brahmaputra flows through here.

There are cyclones here every few years.  A cyclone is a storm with extremely heavy rain. These wreak terrible destruction. This is one the flattest countries in the world so the inundation goes everywhere. Roads are build up very high to keep them above the water.

Most people here are farmers. In this land rice is the staff of life.

The people of this country speak Bengali. It is written in Devanagari script. The people of this country were Hindu from about 2000 BC. Then in the 8th century AD Islam came here. Most people converted to the Islamic faith.

Bangladesh formed part of various Indian empires. Moreover, Bangladesh was part of Bengal. The western section of Bengal had a Hindu majority.

In the early 17th century Britishers arrived in Bengal. They traded at first but soon bought land. British control grew stronger and spread over more land. A Briton named Job Charnock founded the city of Calcutta (Kolkata) in the 1700s.

There were various clashes between Britons and local rulers. Some Bengalis took the side of the British. At the Battle of Plassey in 1757 the British mastery of Bengal was established.

British education spread in this area. A few Bengalis learnt English. Occidental scientific discoveries came here.  Britishers brought modern technology and medicine. They helped in famine relief. Law and order were established. Barbaric usages such as sati (widow burning) were prohibited. Peace was kept between men of all faiths.

Sir William Jones was a British savant. He came to this land and studied legal codexes in Sanskrit and Arabic. He precised the laws of Hinduism and Islam.

In 1885 Indian National Congress was founded. The British authorities approved of this. They wanted to be kept advised of Indian public opinion.  India included Bangladesh. No Bengali doubted that he was also an Indian. India had a Hindu majority.

A Muslim section of Congress was founded. It was called the Muslim League. The Muslim League asked for east Bengal – the Muslim area – to be a separate province.

In 1900 the British considered dividing Bengal. They acceded to the Mohammedan request. East Bengal was severed. Hindus vigorously protested against this as the vivisection of the nation. The protests were so vehement that the Britishers reversed their decision. This upset the Muslims.

The Muslim League left Congress and became a separate movement.

In the 1930s Congress protested more aggressively for independence. Some extremists – not Congress – tried to kill British officials. The Muslim League did not cause trouble for the British Raj. Congress was outlawed 1930-32. Its leaders were gaoled.

The leader of the Muslim League was Mohammed ALi Jinnah. He was from Karachi. The Muslim was not as popular in Bengal as in the western part of India.

The idea of a separate Muslim homeland gained traction. A name was proposed – Pakistan. In Urdu this is land of the pure. Urdu is a blend of Hindi and Persian. Urdu is the language of north-west India. It was hardly spoken in Bangladesh. Pakistan also stood for P – Punjabis, A – Afghans, K – Kashmiris …. It did not allude to Bengal. There were more Muslims in Bengal than in the west of India.

In 1940 Jinnah made his Lahore Declaration. He wanted his Muslim state. He did not mention the name of it.

In 1941 the Japanese declared war on the British Empire. They conquered Myanmar. They attacked India.

In the early 1940s there was a horrendous famine in Bengal. 3 000 000 people died. Boats and bridges had been destroyed because it was believed that the Japanese would soon conquer the land. This was a bid to forestall the Nipponese advance.

In 1945 the war was over. The British promised independence forthwith. The writing was on the wall for the Raj. The Britishers agreed to Pakistan being created. The Congress Party reluctantly voted for the Partition of India.

Sir Cyril Radcliffe drew the map of India and Pakistan. On 14 August 1947 Pakistan became independent. Bangladesh was East Pakistan back then.

Pakistan had her capital at Karachi in West Pakistan. The people of East Pakistan felt they did not get a fair crack of the whip. The official language was Urdu despite Bengali being spoken by more people. Bengal had the majority of the population. Yet most leaders came from West Pakistan. In the 1960s there was a military dictatorship. The government was dominated by Punjabi army officers. Some of them were openly racist to the Bengalis.

East Pakistan demanded more representation. A cyclone devastated East Pakistan. This was met with indifference in West Pakistan. In East Pakistan a political party was founded called the Awami League. It was led by Sheikh Mujibur. He called for autonomy for East Pakistan. West Pakistan found this unacceptable.

In the 1971 an election was won by the Awami League. They won almost every seat in East Pakistan. They did not stand in West Pakistan. The West Pakistani parties did not seek election in the east.

A revolt broke out. Mujibur was imprisoned. India trained Mukhti Bahini. They were insurgents. The Pakistani Army was almost entirely from West Pakistan. They slew many civilians in East Pakistan. Many civilians fled to India.

In 1971 India  declared war on Pakistan. Indian helped the Mukhti Bahini and defeated Pakistan in three weeks. The USA threatened India. But India did not back down.

Bangladesh became independent. The Indians withdrew.

Bangladesh’s Flag has a green background and a red disc on it.

The Taka is the currency.

Dacca is the capital city. It is very crowded.

Biman is the national airline.

Bengali and English are official languages.

Islam is the state religion. About 10 % of people are Hindu.

Bangladesh is not rich at all.

 

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  1. Which continent is Bangladesh in?
  2. What is the capital city?
  3. What is the official religion?
  4.  What are the two languages?
  5. What is the airline of the country?
  6.  Draw the flag. Two marks.
  7. Which country was this one part of until 1971?
  8. Which country was Bangladesh part of until 1947?
  9.  Which province of India was Bangladesh once part of?
  10. What religion did most Bengalis believe before Islam?
  11. Which sea is Bangladesh beside?
  12.  Describe the landscape.
  13. Name the neighbours of Bangladesh. Two marks.
  14. Which political party founded Pakistan?
  15. What is a cyclone? Three marks.
  16. What is the climate of Bangladesh?
  17. Is this a rich land?
  18. Who were the Mukhti Bahini?
  19.  What famous battle was fought in 1757?
  20. Why did Bangladesh leave Pakistan? Five marks.

Bosnia-Herzegovina.

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BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

Bosnia-Herzegovina is a country in Europe. It is called Bosnia for short. This country borders Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia and Kosovo. The winters are cold and the summers are mild. Much of the land is pine forest.

The people of this country are called Bosnians. This nation is in south-east Europe in a region called the Balkans. This country is in the Balkan Mountains. The land is very hilly.

Bosnia is largely hilly or mountainous. It is fertile but not very suitable for arable farming. The winters are cold and the summers are warm.

This country has been part of several empires. The Romans were here. So were the Ottomans and the Austro-Hungarians.

The people of that land were almost all Christians. The Ottomans came and some of them settled. The Ottomans were Muslim. Some Christians converted to Islam.

The country is made up of Bosniaks who are Muslims. They are a plurality of the country. Then there are Orthodox Christians who mostly identify as Serbs. Then there are Catholics who mostly see themselves as Croats. Serbian and Croatian are almost the same language except the former is written in Cyrillic and the latter in Latin letters. Bosnian is very similar to the other two languages and is written in Latin letters. There are small ethnic groups like Slovaks, Germans, Italians, Jews, Macedonians and Hungarians in this country.

In 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. The organization that killed him was Mlada Bosnia – Young Bosnia. Its aim was a united and independent Bosnia in alliance with Serbia. It tried to appeal to Bosnians of all ethnicities and faiths.

After the First World War a Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and SLovenes was formed. It included Bosnia. It later renamed itself Yugoslavia. It was Serb dominated. The King of Serbia became King of Yugoslavia.

In the Second World War this country was occupied by the Axis. The Serbs were treated barbarously. Some Croats and Bosniaks helped the Axis. Others fought in the partisans against the Axis forces.

After the Second World War those who had assisted the Axis were severely penalized. Yugoslavia was recreated. The country became a socialist republic. It was ruled by Tito. He died in 1980.

In 1984 Sarajevo hosted the winter Olympics.

In 1990 some republics seceded from Yugoslavia. Bosnia was one of these. The country was divided into three major ethnic groups. Many Serbs wanted the country remain part of Yugoslavia. The Croats and Muslims helped each other.

Sarajevo was under siege for over a year. Many civilians were slain. The United Nations intervened.

At Srebrenica the Serbian forces killed several thousand Muslim civilians.

In 1995 the war came to an end with the Dayton Accords. Lord Owen and Cyrus Vance brokered the deal. The Muslims and Croats shared most of the time. The east of the country was Republika Srpska.

Bosnia gradually recovered from the conflict. Many people emigrated.

The flag of the country has a blue field. There is a yellow triangle on it and several stars

The currency is the convertible mark.

Sarajevo is the capital city. It means ”palace” in Turkish.

The European Rapid Reaction Force is there.

The word Herzegovina is derived from the word for ‘duke’.

This country is the bottom of the rich country group.

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  1. Which continent is this country in?
  2. What is the climate like?
  3. Name the neighbours of this land. Five marks.
  4. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  5. What is the name of the capital?
  6. What is the currency?
  7. What are the two main faiths?
  8. What are the three main ethnic groups? Three marks.
  9. Name three empires this country was part of?
  10. Which country was this land part of from 1918 to 1990?
  11. Who was slain in Sarajevo in 1914?
  12. What is the landscape like?
  13. Is this a rich land?
  14. Which agreement ended the conflict in 1995?
  15. Who ruled Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1980?

 

Canada

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CANADA

Canada is a country on the American Continent. This country is in the subcontinent called North America. This nation has but one neighbour – the United States.

The climate of this country is exceptionally gelid in the winter and very warm in the summer. This is the second largest country in the world in terms of area. Therefore there is huge regional variation in climate. The country has much territory north of the Arctic Circle.

The Atlantic Ocean is to the east of Canada and the Pacific Ocean is to the west. Canada has a very long coastline. Hundreds of islands pertain to Canada.

The original inhabitants of this country are called First Nations people. They are divided into hundreds of nations each with its own language.

Vikings landed in this country over 1 000 years ago. They named it Vinland because of its vines. The Vikings did not last many years in Canada.

Europeans started permanent settlements here in the 16th century. French and British people set up villages in Canada. One of these Europeans asked a First Nations person where this place was. The man replied in his local language ‘Canada’ which meant  ‘the village.’

The French ruled eastern Canada until the 1760s. The British had Thirteen Colonies on the east coast of America. The Seven Years War was fought at that time. The British Army under General James Wolfe stormed the Heights of Abraham – this was near the City of Quebec. The British won the battle. They then seized Quebec – this was the French ruled area of Canada. At the end of the war France ceded the land to the United Kingdom. However, the British agreed that the French-Canadians could keep their language and they would not be discriminated against for being Catholics.

British immigrants started to move to Canada. Canada expanded to the west. The American Revolution came in 1776. Canadians fought on the British side. American revolutionaries invaded Canada without success. When the revolution was over some American loyalists fled to Canada.

In the 1860s Canada became internally self-governing. Canada is divided into provinces. The nation had to choose a capital. Toronto was and is the largest city. It is in Ontario – an anglophone province. Some favoured Montreal which is in francophone Quebec. Instead a new capital was built at Ottawa in between the two cities.

The First Nations people were made citizens. They started to learn one of the two official languages of Canada – French and English.

Canada turned itself into a democracy. The country experimented with banning alcohol.

In the First World War Canadian people served in the army. They fought in Western Europe. Canada received huge numbers of European immigrants after the war. People from other land such as India and Japan moved to Canada.

In the 1920s the United States outlawed alcohol. Canada had abandoned such a policy. Canada whisky was exported to the USA.

In the Second World War Canada chose to fight alongside the United Kingdom. Canada was independent at that time but still valued the Commonwealth.

After the Second World War Canada again took in many immigrants. They often came from Western Europe.

This country was a founding member of NATO in 1949. The nation sent troops to fight in Korea on a UN mission.

Canada retained a cordial relationship with the United States. However, she did not send troops to Vietnam. Some draft resisters fled to Canada.

In the 1970s Canada was ruled by a Liberal prime minister named Trudeau. At that time the separatist movement flourished in Quebec. In the 1960s the French president de Gaulle visited the country. He irritated Canadians by saying ”Vive Quebec Libre.” This implied Quebec was not free already and was an insult. It was interfering in domestic politics. Moreover, it was encouraging separatism.

In the 1980s Canada was governed by Brian Mulroney. He was a prime minister who led the Progressive Conservatives. That party is nicknamed the Tories. He ruled for years. However, by the mid 1990s his party was deeply unpopular and an election was very close. Rather than go down in flames he stepped aside as prime minister. He was replaced by Kim Campbell who was the first woman to be Prime Minister of Canada. She only governed for a month.  She led her party into the election and was heavily defeated.

The Liberals dominated the next few years. The Progressive Conservatives were in disarray.

The Prime Minister at the moment is Justin Trudeau. He is a Liberal and son of a previous PM.

Constitutional monarchy is the system in Canada. The head of state is Elizabeth II. She is the same person as Queen of the United Kingdom.

The national anthem is ‘O Canada’. It speaks of ”the true north strong and free.”

The flag has red, white and red vertical bars. In the middle there is a red maple leaf.

This country has a superb ice hockey team.

Canada is a very prosperous country. It has oil and gas. But it does well mainly through services and high tech. Maple syrup is a popular Canadian export.

There are black Canadians, white Canadians, Oriental Canadians and South Asian Canadians.

Canada Dry is a popular export.

The national airline is Air Canada.

The currency is the Canadian Dollar.

Quebec, Ottawa, Toronto and Montreal are all well preserved cities. They are historic.

The northern bank of Niagra Falls is in Canada.

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  1. Which continent is Canada in?
  2. What is the climate like?
  3. Which country does this one border?
  4. Which two oceans is this country beside?
  5. Who were the first people to live in this country?
  6. When did Europeans arrive?
  7. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  8. Which party was Mulroney in?
  9. Which party do the Trudeaus belong to?
  10. Who is the Queen of Canada?
  11. Which sport is this country best at?
  12. What is the currency?
  13. Is this a poor country?
  14. Name the capital.
  15. What are the two official languages? Two marks.
  16. What non-European countries sent many immigrants to Canada in the 20th century?
  17. Would you like to visit this country?

 

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Cote d’Ivoire

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COTE D’IVOIRE.

Cote d’Ivoire is a country in Africa. This country is located in the west of the continent. It is beside the Atlantic Ocean.

The climate of Cote d’Ivoire is hot all year round. This is because the country is located just north of the Equator. The land is mostly flat. This is a fertile country but it gets a little drier in the north.

This country is mostly inhabited by Bantu people. Almost all the people of this country are black. There is a small Lebanese and white community. The people of the country are divided into several tribes. These tribes often span the borders of next door countries.

In the 16th century European merchants sailed here. They purchased ivory from the local people. This is why the French named this country Cote d’Ivoire which translates ‘Ivory Coast’. The country asks that it be known by its  French name even in English.

The people of West AFrica frequently fought each other. Those who were defeated were enslaved. These unfortunate captives were sometimes sold to European traders. The white traders or pirates took these poor people across the ocean in dreadful conditions. Many hostages died on the voyage. These people were forced to work as slaves in the American continent.

The French annexed this land in the 1880s. They did this by agreement with indigenous chieftains as well as invasion. The French made their language the official language of the country. So it remains today.

The French improved the infrastructure of the country enormously. They also brought education. There had been no literacy there before. They brought the Christian faith. Most Ivorians are Christians.

In the 1950s a doctor’s aid named Felix Houphet-Boigny was elected as a representative of the Cote d’Ivoire. He went to Paris to the National Assembly.  The French Union – the then name for the French Empire – allowed representatives from all French colonies to have power.  This man later became President of the Ivory Coast. He led the country to independence in 1960. Houphet-Boigny retained a cordial relationship with France.

His surname means ”rubbish ram”. This is because ram is an auspicious beast. To have such a name on its own would be vain so the family took a stigmatised name too.

Houphet-Boigny was an anti-communist. He helped to bring down pro-Soviet governments in other countries. He also maintained dialogue with the apartheid government in South Africa. This president amassed an enormous fortune. He also spent a staggering sum on the largest church in the world. Houphet-Boigny died in 1993.

The flag of this country is orange, white and green vertical bars. It is like the Irish Tricolour but with the colours in the opposite order.

The capital is Yamassoukoro . This is Houphet-Boigny’s home town. It used to be Abidjan but he shifted it. Abidjan remains the largest city.

The currency is the CFA.

 

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  1. What does Cote d’Ivoire mean in English?
  2. Which ocean is this land beside?
  3. What is the climate like?
  4. Which hemisphere is this country in?
  5. What is the official language?
  6. What is the capital city?
  7. Who was the first president of this nation?
  8. What is the major religion?
  9.  Draw the flag. Five marks.
  10. Which is the former capital of this country?

Croatia

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CROATIA

Croatia is a country in Europe. This nation is beside the Adriatic Sea. This country borders Slovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia.

The climate of Croatia is cool in winter and very warm in summer. There are mountains where it snows. The land is hilly and dry. There are many moors and pine forests.

The coast of Croatia has hundreds of islands. Krk and Var are some of the famous ones. Marco Polo was born on a Croatian island.

Croatia was part of the Roman Empire. The Emperor Diocletian had his palace built at Split in this country. The Roman Empire later broke up. Christianity came to this country under the Romans. In ancient times this land was called Illyria.

The Croats speak a Slavonic language called Croat. It is penned in the Latin script. This country was independent for centuries.

The Ottomans conquered this country in the later Middle Ages. Later the Ottomans were driven out. Croatia became part of the Austrian Empire. This was ruled by the Habsburg family in Vienna.

The coast of Croatia was sometimes called Dalmatia. This is where Dalmatian dogs come from. There are large white dogs with black spots. They are best known from the film ”101 Dalmatians.”

The Croats have a lot in common with their neighbours. The Serb language is almost the same as the Croat language only it is written in Cyrillic letters. Slovenian is not too different. The Bosniak Muslims speak a language that is very similar too. Some people believed in uniting all South Slavs.

In the First World War the Austro-Hungarian Empire was defeated and broken up. Yugoslavia was created. Croatia formed part of this. The name mean South Slav Land.

This country was a kingdom. The language was Serbo-Croat. In the Second World War it was invaded by Germany and Italy.

Ante Pavelic led a Croat fascist movement called Ustase. He formed the Independent State of Croatia. This was with the blessing of Germans and Italians. The Ustase regime killed many civilians.

At the end of the Second World War Ustase was crushed. Pavelic fled to Argentina. Yugoslavia came back into being.

Tito ruled the whole of Yugoslavia. It was a socialist state. Many tourists came to the country. A lot of Croats went to work abroad in Germany, Sweden, Australia and Switzerland.

In 1990 Croatia became independent. There was fighting over Bosnia-Herzegovina. That country consisted of three ethnic groups – Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. They were defined by their faith – Orthodox Serbs, Catholic Croats and Muslims Bosniaks. Most people were not very religious but faith became an identity marker.

The fighting finally ended in 1995. Croatia had been ruled by Franjo Tudjman for the first few years of independence.

The country joined the European Union in 2014.

The flag had red, white and blue horizontal bars. There is a red and white chequered symbol in the middle.

The capital is Zagreb meaning ”behind the mountain”.

This is a high income country.

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  1. Which continent is this country in?
  2. Which sea is this beside?
  3. Describe the climate?
  4. Name the capital.
  5. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  6. Which ancient empire ruled this country?
  7. Which religious denomination are most people here?
  8. Which Middle Eastern empire ruled this land?

4.4 discourse and pragmatics. exploring impoliteness

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people want to cause disharmony by impoliteness

does this use same concepts as politeness? Culpepper tried to find out.

rude words.  fuck shit.

what speech acts are rude. swearing insults.

culpepper. 1996. model of impoliteness.

derek bousefield worked ith Jonathan Culpepper

Culpepper ”impoliteness is an intentional and purposeful attack on a hearer’s face. ”

successful impoliteness – when insult is perceived as sushc by the hearer.

impoliteness when speaker communicates speech attack intentionally.

impoliteness is the hearer.

drill sergeant is impolite to degreade them and assert control

#systematic use if impoliteness

culpepper said there is an anatomy of impoliteness. he used brown and levinson’s face threat theory

bald impoliteness. no redress. designed to explicityly creat damage to face. clear unabigious and precise.

withhold politeness. not saying thanks.

positive m neave and off record impolitenss

positive politeness.

ignore. sub. exclude from activity

the pers no logner feels iked repeete or valued

appearing not to care wgat soemoen says =

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negative impoltieness

behaviour explcitylu diegsned to damage negative face wants we do not wnt to be itnerfeed with by others

dircule invade spaces.

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impoliteness. Anne Robinson

her strategies saying that his job title is inflated. she condescends an belittle s him. sneers at his town.

scous accent is stigamtised

calling eope fat or smelly – threatening to hit. impolite. bald.

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children ruder to each oother when parents not there

no extra lingustc mitigation such as laughter to repair impoliteness in some situations

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impoliteness.

threatd, silencers. insults, curses, ,non supportive intrustions, unpalatable questions. dismissials

#off record impoliteness. not explicit. no speifc frmulae

most frequent way. sarcasm

saracasm and prosody go hand in hand. prosody is tone and rhythm. other visual elements is needed.

doing th dozens. is this

rob mcmaddy

insult teeth. insult mum. fatness. stupidity. penury. promiscuity.

calling somone an animals. racial slurs.  hair. ugly.

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