communication lesson 10.
phrasal verbs. Up / into/ down
modal verbs of deduction
A mysterious place is somewhere that not many people know about and very few have been. Sometimes people wonder whether such a location exists.
In the middle of Beijing there is the Forbidden City. There was an emperor living there until just over 100 years ago. It was called ‘forbidden’ because the emperor was the only true man permitted to stay there overnight. This place was quite mysterious but not secret. Thousands of people went there every day. Many women lived there. Soldiers guarded its walls. The place had almost 10 000 rooms.
There have been many mysterious place according to legends. In ancient Irish mythology there was a place called ‘Tir na nOg’. This means ”Land of the Young” in Irish. It was like paradise. It is under the sea. When good people died they would go there and live there. They would become young and beautiful again and always remain youthful. Irish people now accept that Tir na nOg is a myth.
The Spanish believed there as a place called El Dorado which means ”The Golden One.” Spaniards arrived in the American Continent in the late 15th century. They spread out seeking El Dorado. They wanted to pillage the gold. It is unlikely that this legendary city ever existed.
- What is a mysterious place?
- Where is the forbidden city?
- Why was it called ‘forbidden’?
- Did anyone go there?
- Have you been to the Forbidden City?
- Roughly how many rooms does it have?
- What does ‘Tir na nOg’ mean?
- In which country’s mythology did this place exist?
- Where is Tir na nOg?
- Who went to Tir na nOg?
- What happened to people who went there?
- Translate El Dorado?
- Which nationality believed in it?
- Where did they search for it?
- Did it probably exist?
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as ‘turn down’ or ‘ran into’ which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single unit.
This unit cannot be understood based upon the meanings of the individual parts, but must be taken as a whole. In other words, the meaning is non-compositional and thus unpredictable. Phrasal verbs that include a preposition are known as prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs that include a particle are also known as particle verbs. Additional alternative terms for phrasal verb are compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction, two-part word/verb, and three-part word/verb (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb.
a. Who is looking after the kids? –’ after’ is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase ‘after the kids’.
b. They picked on nobody. – ‘on’ is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase ‘on nobody’.
c. I ran into an old friend. – ‘into’ is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase into ‘an old friend’.
d. She takes after her mother. – ‘after’ is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase ‘after her mother’.
e. Sam passes for a linguist. – ‘for’ is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase ‘for a linguist’.
f. You should stand by your friend.
Write five phrasal verb phrases.
Verb + particle (particle phrasal verbs)
When the element is a particle, it can not (or no longer) be construed as a preposition, but rather is a particle because it does not take a complement. These verbs can be transitive or intransitive. If they are transitive, they are separable.
a. They brought that up twice. – up is a particle, not a preposition.
b. You should think it over. – over is a particle, not a preposition.
c. Why does he always dress down? – down is a particle, not a preposition.
d. You should not give in so quickly. – in is a particle, not a preposition.
e. Where do they want to hang out? – out is a particle, not a preposition.
f. She handed it in. – in is a particle, not a preposition.
Verb + particle + preposition (particle-prepositional phrasal verbs)
Finally, many phrasal verbs are combined with both a preposition and a particle.
Examples and explanations:
a. Who can put up with that? –’ up’ is a particle and ‘with’ is a preposition.
b. She is looking forward to a rest. – ‘forward’ is a particle and’ to’ is a preposition.
c. The other tanks were bearing down on my panther. – down is a particle and ‘on’ is a preposition.
d. They were really teeing off on me. – ‘off’ is a particle and ‘on’ is a preposition.
e. We loaded up on Mountain Dew and Doritos. – ‘up’ is a particle and ‘on’ is a preposition.
f. Susan has been sitting in for me. – ‘in’ is a particle and ‘ for’ is a preposition.
The modal verbs of English are a small class of auxiliary verbs used mostly to express modality (properties such as possibility, obligation, etc.). They can be distinguished from other verbs by their defectiveness (they do not have participle or infinitive forms) and by the fact that they do not take the ending -(e)s in the third-person singular.
The principal English modal verbs are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will and would. Certain other verbs are sometimes, but not always, classed as modals; these include ought, had better, and (in certain uses) dare and need.
In English, modal verbs as must, have to, have got to, can’t and couldn’t are used to express deduction and contention. These modal verbs state how sure the speaker is about something.
You’re shivering—you must be cold.
Someone must have taken the key: it is not here.
I didn’t order ten books. This has to be a mistake.
These aren’t mine—they’ve got to be yours.
It can’t be a burglar. All the doors and windows are locked.
Interrogative content clauses, often called indirect questions, can be used in many of the same ways as declarative ones; for example, they are often direct objects of verbs of cognition, reporting, and perception, but here they emphasise knowledge or lack of knowledge of one element of a fact:
I know what you did.
I can’t guess how he managed it.
I wonder whether I looked that bad.
She asked where the files were.