Monthly Archives: August 2015

The United Kingdom in the 1920s.


The UK entered the 1920s powerful but chastened. Unemployment was high and this was assumed to be just part of the transition from peace to war. In Ireland there was a guerrilla campaign which was getting worse for the Crown.

The enormous sanctions imposed on Germany were supposed to help pay for the war. John Maynard Keynes had published a book on this in 1919 – the Economic Consequences of the Peace. He argued that by putting reparations on Germany the Allies shot themselves in the foot. By ruining Germany they would ruin themselves. They needed a prosperous Germany to trade with.

The Labour Party latched onto public anger at joblessness and poverty. The Labour Party was firmly entrenched as the dominant party in a number of metropolises. In London. Glasgow, Birmingham, Cardiff, Liverpool and Newscastle the Labour Party was master. Labour held the loyalty of much of the urban working class. This was especially so of those who worked in the most unionised sections of the economy – the coal mines, the dock yards and in smoke stack industry.

The Liberal Party was hopelessly split. Lloyd George and Asquith led the two different factions of the party. They openly abominated each other.

In 1921 Bonar Law was persuaded to stand down as leader of the Conservative and Unionist Party. He was replaced by Austen Chamberlain. Chamberlain was the son of Joseph Chamberlain the Liberal Unionist. Like his father before him Austen’s trademark was a monocle. Austen came from a middle class rather than an upper class family. This was similar to Bonar Law. This went a small way towards correcting the impression that the party was all about noblemen.

The financial situation was still dire. Reparation payments from Germany had only just begun. There was a debt mountain. There were many pensions to pay to war widows and orphans. Soldiers who had been mutilated had to be cared for.

The conflict in Ireland reached a crescendo. In the North hundreds of Catholic civilians were murdered by loyalist terrorists.

In July 1921 there was a truce between the Irish Republican Army and the Crown Forces. Sinn Fein was the IRA’s political party. Sinn Fein MPs were invited to London to treat with His Majesty’s Government. The leader of Sinn Fein de Valera was not part of the delegation but did come to London a few times to speak to the UK Government. De Valera was styled by some President of Ireland. In December 1921 an agreement was thrashed out that was not dissimilar to Home Rule. There would be a parliament for Southern Ireland (26 counties) and a parliament for Northern Ireland (six counties). There would be a Council of Ireland for the two parliaments. Northern Ireland would remain within the UK and be represented at Westminster. Southern Ireland would become the Irish Free States and she would not be represented at Westminster. The UK would retain three bases in the South of Ireland and be allowed to use more bases in times of war or strenuous relations. The Irish Free State would assume a share of the UK national debt.

In 1922 a Naval Conference took place at Washington DC. The United Kingdom had previously had a policy of double power standard. That meant the Royal Navy had to be as large as the next two put together. This was scrapped at the time of the Washington Conference. The Royal Navy agreed to parity with the US Navy. There did not appear to be any chance that the UK would fight against the United States. The Treasury was very keen on the deal since it would make huge savings.

The UK had rhetorically supported the Greeks against the Turks. Lloyd George was a Philhellene. That was instinctive for Liberals. Moreover, Greece had been an Allied country and Turkey had been a Central Powers belligerent. Greece, Italy and France were due to seize some of Turkey Proper under the Treaty of Sevres.

The Turks defeated the Greeks and drove them out of Asia Minor. British troops were stationed at Chanak – now called Canakkale. This was beside Gallipoli. The United Kingdom was t control the Bosphorous under the Treaty of Sevres. Ataturk’s soldiers surrounded the British garrison there. There was a tense moment. Ataturk warned the British soldiers to pull out or be attacked. Should the United Kingdom give into such threats? Should she fight rather than have the treaty overturned? Lloyd George sensed that there was no stomach for a fight. Britain’s finances were parlous. There was still unrest in India and SOuth Africa. Southern Ireland was in the throes of a civil war. Lloyd George decided it would be sage to cave in. The British troops at Chanak were permitted to leave taking their arms with them. In return the UK publicly abjured any right to station troops in Turkey. A determined aggressor had successfully overturned the peace terms previously agreed by his country.

Some Conservatives said that Britain should have fought.

The Conservative Party grew tired of serving under Lloyd George. He had been PM for six years. He had handled many crises. Stanley Baldwin led backbench MPs in ousting the ineffectual leader in the shape of Austen Chamberlain. Bonar Law came back as leader. This led to the formation of the 1922 Committee. It is so called because it would founded in 1922. It represents backbench Conservative MPs. Andrew Bonar Law became Prime Minister and immediately called an election.

The Conservatives won handily. The most significant development was that Labour overtook the Liberals. For the first time Labour was the official opposition.

Bonar became very ill in 1923.. In fact he was dying of throat cancer. He was replaced by Stanley Baldwin. Baldwin was an Old Harrovian who had attended Cambridge. He came from a West Midlands manufacturing family. He was a cousin of Rudyard Kipling. Baldwin was a debonair and expedient politician. He called an election at the end of 1923. When the result came in at the start of 1924 it revealed that for the first time ever the Labour Party had most seats. They were still a minority. The Labour Party formed a government under James Ramsay MacDonald.

Ramsay MacDonald had not had a good start in life. He had been born out of wedlock. The Liberal MP Horatio Bottomley had published Ramsay MacDonald’s birth certificate to highlight this fact. This was a despicable tactic but it tapped into a wide felt prejudice. He had grown up poor. He had become a pupil-teacher. This meant he went to school for free in return for teaching others. After a few years of this he became a teacher and then a journalist.

The Labour Government could achieve very little because it did not control the COmmons. In 1924 there was another election. The Daily Mail published the Zinoviev Telegram. Zinoviev was the head of Communist International – Comintern. Comintern’s job was to bring about communist revolution all over the world. In this telegram Zinoviev supposedly enjoined the Communist Party of Great Britain to help Labour win the election and then launch a revolution. It was fiercely disputed as to whether this was authentic or not. The telegram certainly gave many people the willies. Some said it was a clever forgery and had been created by right wing elements in the British secret service. It certainly helped the Conservatives.

Zinoviev was seen as a rival by Stalin. He was later shot during the purges.

This time the Conservatives won. Stanley Baldwin was back as PM. Despite losing the election Labour’s position as His Majesty’s Loyal Opposition was confirmed. People had rejected the Liberals as the Opposition in 1923 and they meant it. Asquith was still leader of the Liberals but a large faction followed Lloyd George instead. This fissure in Liberalism was to prove near fatal to the party. With Labour on the left and the Conservatives on the right the Liberal Party could have dominated politics as a centrist party. Lloyd George had charisma and the prestige of being a war Prime Minister. But the war had been the antithesis of liberalism. It did not seem to advance liberal ideas. Britain had had to become almost totalitarian in order to win. Dictatorships or chaos reigned in defeated states. The war impoverished the UK. The strident nationalism engendered by war did not sit well with liberalism.

In 1924 the Conservative Government saw the election gradually pick up. Unemployment was still stubbornly high. There was peace in the British Empire. In India the Congress Party was campaigning for a greater deal of self-government.

In 1926 workers were restive. They wanted higher wages. Bosses tried to cut wages and increase hours. A workers’ slogan ran ”Not a minute on the day not a penny off the pay.” Coal miners were among the most militant trades unionists. A few of the trades unionists were communists. They openly lauded the Soviet Union.

In April 1926 the General Strike began. It started with coal miners. Most miners in Nottinghamshire refused to strike. There was an alternative trades union there that was surprisingly friendly with the mine owners. This union was headed by someone named Spencer. His union was secretly funded by the Conservative Party. Some miners regarded these pro Conservative trades unionists as traitors. The term Spencerman was used as an insult in Nottinghamshire into the 1950s.

Undergraduates of right wing opinions volunteered to do jobs vacated by strikers. Middle class men did the same. Some feared the strike because they felt it was an attempt to usurp Parliament. A few left wing clergy supported the strike. The Catholic Archbishop of Westminster denounced the strike as immoral. Most newspapers were not printed because trades unionists refused to work. Churchill organised for a government newspaper to be printed called the British Gazette. After two weeks the strike ended.

In 1926 Asquith stood down as leader of the Liberals. He became the Earl of Oxford and Asquith and took a seat in the Lords. Lloyd George was finally leader of the Liberals – the party was reunited. But not for long.

In the late 1920s Labour policy towards India changed. Ramsay MacDonald said that India should get dominion status. The Conservative Government made some concessions to Indian nationalist aspirations. Lord Irwin, who was Viceroy of India, advocated this carefully calibrated policy of conciliation and repression.

In 1929 Labour won fewer votes than the Conservatives but more seats. Labour formed its first minority government. RAMSAy MacDonald was the PM. Baldwin remained Leader of the Conservative Party.

Labour could finally implement its programme. Unemployment was still too high. The Liberals had published a paper – we can conquer unemployment. Labour was determined to reduce unemployment in particular and more broadly to tackle poverty. Within weeks of Labour taking office the Wall Street Crash occurred.

The stock market collapsed in October 1929. This first of all affected the United States. It did not take long for the contagion to spread to the United Kingdom. Initially the full significance of the Wall Street Crash was not understood. It took a few weeks for trade to slow down and people to be laid off. But then the downward spiral only gathered pace.

More and more people lost their jobs. Those in work often had their hours cut and their hourly rates docked. The government’s tax take was reduced because many people were no longer paying tax due to not having an income. Those who had an income had less money to spend than before. Many people were supporting needy friends and impecunious relatives. Industrial parts of the country were severely impacted. The Government was obliged to reduce its spending. Military spending was cut to the bone. Soliders, sailors and airmen were not let go. But big ticket items were postponed or cancelled. There was less fuel for vehicles, planes and ships. There was less ammunition for training.

Some in the Labour Party grew frustrated with the government’s inability to overcome the Great Depression. Some were attracted to communism. They said that under communism no one would be afflicted by the cruel vagaries of the free market. The Soviet Union boasted that it had not been hurt at all by the Great Depression. This was false since the USSR traded with other lands. In the United Kingdom some people went hungry. In the USSR millions starved to death.

Churches and other charitable groups did what they could to relieve the worst privation. Tariff barriers were erected by the United Kingdom and other countries.

The United Kingdom was compelled to go off the gold standard.

The bigotry of Ann Coulter


I tried to like Ann Coulter. I really did. I bought a few of her books. I am a right winger but her views are too extreme. She is ignorant and nauseating. She appeals to the basest prejudices. It is hard to tell when she is being flippant.

She preaches against immigration. The USA is all about immigration. The Coulters are not Native Americans. The US is more of an immigrant country than any other. There is of course such a thing as excessive immigration. One should limit immigration and be selective about it.

Her latest book is entitled ”Adios America” and her subtitle explains how it is an assault on the left’s plan to turn the United States into a Third World basket case. Republicans are not totally opposed to immigration and Democrats are not in favour of unrestricted immigration.

Miss Coulter goes on to sya how it is ghastly to permit ”illiterate Afghan peasants” into the USA since they will probably turn into suicide bombers. There are tens of thousand of Afghan-Americans. SO far as I know none of them has set off a bomb in the USA. Plenty of white Americans have committed terrorist attacks in the USA. Was it wrong to let these whites in?

She is right that illiteracy is a widespread problem in Afghanistan. I do not know of any illiterate people from Afghanistan moving to the United States. It seems that she is racist against the Afghans. WHy single them out as a nationality that should not be allowed in? The USA supported the majority of Afghans in resisting communism. Should this not be a basis for friendship?> The Afghan Army and police fought alongside the US military against the Taleban. Is she too ignorant or ungrateful to recognise that many Afghans are pro American? The elected Afghan Government wanted the US military there.

How about peasants? So she appeals to class prejudice. She often accuses the Democrats of being snobs. See how she sneers at the working class. Someone who works a small farm is a peasant. Does she despise American farmers? Most European immigrants to the USA before the 20th century came from smallholdings. But they were peasants so they should have been barred from entry to the USA – that is what she must believe. I wonder where the Coulters started out in society.

The fact that the title begins with Adios hints at anti Latino prejudice. Perhaps it is wrong to draw this inference.

She is a loathsome woman. She is staggeringly stupid. She knows very little about Islam. She is a war monger and she insults billions of people. Her revolting views are what fuel anti American prejudice. She appeals to all that is worst in US public opinion. There are highly intelligent, articulate and reasonable Americans. Ann Coulter encourages Americans to reject all this qualities. She wants her compatriots to be willfully ignorant, conceited and bellicose.

The United Kingdom in the 1910s.


Notwithstanding the manifold achievements of the Liberals from 1905 to 1910 the January 1910 election went badly for the Liberals. The Unionists made the most remarkable recovery. They clawed back most of the seats they had lost in 1906. The Liberals still had more Members of Parliament but not an overall majority. The Liberals were compelled to rely on support from Labour and from the Irish Nationalists. The Irish Home Rule Party was Liberal inclined chiefly because the Liberals were still committed to Home Rule. They also concurred with the Liberals on free trade. Despite this Unionists used to claim that if there was Home Rule for Ireland then the Home Rule Government might introduce tariffs.

The Conservatives in the House of Lords continued to vote against the People’s Budget. Some in the Conservative Party counselled caution. ”Peers versus people” was a Liberal rallying cry. Anti-aristocratic sentiment became widespread among working class men of a non-Conservative cast of mind. Some said of the House of Lords, ”mend them or end them.” They were calling for the House of Lords to have its wings clipped. It ought no longer be able to legislate on money bills. Others wanted the hereditary peers removed altogether. Inherited political power seemed wrong especially when most peers belonged to one party.

The Conservative press slated the Liberals. They depicted the Liberal Chancellor of the Exchequer (Lloyd George) as a highwayman. ”Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief….”

Conservatives were divided between hedgers and ditchers. Hedgers were those who argued that the party should hedge its bets. It should cease to oppose this budget that was popular. Blocking the people’s budget was too divisive. The ditchers said they should fight to the last ditch. The People’s Budget was socialist and it was an assault on liberty.

In April 1910 the Parliament Act was passed. This said that the House of Lords would have its power to block bills removed. It would be able to delay bills by up to two years. If the House of Commons passed a bill thrice within the space of two years it would become law anyway even without the consent of the upper chamber. (This power has seen been reduced to only a one year delay). Moreover, the upper chamber would have no control over money bills.

In May 1910 Edward VII passed away. He was succeeded by his son George V.

King George V was worried about the frenetic atmosphere. Militant language was used by Liberals and Unionists. Labour was growing restive and there were plenty of strikes. Could a via media not be found? He called a Buckingham Palace Conference to try to persuade the parties to arrive at an honourable compromise. No solution was arrived at.

In December 1910 there still seemed to be an impasse. H H Asquith decided to ask George V to call another General Election. His Majesty the King agreed so to do. Moreover, if the Tory peers persisted in stopping the People’s Budget being passed then the King would create enough Liberal peers to make sure that the budget was passed. This was a similar scenario to 1832 where William IV had had to threaten to ennoble hundreds of Whigs if the Tory peers did not behave.

The Liberals won the December 1910 election but not by as much as the 1906 election.

The Liberals were confirmed in office. The People’s Budget was passed. The Liberals seemed to be making the weather. Labour gained more MPs in December 1910. The Unionists were temporarily demoralised. They had spent almost two years fighting the People’s Budget only to see it passed.

A J Balfour stepped down as Conservative leader. The new leader of the Conservatives and Liberal Unionists was Andrew Bonar Law. Bonar Law had been born in Canada. Bonar Law’s parents had come from Northern Ireland and Scotland. In those days they would have simply said Ireland. Bonar Law had returned to the United Kingdom as a child. He was brought up in Glasgow.

Bonar Law was the son of a Nonconformist clergyman. His middle class background stood in marked contrast to the aristocratic pedigree of most of his Conservative parliamentary colleagues. This was an astute move by the party. The Conservatives were seen as being a party of toffs. This was especially so in the wake of the peers versus people controversy. By electing a middle class leader they established more of a connection to ordinary people.

The Marquess of Landsdowne led the party in the Lords.

In 1911 Asquith then turned his mind to another issue: Irish Home Rule. It had been a long standing Liberal policy. Since 1893 no one had tried to implement it. Asquith confirmed that the Liberal Government now intended to introduce Home Rule. This delighted the Home Rule Party. The Home Rulers also assured Liberals of their co-operation on other issues. Labour was also pro Home Rule. Some people called for Home Rule all around – that is to say for England, Scotland and Wales too. There was a caucus within the Liberals calling for this. There was even a separate Scottish Home Rule Party but it had very little backing.



There was an increase in animus between the United Kingdom and Germany. A number of novels were published that raise fears of war. They had titles such as ”The Invasion of 1910” and ”The Riddle of the Sands”, ”The 39 Steps” by John Buchan.

The Riddle of the Sands was published by Erksine Childers. Childers was an upper class Irish Protestant. He attended Haileybury and Cambridge. This former Clerk of the House of Commons had started out with views typical for a man of his background. He viewed himself as being British as well as Irish. He wanted to keep Ireland united with Great Britain. His novel was about two Britishers taking a sailing holiday around the German coast and happening upon a dastardly invasion plan. Barges carrying sand dredged from canals had German troops concealed under huge trays containing sand – there were holes in the side through which to breathe! These seemingly inoccuous barges would carry soldier to the UK for an invasion. It was a highly improbable tale since barges would quickly capsize at sea.

Despite these alarmist prophecies relations were still fairly good. There were regular visits. The Kaiser attended the funeral of his unclle Edward VII in 1910. Churchill went to German military manuevres. There was nothing inevitable about war. Ministers of both governments had cordial meetings. No one rebuked them for this.



The notion that women should have the right to vote had been around since the Middle Ages. A very few women in England had been permitted to vote in parliamentary elections back then. By the end of the 16th century they were deprived of this right. In the 1650s some women wrote to Parliament saying that they ought to be permitted to vote. Parliament wrote back telling them to ”meddle with their housewifery.”

Some revolutionaries in the 1790s had taken up the cause of female suffrage. Suffrage meaning the right to vote. Mary Wollstonecraft’s ”Vindication of the Rights of Women” called for this reform and many others. Some radicals in the late 19th century also embraced this cause. Mr Pankhurst in Manchester advocated. A women attempted to vote in the late 19th century and there was a court case about it. The court found that a woman was personally incapable of voting due to her gender even if she satisfied all the other criteria for voting.

There were several minor female suffrage societies in the late 19th century. They banded together to form the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. There were pro female suffrage factions inside the major political parties. There  were religiously affiliated suffrage societies. Some trades unions agreed with women voting.

In the late 19th century women gained the right to vote in local elections but not parliamentary elections. A woman could also be elected to her local council. She could even be mayor of her town and a few were.

Women had also gained more rights in the 19th century. There had been the Married Women’s Property Act. Until then a man and his wife were considered as one flesh. So if a woman who owned property wed then her husband could do whatever he wanted with it. This act allowed the woman a separate legal personality. Women had campaigned to have the age of consent raised from 12 to 16. This was partly to crack down on child prostitution.

In the 1860s women had been allowed to study Medicine. Elizabeth Garret Anderson qualified as a doctor. A hospital in London is named in her honour.

One of the arguments against female suffrage had been that women were too uneducated to vote. As higher education was opened to women this argument became feeble especially as working class men were allowed to vote. WHy should a women with a degree be unable to vote when an illiterate man could vote?

The Women’s Social and Political Union was established in 1903. The Pankhurst family were prime movers in the WSPU. Sylvia Pankhurst was the daughter who became a socialist which is easy to recall since her name commences with an S. Christabel was the daughter who became a Conservative so it is handy that her name begins with a C. The mother was Emmeline Pankhurst.

The WSPU was a more radical movement. Its slogan was deeds not words. Politely asking for the vote for decades had yielded no results.

Conservatives were not as against female suffrage as you might imagine. It would seem an unconservative proposition. Women are thought to care for smaller groups rather than larger communities and this tends to make them more Conservatives. The Liberals were slightly less sympathetic to women’s suffrage than the COnservatives. There were individual Liberals who were in favour of votes for women – for example Campbell-Bannerman. The Labour front bench was pro feminist. Many Labour rank and file members were against it because it was too shocking for them and a distraction from the class struggle.

The suffragettes were the WSPU and the suffragists were the NUWSS. The use of the terms was not always this distinct. Both movements were largely middle class.

Fundamentalists Protestants were against women’s suffrage. The Catholic Church was also opposed to it. Despite this there were members of both those denominations were backed female suffrage. The Irish Home Rule Party was against it.

In 1905 Parliament debated female suffrage. That was a major step forward. It never went to a vote. It was unthinkable to discuss it before. Queen Victoria had been known to be adamantly opposed to female suffrage.

Latter a Women’s League for Opposing Female Suffrage was founded. This was perhaps self-defeating. It women should not be concerned about issues of public concern then it was assuredly hypocritical to found a women’s organisation to campaign on a political question.

Much anti-suffragism was based on the two spheres theory. That is to say there was the public sphere and the private sphere. This theory held that men should predominate in the public sphere. This meant politics, business, legal matters, ecclesiastical affairs and so forth. Women ought to hold sway in the private sphere which was in the home and among the family. In fact men tended to rule the roost at home. Women being allowed to vote in local elections and seek election to local councils weakened. There was no blatant distinction between local politics and national politics. It still involved tendentious issues and budgets. Advocates of this two magisteria theory claimed that local government was still about domestic matters – drainage, housing stock. parks and suchlike.

individual  Liberals such as Campbell Bannerman who agreed with female suffrage. The Labour leadership was pro feminist but most rank and file members found it shocking. It was also a distraction from the class struggle.

In 1905 female suffrage was discussed in Parliament. That in itself was a step forward. It had been unthinkable before. Queen Victoria had been horrified at the thought of it.

The United Kingdom was influenced by not wishing to be a laughing stock. If she allowed women’s suffrage then she may lose face in the colonies. Yet on dominion had allowed female suffrage. That was New Zealand. People who were anti suffragists spoke about this issue as if allowing women the parliamentary vote would make the sky fall in. It had not done so in New Zealand and certain states of the USA which had already introduced this epoch making reform.


In 1912 the Home Rule issue began to come to a head.

Andrew Bonar Law (Leader of His Majesty’s Loyal Opposition) addressed a rally at Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire. Blenheim Palace was the seat of the Duke of Marlborough. Lord Randolph Churchill (younger son of the previous duke) had famously denounced Home Rule in 1886. His clarion call to arms ”Ulster would fight and Ulster would be right” re-echoed through Tory rhetoric. Bonar Law was half Ulster on his father’s side. Bonar Law said to the multitude, ”I can imagine no length of resistance to which Ulster would go in which the British people would not be willing to support them.” He was insinuating that the Conservatives would support an armed revolt. Was this to morally support it or actually assist it?

It was scandalous that a party that prided itself on its constitutional character was inciting rebellion against the Crown. The Ulster Volunteer Force was founded in 1913. SOme have called them the King’s loyal rebels. One wag said that the UVF would fight anyone to stay British – even the British.

In the run up to 1914 the United Kingdom seemed to face a crisis on several fronts. There were plenty of strikes. People thought there might be a civil war in Ireland over Home Rule. This might well spread to Great Britain – so many people feared. Liberals and Conservatives would tear each other apart over Home Rule. Despite this economic growth was still healthy.

When the Great War broke out some said it would be a war to unite us all.

This history will not look at the military camaign aspect of the war. That has been covered elsewhere on this blog. This article will examine the Great War from a domestic affairs point of view.

Lord Kitchener of Khartoum was brought into the War Cabinet. The War Cabinet was a small group within the Cabinet. The War Cabinet was only there to discuss the conduct of the war and not issues unrelated thereto. The full Cabinet consisting of over 20 men could still discuss issues that arose as they would arise in peacetime. The Chancellor of the Exchequer was deliberately excluded from the War Cabinet. This was because once a decision had been taken to fight then cost must be no object. One must not cause more men to die because one quibbled over a paltry sum.

Lord Kitchener said that the United Kingdom needed 100 000 volunteers. Within a month over 750 000 had volunteered. The British Army had to turn men away because it could not cope with them. It then began accepting recruits but could not furnish them with uniforms or rifles for a few months.

The seasoned troops were sent to France. There were precious few Non-Commissioned Officers left to train the new recruits.

International trade broke down. One could no longer trade with enemy nations such as Germany or Austria Hungary. Before long the Ottoman Empire was also a foe. In 1915 Bulgaria too became and enemy of the United Kingdom. Enemy merchant ships in ports of the British Empire were impounded. Ships from the British Empire which were in enemy ports were seized. Enemy aliens were interned. Allied countries like France and Russia had more important things to spend on than foreign imports. They only imported what was vital. Because of this commerce ground to a halt. Many men were put out of work. This partly explains the huge number of men who asked to join the army and the Royal Navy. It was not solely patriotic sentiment that actuated them. They also needed to be fed.

Parliament passed the Defence of the Realms Act in short order. This gave the government sweeping powers of surveillance, detention and sequestration. The government assumed an unprecedented degree of control over many aspects of life.

The war did not go too badly in the first few months. France was saved. The British Army proved its pluck. British soldiers were professionals who had mostly served several years at least before this war. They tended to be better man for man than their enemy. This was because British soldiers wanted to be soldiers – they were all volunteers. They had self-selected as suitable for army life. They had more experience than their continental counterparts and they had often seen combat in colonial campaigns. The quality of the average Tommy was to decrease. This loss of calibre was owing to fact that millions of men volunteered or were conscripted. This meant that less appropriate men became soldiers. Many served against their will. They were green.

The government was forced to increase taxation and national debt. War bonds were sold.

The Liberal Government under H H Asquith had the support of the Conservatives and Liberal Unionists in declaring war. Had Asquith not done so then his Cabinet may have split. Churchill and some others had mulled over forming a coalition with Unionists for the purpose of making war. The Labour Party was riven by this war. Ben Tillet and his followers supported the war. Others, led by James Ramsay MacDonald , opposed this war. Keir Hardie, founder of Labour, was still a Member of Parliament. Keir Hardie was aghast by the war and campaigned against it.

The United Kingdom was soon afflicted by paranoia. A wave of spy mania swept over the nation. Tabloid newspapers published reportage about there being thousands of German secret agents who were in deep cover. Some were hiding out in the sewers. They would emerge from where they lurked to launch bestial attacks. These reports were almost all bereft of the least foundation. Intelligence was one of the few major deficiencies in the German war machine. The Second Reich had very few spies in the UK in this war.

The Germans recruited a man of their nationality to spy in the United Kingdom. His name was Carl Lody. Lody was a travel agent who spoke perfect English. They acquired a false American passport for him. He travelled to the UK posing as an American. He sent some reports in code to Germany about ship movements. This led to the sinking of one ship that sailed from Edinburgh. He picked up a rumour about Russian troops with snow on their boots passing through the UK en route to the Western Front. This was a commonly believed and bogus story. There were to be many such fables.

Lody spent some time in Ireland – then part of the United Kingdom. He returned to Great Britain and was arrested. Some of the letters he had posted to neutral countries were to addresses that British intelligence knew were used by German intelligence. Lody was found guilty of being a spy. He was sentenced to death. He said to the man commanding his firing squad, ”I suppose you will not shake hands with a spy.”/ ”No, but I will shake hands with a very brave man.” Lody showed no dismay as he met his death. He earned much admiration from the British public. At this stage in the war stories about German atrocities were only just beginning. There was no deep detestation of Germans. Lody was respected as a patriotic spy.

The Germans did not have an effective spy network in the United Kingdom. Their few secret agents in the UK had mostly been arrested within days of the declaration of war. The Germans recruited two Dutchmen to spy for them. Coming from a neutral country they would attract little suspicion. These Netherlands posed as cigar merchants. They sent orders for cigars to the Netherlands. In fact these orders were coded messages. Cigars were delivered to the Dutchmen as per their instructions so as to maintain their legend. The two Hollanders were arrested and charges with espionage. They were found guilty and sentenced to death. The Government was wary of executing these men since it would lead to protestations from the Dutch Government. The UK was reluctant to alienate the Netherlands which could be a useful ally but could be a fairly strong enemy. In the end it was decided that if these two men were allowed to live it would embolden other spies. The two secret agents were executed by firing squad.

In Ireland the war seemed to calm things down. Half the UVF volunteered for the army as did many of the Irish National Volunteers.

By late 1914 the UK was starting to experience significant shortages. The lack of international trade was hurting the economy. Food prices had risen. The government was compelled to bring in legal maximum prices

Feeding human food to animals was outlawed. There were restrictions placed on alcohol. A closing time of 10 pm was introduced. One was not permitted to purchase liquor for another – even one’s spouse.

Censorship was introduce. Information likely to be of use to the enemy could not be published. ANything that would lower morale could not be printed either even if it were true.

By 1915 trench warfare was firmly established. The hopes of quick victory were beginning to abate. German U boats were sinking many British merchant ships. The Royal Navy had been blockading Germany for several months.

In time His Majesty’s Government was compelled to introduce rationing. The poorest ate better in wartime than they had in the antebellum.

The government took control of coal mines and railways. This was an affront to the free market principles espoused by Liberals and Conservatives. Labour were more opposed to the war than any other party. Ironically wartime socialism put their beliefs into practice.

In 1915 Keri Hardie passed away. One newspaper commented, ”The Member for Humanity has died.” Members of Parliament are known by they constituency such as ”the Member for West Ham.” Keir Hardie’s passionate defence of the underdog had earned him this moniker – Member for Humanity.

There were small anti-war protests. Anti war campaigners were mobbed by those who supported the war effort. Ramsay MacDonald spoke at public anti-war meetings. Police attended in case he said anything seditious. They were also conscious that they may need to step in to protect him. There were strikes against the war. The Government quickly folded when there were demands they could appease such as higher wages. The government could not afford to prosecute the war without a steady supply of munitions, coal and regular transport. Many of these stoppages  of labour occurred in Glasgow. Glasgow’s river became known as the Red Clyde.

Lookouts were posted along the coast. ANyone seen walking along the coast was treated with suspicion. Many people had their binoculars confiscated in case they were using them to reconnoitre military installations with a view to supplying information to the Central Powers.

In 1915 H H Asquith;s son Raymond was killed in combat. This was a blow that hit Asquith very hard. His personality was never the same again. Asquith had often been called ”Squiffy” meaning ”drunk” which was a play on his name. His dypsomania became severe.

The number of recruits slowed significantly in 1915. Those most minded to enlist had already done so. Unemployed men had already joined up. Unemployment had all but disappeared in 1915. There were vacancies created by men leaving their jobs to join the military. As the war dragged on casualties mounted. Letters from the front were censored. Men were not allowed to write frankly about the full horror of war. Men home on leave were able to tell their relatives and families how dreadful conditions were. Older brothers often warned their junior siblings not to volunteer.

Many underage boys volunteered for the army. The Royal Navy knowingly took boys as young as 12. They would not be in combat roles as such. But they would still be aboard a warship in combat and so could still be killed. The army officially did not take men until the age of 17. The army accepted soldiers as young as 13. The army usually did not know these boys were below the legal age but the army was far from scrupulous in seeking proof that a man was of legal age.

Conscription became a live issue. Should the army oblige men to serve? The Liberals were philosophically opposed. Conservatives were inclined to agree with compulsory military service. Some had advocated this for years.

Lord Derby ran a scheme where men pledged to enlist if called upon to do so.

The idea spread that some men were shirkers. They were failing to do their duty. Able bodied unmarried young men ought to serve in the armed forces. People were encouarged by the yellow press to coax men to join the armed forces.

In January 1916 the Military Service Act was passed. Men under 40 could be conscripted into the armed forces. There were reserved occupations. These included being a clergyman, train driver or foreman in a munitions factory. This act meant that the military had enough men. This act did not extend to Ireland because it was known that most people in Ireland were firmly against being obliged to serve in the British military.

In 1916 there was not enough war production. Many of the shells for the Battle of the Somme that summer were defective. There was an outcry about these dud munitions. Lloyd George was in communications with the Unionists. Lloyd George and his acolytes plotted to push Asquith out. There was a parliamentary putsch. This was a case of musical chairs. Asquith was ousted as Prime Minister. Lloyd George and his Liberal followers formed a government with Conservative support.

Asquith was still the leader of the Liberal Party. A majority of Liberals still backed Asquith. It was jaw dropping that Lloyd George should be Prime Minister of a mainly Conservative Government. Only a few years before he had been demonised by the Conservatives. David Lloyd George had been an outright opponent fighting in South Africa in 1899-1902. Lloyd George argued that this war was radically different. It is a mark of how pragmatic that the Conservatives were they they were willing to serve under a man whom they had despised.

Germany had suspended unrestricted U boat warfare after April 1915. This was because she had sunk the Lusitania. SS Lusitania was an American registered ship. When she was sunk 1 400 civilians were killed. Over 100 of those were Americans. This caused outrage in the United States. The Kaiser was chary about provoking the USA too much in case she came into the war on the Allied side. The United Kingdom recognised how vital the US was. The UK propagandised heavily to make Americans believe that the Allies were moral and the Central Powers were unrighteous. This was a war for democracy – so said British Government publicity. This was a largely specious claim but played well in the United States.

In 1917 Germany decided to recommence unrestricted U boat warfare. This had been hotly debated by the German top brass. Prince Max of Baden had been adamantly opposed. He argued that it was unethical but also moronic. It would not cause any serious advantage to accrue to Germany but it would certainly bring the USA into the war on the Allied side. The Kaiser was convinced by more hawkish elements. They were not sure it would bring the USA into the war. President Wilson had sworn to avoid war at all events. Moreover, the USA was not prepared for war – she had an army of only 80 000 men and a tiny marine corps. President Wilson had set his face against expanding the military even as a deterrent. Even if the USA did proclaim war against the Central Powers it would take a year for America to recruit, train and ship a large army. The war would be finished before the USA could have a significant impact on it.

In 1917 the food situation grew dire for the United Kingdom. The UK was in such straits because she imported almost half her food. At one stage she had only six weeks of foodstuffs left. It was possible that the UK would be forced to an ignominious defeat solely by the U boat blockade. Those Germans who claimed that U boat warfare could decide the war were almost right. The United Kingdom adopted the convoy system. This had been used in previous conflicts but rejected in this war. The convoy system started to make a difference. In April 1917 the USA declared war on the German Reich. The US Navy started to escort convoys across the Atlantic. Sinkings fell dramatically. The pressure on food stocks began to reduce.

In 1917 Lloyd George withdrew a significant number of troops from France. After the Nivelle Offensive in April that year it seemed that no breakthrough would come. If all these soldiers were left in France then the high command would simply fritter away their lives in futile attacks.

The Russian Revolution in February 1917 inspired some British workers. The February Revolution was not explicitly socialist but contained a large socialist element. The Provisional Government established in Russia chose to keep fighting. Some Britishers wondered about overthrowing their government and making peace. There were deserters from the British Army. Many of them did so simply because they did not wish to be killed in fighting. Others objected to the onerous discipline of military life. There was an ideological streak to some desertions. As they saw it the upper class commanded all armies and it was mainly the workers who were being slaughtered in their millions just to enrich the boss class.

Lenin returned to Russia in April 1917. He soon campaigned for Russia to withdraw from the war. Despite wartime censorship his opinions filtered through to the United Kingdom. He articulated what war weary Britons were thinking. Many were jaded by years of attrition. SOme people wanted peace at any price. Others wanted to negotiate reasonable terms. The mutinies in the French Army and anti-war socialist agitation had some effect on the British Army. There was a small mutiny in 1917.

In 1918 the UK began the year nervously. The October Revolution in Russia had led to Russia declaring a truce with Germany. Germany was able to withdraw some men from the Eastern Front to bolster her army in the West. Bolshevik Russia and Germany were negotiating a permanent peace. If that happened then Germany would be able to fling all her might against the West. The US Army was only just beginning to arrive in France in serious numbers.

The food situation improved for the UK in 1918. Rationing ensured that everyone had just enough to eat. The Battle of the Atlantic was being won thanks to the US Navy, improved technology and convoys. U boats could not be produced fast enough to replace losses. U boats were short of spare parts and their crews were malnourished and demoralised.

In 1918 the Allies faced Operation Michael – which was the German all-out assault in the West. It was a hairy moment for the Allies. But even if Germany had swept all before her on the Continent she would not be able to cross the English Channel. The Royal Navy had been expanded to give her an easy 2-1 advantage over the German Navy. With the United States in the war and the rapid building of US warships this meant that the US Navy and the Royal Navy together had more like a 4-1 advantage over the Germany Navy.

In March 1918 Russia under Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This definitively ended the First World War for Russia. She was soon embroiled in her own rancorous civil war. German could transfer all her forces from the East to the West. In fact in an attempt to control the huge tracts of territory ceded to Germany by Russia most German cavalry divisions remained stationed in the East.

As the German offensive in the West ground to a halt the Allies could not suppress growing optimism. April 1918 marked a year since the USA had declared war on the German Reich. Significant numbers of American soldiers and marines were now fighting in France. The illimited industrial capacity of the United States was beginning to tell. The USA also had a huge reserve of manpower. This more than made up for the loss of Russia.

In August 1918 the Allies began their hundred day advance. The British population was thoroughly sick of war but it was also confident. The forward movement was relentless. More and more German Prisoners of War arrived in the United Kingdom. The evidence of incremental victory was indisputable. The Royal Flying Corps had been part of the army. As part of the military reforms it was taken out of the army’s control and set up as an independent service called the Royal Air Force. All-arm co-operation ensured Allied victory.

In September and October 1918 the minor Central Powers through in the towel. On 11 November 1918 an Armistice was signed with Germany.

The United Kingdom celebrated. But there was little to celebrate with. Cupboards were almost bare. Few consumers goods had been produced in four years. It was not certain that the war was finished. The armistice was only a temporary cessation of hostilities whilst the final peace settlement was negotiated. Germany had had to hand over most of her heavy weapons as well as trains and merchant ships. She had had to released Allies Prisoners of War whereas Germans who were in the bag were not released by the Allies. Germany had been obliged to debilitate her fighting capability and to upgrade that of the Allies. It seemed improbable that Germany would renew the war but not impossible.



Parliament had extended its parliamentary term. Elections were supposed to be every 6 years. This had been delayed due to the war.

The Conservatives agreed to still serve under Lloyd George. Lloyd George’s Liberals and Bonar Law’s Conservatives gave their backers a letter saying that their candidates had the endorsement of their respective leaders. There was no sense in a Bonar Law Conservative fighting a Lloyd George Liberal. Only a minority of Liberals supported Lloyd George. Some say him as an egotistical and opportunistic traitor. He was a Radical in cahoots with Tories! A small faction of Conservatives opposed Bonar Law because he was in coalition with Lloyd George. But a high majority of Conservatives supported the plan.

Asquith – still official leader of the Liberals – said the letter that Bonar Law and Lloyd George had given to their minions was a coupon. He used the word derisively. This meant the election was dubbed the coupon election.

Those who had refused to serve as conscientious objectors had their voting rights taken away from them. Women over the age of 30 were allowed to vote in this election. All men over the age of 21 were allowed to vote except for lunatics and lords. Soldiers and sailors of the Royal Navy were permitted to vote at the age of 19.

The Conservatives selected a winner of the Victoria Cross to stand against Ramsay MacDonald. Some people reviled Ramsay MacDonald for campaigning against the war. The nationalistic and militaristic fervour of the times Ramsay MacDonald was turfed out. Asquith also lost his seat.

The election saw the Conservatives win with a few Lloyd George Liberals returned. The Asquithian Liberals performed reasonably well. The party that gained the most was Labour. Labour was not far off from equalling the Liberal vote.

Lloyd George stayed at the helm of a Conservative dominated government. A coalition was needed to tackle the many severe problems that would be encountered in the transition to peace – that was the argument for maintaining the wartime coalition/



The blockade on Germany remained. But the UK could trade with other countries without fear of U boat sinkings. The food situation got better and rations were abolished piecemeal. In June 1919 the Treaty of Versailles ended the war. Men could be demobilised. Some did not come home until 1920.

The UK faced a sharp upswing in unemployment. Demobilised men could not find jobs. Women who had taken jobs during the war usually gave them up in peacetime. There were hundreds of thousands of men who were permanently disabled due to the war.

Those who survived physically unscathed were often traumatised by the horrors they had witnessed.

Lloyd George had promised ”homes fit for heroes” in his election address. The reality after the war was very different. There was much fury at Germany. Popular slogans included ”Hang the Kaiser and make Germany pay.”

Asquith remained leader of the Liberals despite not having a seat. Sir Donald MacLean acted as Liberal leader in the Commons until Asquith was returned at a by election. MacLean was the father of the world class traitor also named Donald MacLean.

In Ireland an irregular conflict was initiated in January 1919. Sinn Fein Members of Parliament (73 of them) met in Dublin to declare Ireland independent. The United Kingdom had changed immensely in a decade. 10 years earlier even Home Rule seemed unlikely. Now many people in Ireland wanted a republic.

There were strikes in 1919. These were even more widespread than during the war. Striking in time of war could be seen as unpatriotic. This was not so once peace returned. The proletariat wanted improved pay and conditons. They heard propaganda from Communists who claimed to be building a workers’ paradise in Russia. Some dockers refused to load arms for the British Army fighting against the Bolsheviks.

In India there was increased unrest. The Congress Party had supported the war. They had pressurised the British Raj into saying there would be significant political reform after the war. The Government would not be drawn on the precise content of that reform. Congress urged Indians to volunteer for the Indian Army. There had been almost no anti-British activity in India during the war. Civil liberties had been abridged in India during the war. Congress politicians wanted such legislation to be rescinded in peacetime. In fact the Rowlatt Act extended such security legislation. The Rowlatt Act was denounced as the black act by Congress. It was excessive and caused much bitterness

In April 1919 there were a number of vandal attacks in India. In Amritsar several public buildings were gutted by fire and five Britishers were killed. All protests in the Punjab were banned. In spite of this thousands of people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for a demonstration. Brigadier General Dyer approached the park. He refused to issue a warning. He ordered his men to open fire on the crowd of mixed sexes. At least 479 people were killed.

A dream of people from my past.


I was workin in some instutitons. Elephas Maximas was there. He was angry towards me and hostile. He was not shouting. It a sa quiet menace. He summoned me to speak to him. He tried to be threatening. I had messed up some documents he had to do. I stood in his office as he sat. It was not any building I recognised. Later I wennt back to my classroom. I was alone. I wondered if someone else had passed on a conversation to him. messages had been exchanged. elephas implied he knew more than he said. This reflects a fear that he will cause trouble for me. I am successfilly suppressed this for 10 days.

Later  spoke to Logie. He was my teacher over 20 years ago. He taught em a sijec I was poor at. He said on FB he had seen who my friends were. i wonce found him there. I quipepd aout him being related to lOGIE bAIRD He used to joke about  being related to Yogie Bear.

There were more episodes in this dream . Oh yes. I saw an email about an exam text I had made. The exam was for bluff, working class men. they had to read something about Henry VIII. Liam had seen this as had waterworth. Waterwroth had scrapped it and done a new one, She calmly criticised it in her email saying this was unsuitable fir the type of oil workers who would sit the ENGLISH. test. They were shaven headed Britons – not sure why these men needed to do the test. Liam then chipped in in the email. I he fully agreed and casitaged me. I was not supposed to see this.

I saw Liam’s info on my phone. I think he ostracises me. maybe he dislikes my foul humour. eager for waterworth to carryin in with financial help. met some tax advisers yesterday – met them socially. this is who it all fits rtogether

1900s in the United Kingdom


In 1902 A J Balfour became Prime Minister of a Conservative Government. The nation was relieved that the Boer War was over. The Afrikaners called it De Tweede Vreiheides Oorlog (The Second Freedom War). For the Afrikaners the First South African War (sometimes called the First Boer War) was De Eerste Vreiheides Oorlog (The First Freedom War).

The United Kingdom’s national debt jumped considerably as a result of the war. British People were also rattled by the UK’s relatively poor performance in the war. The world superpower had taken two and a half years to defeat the poorly armed Afrikaner states. The British Empire looked vulnerable. The United Kingdom was a laughing stock. A third of the volunteers for the army during the Boer War were rejected on the grounds of being unfit for military service. People lamented the ”unfitness of the race.” A century of slum dwelling had meant that many working class boys had rickets and the like.

The Liberal Party bitterly attacked the Conservatives over poverty. They said that under the Conservatives millions of people had been reduced to penury. The working poor had barely enough to eat. About 70% of the population was working class. About 35% of the population lived in poverty. Around 29% of the population was middle class. Perhaps 1% was upper class. The working poor included those who were not in regular employment.They were navvies and other seasonal workers.

Some people were anxious about this poverty. Anti-poverty campaigns were organised by churches and other charities. Others thought that the youth needed to be tempered by military training. Drill halls were set up. Men would meet their to wear army uniforms, march outside and practise shooting. Sir Robert Baden-Powell was an army officer who had served with great distinction in South Africa.  He had defended Mafeking successfully. In 1907 he helped to found the Boy Scouts. He held a camp for boys at Brown Sea Island. This was the first even scout camp. Scouting then took off as a worldwide movement. Boys were encouraged to observe their religion whatever it may be and to be loyal to their land. They wore uniforms and learnt scout craft – map reading, how to light a camp fire and pitch a tent. It was self consciously quasi military.

Baden-Powell believed that boys needed manly exercises to make them healthy, patriotic and disciplined. The scouts had to swear an oath to the monarch and God.

The boys learnt map reading and how to put up a tent. They found out how to forage for food. They found out which mushrooms are good and which are poisonous. They scouts were taught how to start a fire and perform first aid. The idea was to prepare boys for the army. The scouts soon became very popular. These activities were affordable or free. The uniforms were fashionable and gave people a sense of identity.

The girl guides were soon founded as a female equivalent to the scouts.

The Conservatives and Liberal Unionists were fusing more and more. People often called them Unionists since they both believed in the Union. When people spoke of the Conservatives they usually meant the Liberal Unionists too. Officially they were two separate parties who worked in tandem. In reality they were blurring into each other.

The Labour Representation Committee had been founded in the 1890s. In 1900 it became the Labour Party. Labour stood at the 1900 election and garnered 2% of the votes. Some Liberals formed local pacts with Labour. Some towns were double seater constituencies. A constituency would return two members of Parliament. The Conservatives would put up to candidates. The Liberals and Labour would field one candidate apiece. This way they had a good chance that at least one anti-Conservative would be elected. This helped the Liberals remain strong in certain areas and keep the Conservatives out. In the long run it may have sown the seeds of the Liberal Party’s decline.



King Edward VII had ascended the throne in January 1901 on the death of his mother  QueenVictoria. Edward VII was a noted boulevardier. He was a francophile but French satirical magazines ribbed him for his obesity, heavy drinking, smoking cigars and womanising. Edward VII cigars are so named because of his prolific smoking. He had a mistress named Alice Keppel. She was an ancestress of Camilla Parker Bowles. Edward VII has been described as a ”corpulent voluptuary.” Despite his louche ways he was a distant and authoritarian father. He said that he had been terrified of his father and would ensure that his sons were scared of him. Some joked that the king was ‘Edward the Caresser’ which is a pun on ‘Edward the Confessor.’

Edward VII said that he was a referee in the dirty game of politics. Unlike his mother he did his best to conceal his preferences.

In 1902 Edward VII sailed to India for his Durbar. A durbar is a coronation ceremony. This took place at the emperor’s camp north of Delhi. New Delhi had not yet been built. Edward VII received the homage of hundreds of Indian princes. The princes came and abased themselves before the king-emperor. There was some grumbling from Congress politicians who felt that the ritual was too costly and backward looking. One princeling accidentally turned his back on the Emperor of India. Some advanced nationalists assumed the prince was slighting Edward VII and they were elated.  Edward VII had of course been through this before. He had undergone a like ritual in 1877 when he represented his mother. Victoria never went to India. Monarchs almost never travelled abroad. Moreover, it was hard for many Indians to accept that they were ruled by a woman.

The former site of the Delhi Durbar is a dumping ground for statues of former British monarchs and statutes.



In 1904 a Conservative MP defected to the Liberals. His name was Winston Spencer-Churchill. Honourable Spencer-Churchill was the son of the late Lord Randolph Churchill. Winston Spencer-Churchill decided to drop the first barrel of his surname. He then treated Spencer as a middle name – Winston S Churchill. This was also to move himself up the alphabetical order. He used his middle initial to distinguish himself from an American novelist named Winston Churchill. The American writer was far more famous that the British journalist and army officer. Winston

Churchill had been educated at Harrow School and Sandhurst Royal Military Academy. Hon Churchill had made a name for himself as a journalist in Sudan and in Cuba covering the revolt against the Spanish colonial authorities. He had also been a journalist in South Africa and engaged in fighting. He was captured while on a train. He had insisted on the train continuing into hostile territory despite advise that this was foolhardy. Churchill had ordered the train to go into what turned out to be a Boer trap.  He later escaped and the hunt for him was extensively reported in the press. This buoyed up British morale at a time when the war was otherwise going dismally. He escaped by stowing away on a train to Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique). At Lourenco Marques he had walked to the British consul. He was hailed as a hero when he returned to the United Kingdom and subsequently elected for Oldham in the Conservative interest.

Churchill had admitted in his early 20s that he was of Liberal leanings. He joined the Conservatives because his family connections gave him the best chance of advancement in that party. His conversion to the Liberals had been largely opportunistic. It was seen as a weather vane. If someone unprincipled like Churchill defected to the Liberals then it meant the Liberals were on the up.

The Conservatives considered a moderate form of Home Rule for Ireland called devolution. Conservative backbenchers barracked their leadership for mulling over this policy. It would jettison a core Conservative policy. The scheme was abandoned.

Unionists began to consider tariff reform. This meant taxing imports from outside the British Empire. The British EMpire would be a free trade zone. This would protect imperial industry and agriculture. Some called this imperial preference. Free trade was a shibboleth of Liberalism. The Liberals had emerged from those Whigs and Conservatives who had been against the corn laws. Ironically Joseph Chamberlain, a Liberal Unionist, was one of the most outspoken advocates of imperial preference. Radical Joe had become Imperial Joe. This was a give to the Liberals. They denounced this as a tax on survival. It would hit the poorest hardest.

The Liberal leader was Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Campbell-Bannerman was a north Britisher. He was not an especially inspiring figure. He was something of a compromise between the moderates and the radicals within the party. Sir Henry was also completely middle class in his origins. He was the first Prime Minister to be unquestionably bourgeois.

In December 1905 the Conservative Government fell. King Edward VII asked Campbell-Bannerman if he could form a government. Sir Henry said that he could and obliged. It is important to note that the Liberal Government dates from 1905 and not 1906 as is often erroneously stated. Campbell-Bannerman formed a Liberal Government and immediately called an election. In January 1906 an election took place.

Asquith was one of the most prominent Liberals. He campaigned with two loaves – a big one and a small one. Which would you rather have for a penny? He said that the Unionists would bring in tariff reform. This would drive up the price of the staple food. It would hit the poorest. Churchill said, ”We know what another Conservative Government will mean: dear food for the millions – cheap labour for the millionaire.”

The Liberals triumphed in the 1906 election. The Conservatives were reduced to 130 seats. This was their worst result ever. What went wrong for the Unionists? Their leader Balfour was lacklustre. The Party had been in office for over 10 years. The Unionist Government had led the country to an ignominious victory in South Africa. Taxes had had to go up.

The Liberals had an ambitious plan to tackle poverty. State pensions were introduce. These old age pensions were contributory. ANyone who had spent time in prison was excluded. The Liberals brought in tea braks at work. This was an idea piloted through by Winston Churchill. They also founded labour exchanges. Jobless persons had previously to traipse from one place to another seeking work. National Insurance became the basis of paying for old age pensions, unemployment benefit, sickness insurance and accident insurance. There were free medical inspections at schools but no free healthcare.

A law was passed restricting smoking to those over 16. Children were banned from pubs. Fines were introduced for minor offences such as swearing and urinating in the street. Until then people went to prison for a few days for these misdemeanours.

In 1908 Campbell-Bannerman fell ill and resigned the Premiership. King Edward VII appointed Henry Herbert Asquith in the stead of Campbell-Bannerman. H H Asquith was the son of a Yorkshire businessman.

SOme Conservative began to agitate for national service. By this they meant compulsory military service. Almost every other country in Europe had it. The British Army was tiny compared to those of other large countries. Half the British Army was abroad at any one time.

The Germans began to expand their navy. Germany had acquired colonies at the Congress of Berlin in 1885. She ruled Tanganyika (now Tanzania), Dahomey, Cameroon, Namibia, the Caroline Islands and Papua New Guinea as well as a few ports in China such as Tsingtao. In order to protect her trade routes she needed a substantial navy.

This explanation did not wash with His Majesty;s Government. The British Government was suspicious that Germany had aggressive intentions. Germany may have been defensive. Without a formidable navy it would be easy for the Royal Navy to cut off Germany from her colonies and other markets.

Germany had overtaken the United Kingdom economically. She produced more goods and coal than the UK. This was not just in total but per worker. Her products were better and cheaper. The UK was falling further behind. Russia was undergoing and industrial revolution. Russia was breathing down Britian’s neck. In the 1920s Russia would surely overtake the UK as the third industrial nation.

The Unionists demanded that the Liberal Government spend more on the navy and build more warships. The Royal Navy had invented the dreadnought. This class of battleship had this name since it had nothing to fear. It could outsail anything it could not outshoot and outshoot anything it could not outsail. The trouble was this rendered all pre existing warships obsolescent. Pre-dreadnoughts were not scrapped. They were just no longer so powerful.

The Germans soon stole blueprints for the dreadnought. They were able to build their own.

The Liberals gave into Unionist pressure and ordered more warships. This had an unintended effect of reducing unemployment in Liberal strongholds in south-west England, Clydeside, north-east England and so forth.

The cost of building up the navy meant that the government could no longer afford its social reform programme. How were ends to meet? There was an increase in taxation. The Liberals introduced progressive taxation. That is to say the more one earned the higher a proportion of one’s income one had to pay. The highest band was called supertax. Supertax was sometimes abbreviated to surtax. Some wags quipped that it was ”Sir” tax since knights and baronets were most likely to pay it. Gladstone, that Liberal prophet, had spoken against progressive taxation. Labour was adamantly in favour of graduated taxation. The wealthy spluttered with indignation that they should have to pay more income tax.

Despite undoubted Liberal successes the Conservatives and Liberal Unionists recovered rather quickly. Despite his lack of the common touch A J Balfour remained leader. One of their luminaries Joseph Chamberlain died. His son Austen Chamberlain was later elected leader of the party.

The Labour Party was gaining strength. Even though the Liberals did much to alleviate poverty this only seemed to increase Labour support. The trades unions were gaining members. There were ever more strikes.



As part of the Liberals’ wide ranging efforts to reduce privation they introduced an audacious budget in 1909. The new Chancellor of the Exchequer was David Lloyd George. Lloyd George was abominated by Conservatives for his fervent opposition to the Second South African War. Lloyd George was an unashamed Liberal. He said that cottage bred people like him intended to help the needy. He was forthright in denouncing privilege whether it be economic privilege or the position of the Church of England in Wales where it had state protection despite being the denomination of a minority.

Lloyd George announced the people’s budget in purple prose. ”This is a war budget. We are waging war on squalor and ignorance.”

In the House of Commons the Liberal majority made sure that the budget passed easily. The House of Lords was firmly within the Conservative grasp. Tory peers voted down the budget. So began parliamentary ping pong. Asquith fulminated that it was wrong for the House of Peers to stand athwart the will of the elected chamber. Many Conservative lords replied that they were entitled to vote on money bills as any other. Moreover, this bill was not mentioned in the Liberal manifesto. Asquith warned that if the Lords persisted in blocking the budget then an election would have to be called early. As the Lords continued to prevent the passage of this bill H H Asquith went to Buckingham Palace and requested a dissolution of Parliament. His Gracious Majesty Edward VII acceded to this request.

Robert William Fisher



Robert William Fisher is a criminal on the FBI’s most wanted list. He is known as Bobby Fisher. He is not to be confused with Bobby Fischer the chess player.

Fisher was born in the USA in 1961. His parents divorced and this had a very negative impact on him. He volunteered for the US Navy. It was a family for someone without a family.

Fisher married and had children. He was passionate about exploring the forests. He was a very strict father. His control freakery was off putting. He was unfriendly towards others. He later said he feared growing attached to people and then losing them as he had his parents.

Fisher was religiously observant. In 2000 he stopped attending his church. He and his wife argued bitterly. He admitted being unfaithful to her. They considered a divorce. Fisher thought this was the final horror. He was averse to it because of his parents. He hinted that he would rather take his own life than divorce.

In 2000 the Fisher house blew up. Mrs Fisher and both her children were killed. Mr Fisher was not there.

Mr Fisher’s car was found in Arizona a few days later. Then his dog was located. Fisher has been charged with three murders and arson. He has never been located. He is a fanatical survivalist.

The FBI placed him 3rd on the most wanted list.  There is a bounty of $ 100 000 on his head.


  1. In which country was he born?

2. What is his age?

3. How many children did he have?

4. Describe his childhood.

5. Why did he become unhappy in 2000?

6. What crimes has he been charged with?

7. What clues were found as to his whereabouts?

8. Is he wanted by the FBI?

9.. What methods would you suggest using to track him down?

Classification of trusts


trusts are either express or else implied.

Implied trusts are also called non-express or imputed.

express trust – someone says a trust is made. simple. it is divided into fixed express trust or a discretionary express trust.

fixed express trust says what the property is and what the benefits are for each beneficiary

discretionary trust – settlor leaves it to the discretion of the trustees to decided what each ebenfiaicyr will get

courts prefer fixed express trust.



separation between constructive and resulting trust

difference – constructive created where courts find it unconscionable for the legal owner to retain ownership. courts construct it for equity, to satisfy good conscience.

resulting trust – their focus is that these are created by operaiton of law rather than court decision. two  specific situations where this arises

constructive truusts = further divide institutional constructive trust

remedial constructive trust. mainly USA. trust is thrown upon situation to resolve situation. institutional constructive tursts is more English – these are if the conditions are satisfied we shall impose a trust. looks like a trust so it is a trust

Remediial to to remedy a wrong

remedial trust is up to the conscience of the court.

resulting trust – similar but boundaries are there. similar to constructive trust but different in that Lord Browne- Wilkinson Deutsh Landsbanke v Islington Borough COuncil. 2 situations where resulting trusts arise. Automatic resulting trust. attempt to create a treust but beneficial interest failed or was not fully dealt with. Automatically there iis a resulting trust equitable interests goes somewhere else.

presumed resulting trust – a gift. Voluntary. property is transferred without consideration or someone has contributed to the purchase price.

these are operations of law not an issue of justice.

A dream of Albania


I was in Albania. I am unsure why. I have been reading a history of MI6 and there were many failed attempts there. Perhaps I was anxious about my return to this land where I dwell. In my dream I was confronted by two diminutive Russian middle aged men. Despite their stature they did not lack for self-assurance. They bearded me. One of them was the driver for that fashionista. The other was the man on solaia. They are both fairly hard considering their size. It may seem incongruous – Russians in Albania.

Trusts – an intro


trust is form of ownership of an asset – could be stocks, shares, land etc..

legal and equitable rights are separate in a trust. The same person can own both the legal and equitable trust. But usually they are owned separately in the trust. Legal and equitable rights are conceptually different and have different duties.

compare it to a contract.

a trusteee under breach of a trust has sold the trust to another party. The other party despite knowing that the trust was there to benefit someone else. This third party will not be liable to the beneficiary. This is due to privity of contract.

A third party and the beneficiaries cannot bring actions.

Trusts are successful because they regulate relationships involving more than 2 parties.

Look at initial contract between settlor and trustee – you must hold property in respect of X – if the trustee breaches the trust then the settlor can bring an action. The property was held to benefiit the benficiary. The beneficiary suffers loss not the settlor.

contractual relationships – one needs capaocty. Not for minors or defectives. In family contexts trusts are to benefit children or mentally ill.

A trust can be created by  giving property to trustee stating who the property is held for the benefit of

a trust can be created by the settlor who declares themselves the trustee

different formalities.

essentials of a trust – three certainties. Intention. (need to be able to be certain settlor intended to make a trsut – subject matter (be certain what the property is). certainty of objects. (one needs to know who the beneficiayr is).

beneficiary principles – trusts must be to benefit a human and identifiable.

beneficiary can enforce the trust.

formalities must be fulfilled. Legal rights – transfer of land by deed and registration.

moral basis of trust. Lord Chief Justice said it is ” a confidence reposed in some other”

;egal duties and obligations develop on this basis

trust is man made.

fiduciary duties.