Category Archives: Education

What has gone wrong with education especially in the UK and how to fix it.

Henry VI


Henry VI Comprehension

In 1421 Henry VI was born. His father was King Henry V of England. His mother was Catherine de Valois. The Valois family ruled France so Catherine de Valois’ father was King Charles VI of France.

France had been defeated by England in 1420. As part of the peace treaty Catherine de Valois had been given as a bride to Henry V. It was agreed that Charles VI could rule France as long as he lived. But when Charles VI died his kingdom would be ruled by Henry V. Henry V would be King of England and King of France. Charles VI was mentally ill. He was known as Charles the Mad. Charles VI believed he was made from a piece of glass. He had iron bars fitted to his clothes so if he fell over he would not shatter.

In 1422 Henry V died. Henry VI was proclaimed king at the age of nine months. As an infant he could not rule. A regency council was impaneled. His uncle the Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Gloucester were to rule in his stead.  The Duke of Gloucester was Lord Protector of the Realm. Bishop Beaufort was also part of the regency council.

Henry VI’s government effectually ruled most of France. He went to Paris and was crowned King of France at Notre Dame Cathedral. He is the only King of England to have been crowned in France as well. However, Henry VI had a French uncle called Charles VII. Charles VII controlled eastern France and did not accept that Henry VI was King of France.

Charles VII claimed to be the rightful King of France. His claim was based on several reasons. His father Charles VI had been king. The treaty said that Henry V would be king after Charles V but Henry V died first. Moreover, a mad man’s agreement does not count. Charles VII began to fight back against the English. He was aided by a 17 year old girl called Joan of Arc. This young woman claimed to have been divinely inspired. Astonishingly she was given command of the French Army. She lifted the Siege of Orleans. Joan of Arc was known as the Maid of Orleans. Joan of Arc was later captured by the Burgundians. Charles VII could have tried to rescue her but did not lift a finger to help her. He did like the military glory going to her.  She was later sold to the English. They put her on trial for heresy in Normandy. She defended herself impressively. She did not fall into any of the traps set by the questions. Nonetheless the kangaroo court found her guilty. She was burnt at the stake. An English soldier made a cross for her to hold as the flames were lit. As she died he cried ”we have burnt a saint.” Almost 500 years later she was canonized.

As Henry VI grew to maturity he exhibited some unusual traits. He was exceptionally religious even for a deeply religious epoch. His religiosity shaded into insanity. His Majesty was also extraordinarily erudite. The king loathed bloodshed and he was also a man of his word. He was too good to be great.

In the 1430s the English started losing the war in France. Castle after castle fell to Charles VII. He retook Paris. His symbol was the Cross of Lorraine. It has a vertical bar with two horizontal bars.

Burgundy is an area in eastern France. In those days it was considered almost a separate country. The Burgundians had been on the English side at first. However, in the late 1430s they switched sides. This was a death knell to English rule in France. Henry VI paid little attention to the conflict. He was fixated with faith and learning. He wrote a Latin prayer which is now sung at Eton College. He also composed a verse in English.

In 1440 Henry VI founded Eton College. It was to produce leaders for the church and the state. The king set it up only two miles from Windsor Castle. It was modeled on Winchester College. The college was for 70 poor scholars. However, boys from the very poorest classes were excluded. This was an era when only a small minority of boys went to school. Very few girls went to school. The king was given some splinters of wood from the true cross to grant to Eton. Pilgrims came to Eton to gain indulgences. That meant that the person could have his or her relatives released from Purgatory. The boys of Eton College had to pray for the repose of the souls of Henry VI’s parents. The king believed this would assure that they went to heaven. The school was a prayer factory. The school was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

In 1441 the king founded King’s College, Cambridge. King’s College is part of Cambridge University. It is perhaps the most magnificent of any Cambridge college. The idea was for boys from Eton to go on to King’s aged 14. It is notable that he was spending more time on educational policy and neglecting the war.

Henry VI married. He was not close to his wife. She came from a French aristocratic family.

In 1450 there was a large scale revolt led by Jack Cade. Cade’s Rebellion was put down only with great difficulty. Most of the army was in France. People were despondent due to years of foreign war and the heavy imposts required to fund the prosecution of the same.

In the 1450s Henry VI descended into insanity. Some surmised that His Majesty was afflicted by the same lunacy such as his maternal grandfather had suffered from. The king spent hours at prayer and refused to meet foreign dignitaries. Some historians speculated that he was not as spiritual as has been claimed. Saying ‘the king is at prayer’ was a convenient excuse to furnish to VIPs at the royal court when the king was so raving mad as to be unpresentable. He treated the birth of his only child, Edward of Westminster, with complete indifference.

In 1454 Henry VI recovered somewhat. He founded All Souls College, Oxford. This college was founded to commemorate all the souls of the people killed in the Hundred Years War. This was a series of wars between France and England. The college still exists and is for graduates only. It is the most eminent intellectual community in the Commonwealth.

In 1455 Henry VI faced a challenge to his kingship. This was the start of the Wars of the Roses. Henry VI was a descendant of Edward III. Edward III had five sons. The descendants of those five sons began fighting each other. The two sides in the Wars of the Roses were the Yorkists (White Roses) and Lancastrians (Red Roses).  Henry VI was a Lancastrian.

The attempt to oust Henry VI found him out of sorts. His mental incapacity weakened his side. He had totally inapposite reactions. At the First Battle of St Albans he rolled on the ground laughing hysterically. Nevertheless his side was able to hang onto the Throne – for a while.

In 1460 Henry VI was deposed. As he was not compos mentis he does not appear to have grasped the gravity of the situation. He responded phlegmatically.

In 1470 the Lancastrians gained the upper hand once more. Henry VI was restored. In 1471 he was overthrown again. He was detained in the Tower of London. This was a royal castle like many others and not simply a place of imprisonment. It has since become notorious for its dungeon and as a place of execution. Henry VI’s son Edward of Westminster was a teenager and proving himself to be a consummate military commander. The Lancastrians suffered a crushing reverse at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Edward of Westminster was slain. That being done it was decided to terminate Henry VI’s life. He was killed in his cell. The Yorkists announced that the monarch had died of a broken heart on learning of his only son’s demise. However, this is widely believed to be fallacious. On 12 May, his anniversary, Eton College and King’s College Cambridge lay a red rose at the sight of his murder. In the decades after the king’s death people gathered at his tomb. Miracles were attributed to his intercession. Some wanted him to be beatified.

  1. In which year was Henry VI born?
  2. Who was his father?
  3. Who was his mother?
  4. Who was his maternal grandfather?
  5. What malady did Charles VI suffer from?
  6. When did Henry VI become king?
  7. How old was he when he became king?
  8. He was King of England and which other country?
  9. Who was Henry VI’s French uncle?
  10. Which of Henry VI’s uncles ruled England for him?
  11. What was Henry VI’s attitude to religion?
  12. Which school did he found?
  13. Which college did he found at Cambridge University?
  14. At which battle did the king laugh and roll on the floor?
  15. How did he react to the birth of his son?
  16. What was the name of his son?
  17. What relic did Henry VI give to Eton?
  18. What was the Wars of the Roses?
  19. In which year was Henry VI overthrown for the first time?
  20. When was he restored?
  21. When was he ousted for the final time?
  22. In which year did he die?
  23.  How did he die?
  24. What is the date of his death?
  25. What were the major achievements of Henry VI’s reign? (five marks)
  26. What were Henry VI’s main failings? (five marks)
  27. What is meant by the description of this king ‘he was too good to be great.’? (five marks)
  28. What was the Wars of the Roses? (five marks)
  29. What is your overall assessment of Henry VI? (five marks)





Westminster School===========================================



Westminster School is in the centre of London. This area of London is called ‘Westminster’ because it is beside Westminster Abbey. St Paul’s Cathedral is the main cathedral in London. St Paul’s is 10 km to the east of Westminster. Then a new cathedral (‘minster) was built in the 11th century. It was to the west of St Paul’s. This new cathedral became known as Westminster. Originally London and Westminster were separate cities. In Mediaeval Christendom every city had a cathedral. A city could not have two cathedrals. A very large town was a town and not a city if it did not have a cathedral.

In the 1530s Henry VIII closed down many schools. This was part of his Dissolution of the Monasteries. Religious houses were suppressed. These were places that monks and nuns lived. They provided education. Henry VIII said that the monks and nuns were continuing the old form of Christianity – Roman Catholicism. Henry VIII had set up the Church of England. This form of Christianity was called Anglicanism as in it was founded in England (Anglia).

In 1558 Elizabeth I became queen. She decided to fill the educational gap created by his most illustrious father. She set up many schools. One of these is Westminster School. It is right beside Westminster Abbey. This is the royal church. Coronations take place there. Kings and queens are laid to rest there. Royal weddings have taken place there. The tomb of the Unknown Soldier is there. There is poets’ corner in which poets are memorialized. The throne there is St Edward’s Throne – as in it was sat upon by Edward the Confessor. Some have called it a national Valhalla. It is inspiring indeed for a young historian. Westminster scholar are allowed to take part in the coronation.

Westminster Abbey is one of the most historic places of worship in the realm. Edward the Confessor built it in the 1050s. The coat of Arms of the Saxon kings is etched into its stone. There were Benedictine monks there. The large community of monks was called an abbey. The head monk had the title of abbot. The abbey was closed in the 1530s and the monks were sent away. Despite that the word ‘abbey ‘ still applies to the cathedral there.

Those who win scholarships to Westminster care called Queen’s Scholars. This is because of Elizabeth I. There are also pupils who pay fees. At first the school was for boys only.

The curriculum was originally about Latin and Ancient Greek. There was some history and divinity. These were taught through Latin. Over time other subjects assumed greater importance such as Maths, the sciences, modern languages, art, technology and drama.

Many boys from the school went on to the two great English universities. This was a school for well to do professionals. It was unusual for the sons of the gentry to attend this school but some did.

Old boys of the school are called Old Westminsters. Many most distinguisher personages have attended this estimable school. Among them are Sir Christopher Wren, Kim Philby, St John Philby, Samuel Pepys, Cowper, Nick Clegg and Chris Huhne.

The school is very close to Parliament. Therefore there is a strong political connection.

For the past few decades girls have been able to attend the school in sixth form. There is a prep school called Westminster Under School.


  1. Which city is Westminster School in?
  2.  How did the City of Westminster get its name?
  3. What is an abbey?
  4. Is this school well regarded?
  5.  Do any of the pupils go to university?
  6.  Are there girls at the school?
  7. What is the name of the prep school?
  8.  Is the school near Parliament?
  9.  Name three famous pupils?
  10. Who founded the school?

Winchester College=============================



Winchester College is one of the most renowned schools in the Commonwealth. This school is located in the City of Winchester which is in the United Kingdom. Winchester is in the County of Hampshire. Hampshire is on the southern coast of England. It is a very historic city. In the 9th century it was the capital. The royal treasury was held there for centuries afterwards.

Winchester College is for boys aged 13-18. The word ‘college’ can mean a secondary school in the UK.

William of Wykeham (pronounced WIK um) was a bishop in 14th century England. He was known as ‘of Wykeham’ because he came from the town of Wycombe (pronounced ‘WIK um’). A bishop is a high Christian religious leader. Well-educated people were almost all clergy (religious leaders) in those days.

Richard II was the king at the time. He decided to found a new school. He gave a charter to the school set up by William of Wykeham. The college was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The motto is ‘manners maketh the man.’ This is ‘manners make the man’ in modern English. Richard II founded New College, Oxford. Boys from Winchester would finish the school and go on to New College, Oxford to complete their education. Those who attended Winchester were called Wykehamists because of the founder.

There is a large chapel in Winchester College. This is because the purpose of the school was partly religious. The school mainly taught Latin and Ancient Greek. It was founded for poor scholars. However, soon wealthy boys were allowed to attend but had to pay fees. In time other subjects gained more importance such as Modern Languages, Science and Mathematics.

This school developed its own form of football. It was known as Winchester College Football. People call it Win Co Fu. Cricket and mainstream sports are popular there.

By the 18th century it was a very distinguished school. However, it did not have as much cachet at Eton and Harrow. Aristocratic families tended to have their sons at one of the duopoly or Westminster School. Moreover, Winchester was too far from London.

Only one Prime Minister attended Winchester. He was Joseph Addington. He was the son of a doctor. Physicians were not considered upper class back then. They had to touch patients and do unhygienic things. Addington went on to Brasenose College, Oxford. From there he was called to the bar. Addington was mocked for his father’s profession.  He was eclipsed by Pitt the Younger who was a far more celebrated Prime Minister. There was some doggerel about him ‘Pitt is to Addington / As London is to Paddington.’

In the 19th century the college became known for producing senior civil servants by the dozen. Solicitors, accountants and solid but unimaginative people were said to attend Winchester.  New College, Oxford started taking non-Wykehamists in the 1860s. Now there is not much of a connection between New and Winchester.

In the early 20th century some leading socialist intellectuals emerged from Winchester College. Among these were Tony Crosland and Stafford Cripps. They were Labour Party politicians.

John Betjeman wrote a ditty about Wykehamists ‘Broad of church and broad of mind/ Broad before and broad behind’.

Sir Oswald Moseley attended the college. He served with enormous heroism in the First World War. He was elected to Parliament aged 22.  He then founded the British Union of Fascists. Moseley was imprisoned during the Second World War. Moseley was a hate figure for many. The college would prefer to forget that he ever attended.

In recent years the college has been short on star names. Geoffrey Howe was there. He was Deputy Prime Minister under Thatcher. There is one Hollywood actor who attended and that is your lot.

The school is exceedingly academic. It is not thought to be fabulous at sports or theatre. There are some Chinese pupils. This is a boys only school. Most pupils are boarders.


  1. Which country is Winchester in?
  2. Which county is Winchester in?
  3. When was Winchester the capital?
  4. Why was it important after the capital shifted to London?
  5. What is a bishop?
  6. Which bishop founded Winchester?
  7. Which king granted a charter to the college?
  8. What is Win Co Fu?
  9. In which century was the college founded?
  10.  Are there boys at the school?
  11. What other subjects are studied there?
  12. Which Oxford college was connected to Winchester?
  13. Which prime minister went to Winchester?
  14. Name two Labour MPs who went there?
  15. Which fascist went there?
  16. Which deputy prime minister went there?
  17. How do you pronounced Wykeham?
  18. What is the motto of Winchester?
  19. Are there day pupils?
  20. Are there any Chinese there?’
  21. What is your opinion of this college?

communication lesson 8


Be honest

crime verbs. Crime.

Second conditional

I wish/ If only



Honesty means telling the truth. It also means telling it in a way that is not misleading.

A person asks a man, ”Are you divorced?”

He could say ”no”. That might be literally true. But if he is in the process of getting divorced then it would be misleading to say ”no”. It would be more honest to tell the whole truth and say, ”No, but I am in the process of divorcing.”

There is a saying ‘honesty is the best policy.’ This adage is there because it is unwise to acquire a reputation for dishonesty. If people mistrust you then they will disbelieve you even when you are telling the truth. That is like the story of the boy who cried wolf.

However, some people consider there to be noble lies. The philosopher Immanuel Kant gave this example – if you are in your house and your friend runs in and says ‘help there is a man chasing me trying to kill me!’ and your friend hides behind the sofa. A moment later a man with a knife runs in and says ‘Did someone just come in here?’. Should you lie to save your friend? For most people it is a no brainer. Of course you should lie to save someone’s life! This is called a noble lie.

Imagine a relative gives you a birthday present that you dislike. It would be rude to say that you do not like the present. If your relative asks ‘did you like the present?’ should you say ‘no I hate it’? That would hurt the person’s feelings. So is it acceptable to say ‘thank you so much yes I like it’? Most people say that lying in this situation is acceptable.



  1. What is the saying about honesty?
  2. What does it mean to be misleading?
  3. Who came up with the story whereby a friend asks you to hide him or her?
  4. What is a noble lie?
  5. Why do people claim to like a present even if they dislike it?



Steal, assault, burgle, murder, kidnap, rob, defraud and embezzle are all crime verbs.

Steal is to take someone’s possessions without permission.

Assaulting someone is to hit or kick a person.

Burgling is to break into a building with the intention of stealing.

Murdering is to intentionally kill a person without lawful excuse.

Kidnapping is to take a person against his or her will and to hold that person as a prisoner.

Robbing is stealing by threatening violence or actually using it.

Defrauding is to trick someone into giving you money or something of value.

To embezzle is to steal some money from a fund that you are looking after.


Answer these questions and explain your answer each time.

  1. Is it robbery to take someone’s wallet?
  2. Is it burglary to steal an item lying on the street?
  3. Is it fraud to sell drugs?
  4. Is it stealing to buy water?
  5. Is it assault to hit in self-defence?
  6. Is it murder for a soldier to kill an enemy in a battle?



Crime is illegal activity. Laws are passed to protect people. People can do what they want so long as they do not harm others.

A crime involves a guilty act and a guilty mind. Stabbing someone is a crime. However, if a doctor injects you this is not a crime. The guilty act has been committed since he or she put a sharp object into your skin. However, the mind was not guilty since he or she did this with permission. The doctor is legally authorized to inject patients. She or he is injecting a person to benefit the patient’s health.

The police try to fight crime. They walk around to deter criminals. This means that criminals see the police and are scared off even trying to commit crime. Once a crime has been committed then the police are informed. They follow up the report and try to apprehend the criminal. A  suspected criminal will be arrested and taken to a police station. He or she shall be questioned. The police will gather evidence such as fingerprints and DNA. If there is enough evidence then the police will charge the person with a  crime.

A crime is sometimes called an offence or a criminal offence.

  1. Is it lawful to commit a crime?
  2. What are the two elements of a crime?
  3. Why is it not a crime for a doctor to inject someone?
  4. What is the role of the police?
  5. When someone is arrested where is he or she taken?
  6. If someone is arrested does that prove that he is guilty?

===================Second conditional. 
“Second conditional” or “conditional II” refers to a pattern used to describe hypothetical, typically counterfactual situations with a present or future time frame (for past time frames the third conditional is used). In the normal form of the second conditional, the condition clause is in the past tense (although it does not have past meaning. That is use of the past subjunctive), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional construction with the auxiliary would:
If I liked parties, I would attend more of them.
If it rained tomorrow, people would dance in the street.
The past tense (simple past or past progressive) of the condition clause is historically the past subjunctive. In modern English this is identical to the past indicative, except in the first and third persons singular of the verb be, where the indicative is was and the subjunctive were; was is sometimes used as a colloquialism (were otherwise preferred), although the phrase if I were you is common in colloquial language. For more details see English subjunctive § Use of the past subjunctive.
”If I (he, she, it) were rich, there would be plenty of money available for this project.”
”If I (he, she, it) were speaking, you would not be allowed to interrupt like that.”
When were is the verb of the condition clause, it can be used to make an inverted condition clause without a conjunction. If the condition clause uses the past tense of another verb, it may be replaced by the auxiliary construction were to + infinitive (particularly if it has hypothetical future reference); if this is done, then inversion can be applied here too:
If I were rich, … / If I were to be rich, … / Were I (to be) rich, …
If I flew, … / If I were to fly, … / Were I to fly, …

Write ten sentences in the second conditional.


I wish I were smart. I wish I had a PhD. I wish I had married Judith.

Write three ”I wish” sentences.

If only I had passed the M Stud. If only I had been called to the Bar. If only I had stayed at Oundle.

Write three ”if only” sentences.






communication lesson 7


Good and evil

Noun suffixes – ity/-ment/-ness

gerunds and infinitives



Some actions are good and some are evil. Most are neither good or evil. Many would say that helping people is good and hurting people is evil. If you see someone who is injured and you give that person first aid it is a good action. But if you steal from a poor person it is evil.

There are people who perceive the world as being a battlefield between good and evil. Such people are said to have a  Manichean view of the world. The world is usually more complicated that good versus evil.

Some say that good and evil exist in each person. Most people have been kind to others. But most people have also been nasty to others sometimes.  Very few people are completely good or totally evil.

There are people who say that fighting is always wrong. They are called pacifists. This word ‘pacifist’ comes from the Latin word ‘pax’ meaning ‘peace’ because they say that all wars are always evil. But what if one country invaded another without any justification and did enormous harm to the people. Would it be wrong to resist? Those who fight to defend their homeland must hurt the enemy. So can hurting people sometimes be right? Most people believe that it is right in these circumstances.

  1. Is it evil to give first aid to someone?
  2. Is it good to steal?
  3. What does it mean to have a Manichean world view?
  4. What is a pacifist?
  5. What is your view of good and evil?



A suffix is a group of letters that is put on the end of the word. The suffix alters the meaning of the word. A suffix is not a word on its own.

‘Ity’ is a suffix. You can see it in words like unity, disunity, unanimity and proximity. This suffix changed the foregoing words from union, disunion, unanimous and proximate.

Think of three more nouns with ‘ity’ as a suffix and write them.

‘Ment’ is a suffix. It can be found in words such as government, retirement, resentment, concealment and others.

Write three more nouns with the ‘ment’ suffix.

‘Ness’ is a suffix. You can find it in closeness, openness, drunkenness and highness.

Write three more nouns with a ‘ness’ suffix.



A gerund is an ‘ing’ form of a verb or when that word is a noun. Here are examples – swimming, running, jumping and reading.

Write three sentences using a gerund in each one.



The infinitive is the core form of a verb. It is the basic form of that verb. We precede it with ‘to’. For example ‘to be’.

There are many other forms of ‘to be’ such as am, was, is, were, being etc…

Here is another infinitive – ‘to have’. Other forms of it are has, had, have, having

Another infinitive is ‘to run’. Other forms of this verb are running, runs, ran…

Write three more infinitives.

Here are three verbs – write the infinitive for each one







communication lesson 4.


communication lesson 4

live forever

time conjunctions; if, unless, when , until, as soon as

verbs as prepositions

future conditionals

first conditionals- if unless



Some people like the idea of living forever. Religious people often believe that after they die they will go to heaven if they have been good.

In Ancient Greece there was a myth about someone who asked the gods for eternal life. This was granted. However, this person became decrepit and lived to the age of hundreds of years. Eventually this person asked to be released from this suffering and his wish was granted. Eternal youth was said to be more desirable than eternal life. The Greeks believed that there was a special potion called elixir which ensured a person would stay young forever.

The Bible has a story of Methusaleh living to the age of 800. In recent times scientists have been able to manipulate the genes of mice and feed them a healthy diet to make them live several times longer than normal. They were called Methusaleh mice.

A Frenchwoman lived to the age of 122. There are tales of people living to fabulous figures of hundreds of years. But this woman had a birth certificate and there is no doubt that she really was 122 when she died.

In highly developed countries women live longer than men. This is because men tend not to take care of their health so well and they do dangerous things. In less developed countries the men usually live longer than women. This is because women there tend to have several children and it is a strain on their health.

Countries with very long life expectancy include Denmark, Norway and Japan. Superb healthcare, a seafood diet and plenty of exercise help increase longevity. The Mediterranean diet is said to be the best in the world for this – fish, olive oil, fresh fruit and vegetables every day. Having a loving family and plenty of friends also extends lifespan.

In the most advanced countries life expectancy is 81. This does not mean that everybody dies in their 81st birthdays! The average is affected by a few infants dying. There are plenty people who live much longer than 81. Some people live to over 100. In Denmark becoming a centenarian is a banality. In the United Kingdom anyone who reaches 100 will receive a telegram from the Queen. The Queen no longer signs them personally because there are so many of them.

  1. What do religious people believe will happen to them once they die if they have been good?
  2. Who was Methusaleh?
  3. What is the Mediterranean diet?
  4. What is elixir?
  5. What was the nationality of a woman who lived to 122?
  6. Name three countries with a very long life span.
  7. What do British people receive on their 100th birthday?
  8. In advanced countries do women live longer than men?
  9. Would you like to live forever if it were possible? (Five sentences)



‘If’ is a conjunction and it relates to conditionals. The word ‘if’ precedes a condition to be fulfilled. Here are some examples:

‘If you eat well you will live long.’

‘I would not go there if I were you.’

‘If she studies hard she will pass.’

‘Have some fruit if you like’

Write four more ‘if’ sentences.

‘Unless’ is also for conditionals but it is about saying that a certain condition needs to be satisfied for else something else shall occur. Here are some examples:

‘Come here unless you want trouble’

‘Do not turn on the alarm unless there is a fire.’

‘Do not buy it unless you need it.’

‘You must be on time unless you have a good excuse.’

Write four more sentences with unless.

‘When’ is about the time that something occurs. Here are examples:

When I was young I was good looking.

When it was his birthday he received a gift.

When the plane took off I was relieved.

When did you last meet him?

Write four more ‘when’ sentences?

‘Until’ means ‘up to that time.’ Here are some examples

You must stay at school until you are 16.

I did not learn Spanish until I went to Spain.

Until you behave you will get no pocket money.

I could talk until the cows come home.

Write four more until sentences.

‘As soon as’ means ‘when a condition is fulfilled another thing will happen immediately.’ Here are examples:

As soon as you hear the alarm evacuate the building.

As soon as my dad comes home I hug him.

I will buy a car as soon as I can.

I will lose weight as soon as I can afford to join the gym.



Prepositions are words about position or place.

Some examples are; under, over, above, through, to, from and beside. These do not have to be physical positions or places but sometimes they are physical. There are well over 100 prepositions.

Here are sentences using verbs with prepositions.

Go over there.

Come up here.

She is reading a book by Mike Hazelhurst.

He is with his aunt.

Write four more preposition sentences including a verb.



Future conditionals are about ‘if’ something happens later then another thing will happen as a result of that first happening. It is about a condition being fulfilled in future.



“First conditional” refers to predictive conditional sentences (see above section); here, normally, the condition is expressed using the present tense and the consequence using the future:
If you make a mistake, someone will let you know.
if + present tense + future tense

If she gets it wrong she will be upset.

If Hector is petulant he will regret it.

If the princess is petulant I shan’t be surprised.

If Mehetabel gets married I shall be elated.

Write four more sentences using this grammatical structure.






“Third conditional” is the pattern where the condition clause is in the past subjunctive form of the present perfect (now identical with the past perfect even for the verb “be”), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional perfect. This is used to refer to hypothetical, counterfactual (or believed likely to be counterfactual) situations in the past
if + had + would have + 3rd form of verb
If you had called me, I would have come.

Here are examples

If she had been wiser she would not have gotten into trouble.

If he had been cautious he would not have been caught.

If they had been another race the police would not have shot them.

If he had not gone to the hospital he would have been fatally ill.


Write four more sentences like these ones.





Harrow School===================================



Harrow School is one of the most celebrated schools in the British Isles. The schools is located in the London suburb of Harrow.

In the 1570s a businessman named Sir John Lyons approached Queen Elizabeth I. He requested her permission to found a school. Her Majesty was graciously pleased to accede to his humble petition. The country needed schools to be founded. 40 years earlier King Henry VIII had closed many schools as part of his Dissolution of the Monasteries.

Sir John founded the school. Harrow was then a village in the County of Middlesex. It was a dozen miles from London. The school was built on a hill. The school was for boys only. Back then perhaps a third of boys went to school. Most boys never learnt to read. Very few girls went to school.

The school was connected to the Church of England. The Church of England was the official form of Christianity. Other types of Christianity were not permitted. Almost every boy at the school was an Anglican – a member of the Church of England. A chapel was built at the school. The boys were required to attend divine worship daily.

The school was primarily for boys from the parish of Harrow. A parish is an area of land which belongs to a particular church. All the people living within a few miles of that church were supposed to worship in that church on Sunday. The parish was also the smallest unit of land for the purposes of governance. Those who were not from the parish were permitted to attend the school but were called ‘foreigners’. Boys from the parish went for free. Foreigners had to pay.

The curriculum chiefly consisted of Latin and Greek. People read the Bible a great deal. The brightest boys learnt Hebrew so they could read the Old Testament in the original. English was not considered a respectable language. Higher education was in Latin. Law courts operated in Latin. Governmental documents were composed in Latin. Diplomacy was conducted in the Latin language.

The school soon acquired a reputation for excellence. Within 200 years it was considered one of the most distinguished schools in the realm. It had a healthy rivalry with Eton which lay 20 miles to the south-west. Aristocrats sent their sons to Harrow.

Boys came to Harrow aged about 10 and stayed on till perhaps 15. Some went on to the two great English universities.

Sir William Jones was a celebrated philologist and jurist who studied here. The first Prime Minister who have been a schoolboy at Harrow was Spencer Perceval. He was assassinated in 1812. He is the only Prime Minister to have been assassinated. The man who killed Perceval was John Bellingham. John Bellingham’s descendants went to Eton.

In the 19th century Harrow expanded considerably. It came to have several boarding houses. The oldest one is called the School House. The headmaster was housemaster of the School House. He no longer is since the school is so huge that he cannot perform that duty now.

There was a French invasion scare in the 1860s. The school therefore founded a cadet corps. The boys did military training.

The boys often went hunting. They had horses at the school.

The school developed its own form of football called Harrow Football. However, in the late 19th century boys began to play Association Football – as in the sport that is known as ‘football’ in almost every country. Rugby also became popular. There was an outdoor pool. Boxing was also allowed. Cricket was played in the summer. There is no rowing here. That is because the school is far from the River Thames.

Harrow began to play cricket in a three sided competition against Eton College and Winchester College. This was played at Lord’s – the main cricket stadium. This was a three day event and a date on the London social season. In the late 19th century the Wykehamists (boys from Winchester) disgraced themselves so badly that Winchester was kicked out of the tournament. Eton and Harrow still play each other at Lord’s in June.

In the 19th century some boys from Scotland came to the school. They were Protestants but usually not Anglicans. They were mostly members of the Church of Scotland. They were welcomed by the school.

At the end of the 19th century Roman Catholics and Jewish boys were permitted to enter the school. Hindus and Muslims later entered the school. At first the non-Christians were a tiny, tiny proportion of the school.

Prime Ministers who attended this school included Sir Robert Peel, the Earl of Aberdeen and Viscount Palmerston. Later Sir Stanley Baldwin became Prime Minister too.

In 1905 an Indian boy named Jawahar Lal Nehru enrolled at Harrow. He was diffident and very well behaved.  He became Prime Minister of his nation.

Sir Winston Churchill was also at this school. He was considered an academic laggard. Like dull witted boys he went to join the army. He enlisted in the cavalry which was for the dimmest of the dim.

The school has a farm. Many boys go and run their family’s estates.

In the late 20th century Harrow lost its political edge. It has expanded though. It has boys from China, Nigeria and Malaysia.

Harrow has schools in Beijing and Bangkok. It remains all boys.

The colours of the school are black and white. Boys who have been here are called Old Harrovians. The school song is Forty Years on.  Famous old boys include Alan de Boton, Lord Butler of Brockwell, Lord Guthrie, Richard Curtis, James Blunt and Benedict Cumberbatch.


  1. When was Harrow School founded?
  2. Which man founded it?
  3. Which queen gave him permission?
  4. What did a ‘foreigner’ mean at Harrow in the beginning?
  5. Which philologist attended the school?
  6. The headmaster was housemaster of which house?
  7.  Which two languages were the basis of the curriculum?
  8. Which Christian denomination is this school attached to?
  9. What geographical feature is the school on?
  10.  What are the colours of the school?
  11. Harrow played a three sided cricket competition against which two other schools?
  12. Where does Harrow play against Eton?
  13.  Does Harrow row?
  14.  Name two other sports played here?
  15.  Name five British PMs who have been there?
  16. Which Indian PM was an Old Harrovian?
  17. Harrow has schools in which other lands?
  18. Which non-British nationalities attend Harrow?
  19.  Are there girls at Harrow?
  20.  What is your opinion of Harrow? Five marks.