development of sociological positivism
positivism is split into individual and sociological
individual positivism is split into biological and psychological positivism
Positivism is a method not a theory. a mode of inquiry
individual positivism and classicism seek to be correctionalist
they have many things in common.
they see crime as something that can and should be controlled
classicism and positivism say crime can be controlled. they have different policies
policy from classicism. They say punish. they are part of the enlightenment. They believe in progress. punishments must be consistent and predetermined. less barbaric. more predictable. No discretion. They are not moralistic. they want proportion and no arbitrariness. punish mind not body
they tried to be rational and clear. they favoured deterrence. actions are guided by hedonism
they believed in freewill.
positivists say that crime is caused by pathology. It is an illness. It is biological or psyochological.
they say something is wrong with experiences of the person. they favour treatment
they approaches have one thing in common
they say that crime can be controlled.
the notion that crime can be controlled is challenged by Durkheim
Poeple study criminology to understand causes and see how crime can be prevented
sociological positivism – grounded in natural science
alien spacecraft and car
objective and subjective knowledge. two forms of knowledge
we can reveal two forms of knowledge. objective knowledge is that the alien spacecaft can adduce objective knowledge through observation. red traffic light car stops and green traffic light the car goes. they look at pattern and recurrent nature of sociological nature.
we can develop universal laws
we do not know WHY driver is stopping. the lights do not control the engine.
knowledge rooted in nature of relations’ tap into universal norms
seeks to be objective
bumble bee. poet says it exists to be pretty. gardener says it exists to pollinate. child says it exists to make honey
objective knowledge – they all agree that it is a bumblee bee
subjective knowledge – purpose
durkheim said crime is a social fact
moving away from frameworks of seeking to control crime
context. Durkheim lived through turmoil
context informs theory. a theory does not develop in a vaccum
durkheim wanted to know what made society cohere
society bonds due to religion etc….
society is structured and interdependent
it has a system. look at it as a whole. he draws a biological analogy
it is like a plant. they are structured and interdependent.
all parts serve a function
he is a structural functionalist. provides us with a biological analogy
it is made up of interrelated parts. it all serves a function
plants have roots and these have a purpose.
it is possible for the plant to become dysfunctional. If a part ceases to work.
each part is interrelated. for this to be healthful it needs to have each part functioning.
society is similar. it has classes and institutions. kinship is one.
objective knowledge is falsifiable. wanted to apply new way of seeing things to sociological phenomena
he conducted a study of suicide
high suicide in UK law in SPain. answer – catholicism”
suicide is not personal only it is due to society
suicide rates fluctuate
religion was once seen as the reason for everything including volcanic eruptions
apply social forces to understand suicide.
self-destruction proves that external factors drive our behaviour
he used states. he drew conclusions in a value free manner
some countries have consistently higher suicide rates than others.
religion has a central role to play in C 19
Catholics had more extended kinship networks.
DURKheim says crime has a function – social change
is it criminal act that causes social change or is it the idea that brings about social change?
crime is normal. in two ways. it is inevitable. secondly it is universal
even in a society of saints there will be crime. there will always be one or two who are tempted to violate the law.
infractions are eternal
crime highlights moral boundaries
crime helps society cohere because it can identify enemies and unacceptable conduct
when someone commits a crime he offends the moral sentiments of society
by punishing crime we heal the wounds done to collective sentiments
Soham murders bound community together
conscience collective at heart of societies
set of shared values and beliefs and morals
we all have these. the nature of collective conscience changes
there is mechanic solidarity and organic solidarity
industrial revolution separates modernity from pre modernity
it says that nature of c c (collective conscience) in pre modernity was mechanic solidarity
mechanic solidarity – homogeneous. small communities . self sufficient’ . highly established C C . resemblance between individuals. well established rules.
modernity – metropolis. heterogeneous. diverse.
in diverse communities c c is weak. plurality