Category Archives: Uncategorized

Critique of linguistics article


Impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading writing and proficiency scores.


This article looks at the level of vocabulary of various students. It then examines the correlation between lexis and scores in various tests. The article commences by citing some peer reviewed articles. This article notes the truism that the more words one knows in a language the better one can comprehend that language and express oneself in it.


Trump has withdrawn from the Iran deal.


Donald Trump has said that he will not recertify the deal with Iran. This was the worst deal in history as he called it in his trademark hyperbole. Trump twice approved of thsis worst deal in history. 90 days ago this deal was good. All of a sudden it is execrable. What has changed in the past 90 days? It is not Iran’s behaviour. According to other signatories and the United Nations the Iranians are complying with the deal rigorously. It is Trump’s ratings that have changed. The Trump administration is not getting legislation through. Patients still have Affordable Care. People getting healthcare is ”horrible” according to Trump. Trump has turned up the temperature with North Korea. He made empty threats. There would be ” fire and fury” if North Korea made threats. Not if they did anything only if they threatened to do something. He was bluffing and they called his buff. A real threat from Trump will not be believed since he has made empty threats.

This car crash of a presidency continues to careen wildly. Is this why Trump has decided to get yet more enemies for the United States? It is almost as though the USA was not embroiled in enough conflicts and standoffs. This posturing weakling of a president is proving to be puerile once again. He talks tough and shrieks like a foolish teenager about how courageous he is. It is nauseating.

Trump cited the Revolutionary Guard as a reason for ending America’s agreement with Tehrean. The Revolutionary Guard has been there since 1979. Trump knew that when he signed off on the agreement twice. The existence of this organisation is no reason to end the deal.

Trump has sounded very bellicose before and not backed it up with action – thankfully. The trouble is that real threats will not be credited because he is no erratic and unreliable.

Alex Jones said if Trump went sideways then he would denounce Trump. Well surely Trump has done that by twice certifying this agreement with Iran is crucial to American national security. But all of a sudden this deal is a mortal peril to America. Trump’s reasoning is so feeble and self contradictory as to be risible. Perhaps his Zionist camarilla had a word in the dotant’s ear. His consigliere may also have counselled him that this will make him seem like  a hard man to the hawks whose respect he craves. This draft dodger is smitten by men in uniforms unless of course they point out how asinine his policies are.

Trump could have been bold and given presidential orders in relation to Iran. If he believed that Iran was dangerous then he would have done so. As usual he has chickened out and handed this to Congress. How will Congress resolves this can of worms? Congress is likely to bring back sanctions in some form. Not to do so would be seen as feeble and even – horror of horrors – ”unpatriotic.” It is patriotic to strive for peace. This agreement was reached for many reasons. After 10 years of sanctions this deal seemed to be the only alternative to war.

Sanctions will not have the desired effect. Every other country will do commerce with Iran. Iran has an amicable relationship with potent countries such as China, India and Russia. The Arab countries are too embroiled in the Iraq and Syria issues to face Iran. Israel is not keen to fight but might well launch air strikes especially if Uncle Sam gives the green light. #

Even the Trump administration said that  Iran broke the spirit of the deal. So Iran did not break the deal. Only the spirit of it. Whatever that may be.

Teheran may now hold itself absolved of the terms of the agreement. The Iranians upheld their end of the bargain. The deal was cancelled anyway. They would be within their right to pursue nuclear arms now. They will probably not do so because they want to maintain friendly relations with many other lands.

The United States will not find it much tricker to seal deals with other governments. Why should Pyongyang come to terms with Washington DC? The US Government may very well tear up any agreement. This seems to demonstrate bad faith.

#This is all part of Trump’s reckless stupidity. His unreasoning, rambling and shambolic administration is causing bloody havoc around the globe. Please God this malevolent psychopath will go soon.

Research Methods Unit 1 Lesson 5


qualitative ate analysis

analytical tools

principles of qualitative dtate analysis

language data analysis

ideal for linguistics.

it is iterative. it is non linea.r moves back and forth between data collection, analysis and interpretation, . one can move back and forth between the stages.

subjective  intuition v formalisation

organisation  is a big deal in formalisation,

two diffeeent approaches to data anlayis

one seeks not to be consariend by proceduess.

oen culd see merit in applying prodeuced tos ee tat vlaid ocnlsuns are met

should one have specif metholdgies

shuld one us generic analytislc  rules

should one use specific methodlogesi

systematic approaches. thematic analysis. one is more complex and procedudrla in it spapprahc it can be ground theory approach.

there are numerous approaches to analysing qualitivatei date. one can use ones own intuition one can use a sustematic approach

this should invole analysing

two common systematic approaches.

thematic analysis.

this is about hat is said not how it is said datae exmaiend to identify broad thems s it contes in stuaitosn where data consist of detaile etxtaia;  in focus groups. it can contain firaiton. it can be sued where ther eis nos torng theortical perspcit to driv eth analsysi, this is undcutive. there a aguament against because it cannot be rigous enough

this coildbe coming up with a hypothesis and thenm pridcing data to valdiuate it



move uo the stairs. come back down

six steps

ata familiaraitons. read thr tarsbctps closely.

coding. may invoe line by oien cid8ng

identify themes base don this

reifw the themes

themes are defiend an leballed

report is written,

the reech may make several trawsl through and uncier ne esptice,#

reivew ht themes

# this can send eple abcm to the date to seek evidence# this means ther eis repetion



one coedes and then moves to emergignt hemes and then to a meta theme

criteria for good thematic analysis. must eb at an aprpirate level of detail tranxitn must be chedke agaisn torgnal reoceing for accuracy coding al date need sscrutitny

all excepts brought toegtehr for scrutiny they myst eb cehrne and disctinvie

se, date must be interpsted

paraphraisn gis not analysis

analsysi is key . it

written report must imcleud careful count o asusmptioms of analsysi

ther emsy be consistent begwene analsysia nd exceprt presented all steps nust recie ebeough time#



memoes are working dieas which may or may not contribute to conceptulations

vigentees provide focus on pargicpant expeirnce

interview proiles which are substantial sumamries in the first person voice of the paricpain

interive wprofiels highlight slaien tpoints,



theriry from date systematically obtained from social research to genrt and disocver

defined ualitiati reahec as a systemati form of rearc

ame out in the 60s it devleoopes close interaction the between the data and udnetbaidn build tehreis

check between ifferne taspects of the aalsysis

element of gorunde theory, provide d astrcre to grounde dreaech, concept and dieas are neded to be fully developed by end of the anasys

data collection is contually analysed

data coded acforidng to scheme accoidng ti major categories hypthese at edevleope to test emerging diea

more genral data base theoryr

theory development process. iterative nature. arrows go back and forth bweteen two satges

develop a reaehc question caputr data. therpeticla campleing. coding

cateoraitons. check for saturation  of cetagories

theroetivla smaplig. montiro groups


open cooding. three levels of coding .. seletctive doding. a chink cn refer a phrae a lien or sentence eor short paraphrap

cateroy lebal is conceptual in nature enot dexceiptive reehce riwll ask wagt a piece of stae is an example of . what principe underlie actiona nd statwmnrt# reaecher makes conenctions bwteen the categogies . level three final stae will select a category which he or she can bring rother in a cogent manner

post theory which emrges from reaechr. this may seen to be sequential but it is iterative

one derives more meaning and moeves uo  lelve again


Grounded theoru palces damenda on reach.e labour inteicve requires analaytila skills. godo fro devopong therotieila knowledge where little is known about he nphineomen.




Kim Philby _ extended article


Harold Adrian Russell Philby was born in Ambala in 1912. His pater was in the Indian Civil Serice. Nehru later panned the ICS as being neither Indian, nor Civil nor a Service. At that time Indian rested beneath the British shield.  Kim’s fathe was St John Philby pronounced Sinjin. ST John was a polyglot and eccentric. He espoused socialist views at a time when these were deeply unfashionable in middle class circles. It was said that he was the first socialist in the I C S.

A R Philby was known to his family and chums as Kim. There was a novel published by Rudyard Kipling not long before his birth entitled Kim. The eponymous hero is Kim. Kim of the novel is an Indian spy. This name seems to have been singularly apposite for Philby. Nay, it was prophetic. Could it be a case of nominative determinism? Perhaps he became a secret agent in order to live up to this moniker.

The Philbys were a well to do upper middle class family. His father had attended Westminster School which is one of the United Kingdom’s most illustrious ones. He had also been to Cambridge University. In those days the British dealt with Arabia via India. Arabia was regarded as a wasteland of minor importance.

Kim’s father was ST John Philby. St John Philby acquired mastery of the Arabic language. He began to deal with Arabian affairs. He moved to Arabia.

By that time Kim was a boarded at Westminster. His pater gave confidential information to Ibn Saud. He was the chieftain who was to found Saudi Arabia. The ICS booted St John out for disloyalty. St John identified with the aRABS mor than his own people. He converted to Islam and took the name Abdallah meaning ‘slave of Allah’. Some Arabs were more sceptical at his reasons for becoming a Muslim and called him ‘slave of sixpence.’

Owing to St John leaving the ICS in ignominy the family were short of readies. These pecuniary problems could have precluded Kim continuing at Westminster. But he was a bright boy and was granted a scholarship. Nonetheless his comfortable existence was not as good as it once had been. He developed a resented against the British Government. He appeared to believe that his father has been hard done by. Kim would eventually work for a government which treated the leaking of secret information with something far harsher than dismissal.

Kim went up to Trinity College, Cambridge. This is the grandest of Cambridge colleges. There he read economics. He joined the Cambridge University Socialist Society. The Great Depression had struck and over 20 per cent of people in the UK were unemployed. Even those in work often had their working hours cut or their hourly rate docked.

Kim saw severe hardship which he said turned him towards socialism. It was also an intellectual fad. Fortunate youths such as he were often wracked by guilt about their comfortable lives. They wished to better the lot of those not so blessed as them.

H R A Philby became a communist. A number of Cambridge dons were communists. Kim was initiated into the Apostles. This is a society at Cambridge. It is not a secret society since it does not deny that it is extant. That would be a contradiction in terms! The Apostles do not publish anything about themselves. The Apostles is for the most fascinating and gifted undergraduates in Trinity. They are called Apostles because there are twelve of them at a time. The Apostles hold private meetings to discuss tendentious issues. Members of the society are urged to speak their minds with absolute candour. The custom is that a member will be heard in respectful silence no matter how shocking their views are. The Apostles who have graduated come back for the meetings and are known as angels. More than a few Apostles at the time were communists.

Kim met Andre Deutsch who was  a Soviet secret service officer in the United Kingdom. Philby was delighted to be recruited as an agent. Deutsch set Philby a task. Would be steal some documents from his father? Philby did so. They were photographed by Deutsch and then returned to their place. The Soviets did not care what ST John Philby was up to in Arabia. It was a penniless place of no strategic value – or so it seemed. The Soviets had simply been setting Philby a loyalty test. He had passed with flying colours. Many would have balked at spying on their own parents.

At Cambridge Philby met other fervent communists. These included Guy Burgess and a young don named Anthony Blunt. There was also Donald MacLean. MacLean was the son of the former leader of the Liberal Party no less.

Kim graduated in 1933. He traveled to Vienna. The Nazi Party in Austria attempted to seize power but was defeated. Nonetheless there was a perfervid anti Semitic ambience there. Philby met a 22 year old Jewish divorcee. Like him she was a convinced communist. They married.  Kim came to know Teddy Kollek there – the future Mayor of Jerusalem.

Kim and his wife traveled around Europe. They were both working for the Soviet secret service. This is how they were able to afford to do this.

Kim returned to the United Kingdom. He became a journalist. Money from the Soviets meant that he lived better than one would have expected for a struggling young hack.

The Soviets were keen that Kim allay any suspicion that he was a communist. He resigned from the Communist Party of Great Britain. His communist phase would be put down as a youthful misadventure. Kim therefore began to espouse the right wing views of a typical haute bourgeois Brion. He also joined the Anglo-German League. This was ostensibly devoted to the laudable cause of fomenting amity between peoples and preventing another war. However, there are many who said that this organisation’s ulterior purpose was to disseminate Nazi opinion in the United Kingdom.

In 1936 the Spanish Civil War broke out. Philby traveled there was a freelance journalist. He later won a contract to send back newspaper stories to the Times. Philby went to the Nationalist side. They were anti -Communist. There he gathered information of use to the Soviet Union and dispatched it to cover addresses in the United Kingdom.

On one occasion the Spanish police arrested Philby for being in a town without a pass. He had a small piece of paper on him with the addresses of his Soviet contacts. He was worried that if it was found the Spanish police would find out that he was a Soviet spy. He knew the fate that awaited him if this were believed. So as he emptied his pockets he threw his wallet to the far side of the room. All three policemen died for it. This gave him time to swallow the incriminating document.

Philby met Franco – the Spanish Nationalist leader. Philby was slightly wounded in a Republic bomb attack. Franco decorated him for valour. Philby discussed the possibility of assassinating Franco.

In the 1930s Philby became aware that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was not the land of milk and honey that he wished it to be. He knew of all the mass repressions, the detention without trial, the  absence of any free expression, the suppression of religion, the absurd adulation of Stalin, the wholesale deportations, the enslavement of millions of people, the starvation to death of millions, the widespread use of torture and the mass execution of political prisoners. Despite knowing this Philby decided that he had picked his side and would stick to it. Communism was supposed to better life for ordinary folk. Despite the mistakes and the wrongdoing he believed that Communism would turn out to be benevolent in the long run.

The Second World War broke out in 1939. Philby knew the right people and was recruited into MI6. This was the British espionage service.

By this time Philby had split up with his Austrian wife Litzi but not actually divorced her. He took up with a British woman from the same background as himself. They went on to have five children.

Philby went to France as a war correspondent. In 1940 the Soviet Union had a very cordial relationship with the Third Reich. If Philby had any intelligence on the British and French armies he was to send it to Moscow. Then the Soviets would presumably pass it on to their allies in Berlin.

In 1940 the British were defeated in France and evacuated. Philby spent the rest of the war in the United Kingdom. His area of responsibility was SPain and Portugal. These were both neutral countries but their governments were indiscrete about their sympathy for the Axis.

Philby has access to almost all MI6 files. He was in St Albans for much of the time. He trawled the files on the Soviet Union. He regularly took files to his Soviet handlers to let them photograph them. The Soviets were elated with Kim for giving them industrial quantities of intelligence. But these copious files were too good to be true. Could Philby be a double agent? It was hard to credit that the British were so slack with secret intelligence.

The files shows that the British had had no agents in the USSR since the early 1920s. The Soviets were insulted. Were they not important enough to spy on? They thought this claim must be bogus. Stalin’s huge scale oppression of his people with millions of people sent to labour camps punished many, many innocent people. It also punished a few guilty ones too. The USSR was the most totalitarian country of all. It was all but impossible for a spy to operate.

In 1941 the Germany Army invaded the USSR. Suddenly the British and the Soviets were allies. Philby kept his masters apprised of what the western Allies were thinking.

The war ended in 1945. Philby decided to finally divorce his Austrian wife. His colleagues were shocked to discover that the mother of Philby’s children was not his wife. He soon rectified this. It would have hurt his promotion prospects not to.

In September 1945 a Soviet diplomat wanted to defect to the British. This man could identify British moles working for the Soviets. When Kim saw this file he was worried since this man could finger him. He did his best to stall matters. One can assume that Philby informed his Soviet handlers. It would have been staggering if he did not. In the end the Soviet caught the would be defector. He was taken back to the USSR and never heard from again.

Philby was then posted to Istanbul. His wife Aileen Furse and their progeny came too. His wife became mentally ill and started to self harm. She faked physical attacks on herself. Philby’s inebriate homosexual friend Guy Burgess came to stay. The British were trying to penetrate the Soviet Block. Philby was able to tip off the Soviets about these operations. These penetration efforts were nipped in the bud.

After a few years Philby was posted to Washington. He developed a very deep bond with his American opposite number James Jesus Angleton. They dined together almost daily. These who heavy drinkers were drinking buddies. Philby garnered reams of intelligence from his American pal.



A dream of the expectant mother


About a week ago I was informed that Juliet is with child. She is a slender young woman and I had see her standing at work. There was a notceable bulge in her midsection. She wed not long ago so it would be unsurprising if she were to be minded towards maternity. I asked my colleagues and they confirmed the gladsome tidings.

When I saw Juliet in the office I extended unto her my heartiest felicitations.

I had a dream that I was copulating with her. She is very desirable. In the revery I am unsure whether she wa with child or not. Afterwards I suggested giving her head. She agreed. I had no intention of snowballing. I presume my goo had magically disappeare din the way it does in dreams.

I imagine my surprise when I cam t inspect her pudenda. Itw as a white platic plug as in what one puts into the wall to draw electricity. This did not horrify me. Nor did it strike me as bzaree that I had been able to tup her a minite earlier and her generative oragns were perectlt normal. what can it signify> I have much frustration with electornic items. Mabe my enforcre chasistyt is akin to my travails with electrics.