Category Archives: Educational texts

tongue twisters and April Fool’s Day


April Fools’ Day

People celebrate April Fools’ Day on 1st April in the Western World. This means that people will try to trick people on this day in a funny way. People will tell friends and relatives an incredible lie to see if they believe it.

The April Fools’ Day jokes are about seeing if people are gullible – if they believe something which is obviously untrue. For example, people post on Facebook ”I am about to have an operation to get a third arm attached.” Some people will believe this ridiculous statement. There are other examples like saying ”the Queen of England has announced that she going to become a clown”, ”my dog has learnt to read” or ”the government has is banning the word ‘the’ starting from tomorrow ”,   ”did you know that you will live ten years longer if you only ever drink through your nose?”    People will pretend to suddenly totally change their attitude. A well known vegetarian  might say she is going to start eating meat three times a day. A person might pretend to have totally changed his political opinions. A man who hates the European Union will suddenly say ”I absolutely love the European Union.” If someone believes such a foolish claim then you will say ‘April Fools’ Day’ loudly.

Some media organisations played April Fools’ Day jokes on the public. In the 1950s the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) showed a news item about special trees that grew spaghetti. Many people believe that spaghetti grew on trees! In 2008 the Guardian newspaper published an article saying that French President Sarkozy used special technology to make him look 10 centimetres taller than he really was. Notice the technology did NOT make him taller – it only made him LOOK taller by bending the light around him. It was an incredible thing to publish. But many people did not notice that it was 1st of April.

On April Fools’ Day most news items will be real! However, some media organisations will put in one joke news story to see if their readers or viewers notice. The next day the newspaper or new channel will tell their readers and viewers what the false story was. Some people think it is irresponsible of television channels and newspapers to publish such false stories. The public look to the media for information and not disinformation. Perhaps jokes should be on comedy shows and not in serious newspapers or on news broadcasts. But others argue these bogus stories are useful. It reminds people of the proverb ‘do not believe everything that you read in the newspapers’. It makes readers become more analytical and skeptical.

I am starting to build a bridge to the moon today.

  1. When is April Fools’ Day?
  2. Give an example of an April Fools’ Day joke.
  3. What is unusual about newspapers and news broadcasts on April Fools’ Day?
  4. If someone believes your crazily false claim on 1st April what should you say to them?
  5. Do you believe the claim about someone starting to build a bridge to the moon?
  6. Make up an April Fools’ Day claim – it should be something ridiculous. People should not believe it. Remember you are trying to see if people will fall for it.



Wunwun was a race horse

Tutu was one too.

Wunwun won one race today.

Tutu won one too.

1 1 was a race horse 2 2 was 1 2 1 1 1 1 race 2 day 2 2 1 1 2.


She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore.
The shells she sells are sea-shells, I’m sure.
For if she sells sea-shells on the sea-shore
Then I’m sure she sells sea-shore shells.


Betty Botter bought a bit of butter.
The butter Betty Botter bought was a bit bitter
And made her batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter makes better batter.
So Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter
Making Betty Botter’s bitter batter better


Shep Schwab shopped at Scott’s Schnapps shop;
One shot of Scott’s Schnapps stopped Schwab’s watch.


A Proper Copper Coffee Pot.
The sixth sitting sheet-slitter slit six sheets.
Irish Wristwatch, Swiss Wristwatch.
Pad kid poured curd pulled cold.
Peggy Badcock.


Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. How many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?


Sequel ne’er equaled prequel.


Proper prior planning prevents pitifully poor performance.

Yally Bally had a jolly golliwog. Feeling folly, Yally Bally Bought his jolly golli’ a dollie made of holly! The golli’, feeling jolly, named the holly dollie, Polly. So Yally Bally’s jolly golli’s holly dollie Polly’s also jolly!


How much wood could Chuck Woods’ woodchuck chuck, if Chuck Woods’ woodchuck could and would chuck wood? If Chuck Woods’ woodchuck could and would chuck wood, how much wood could and would Chuck Woods’ woodchuck chuck? Chuck Woods’ woodchuck would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood as any woodchuck would, if a woodchuck could and would chuck wood.


Longest word in the English language:


Anti dis e stab lish ment ar i an ism.


flocc i nocc i ni hil pil if ic a tion


What is special about this sentence below?

The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy sleeping dog.






Felicity lesson 7. 20th century Western art=================================================


Felicity lesson 7. 20th century Western Art.

The very early 20th century was known as La Belle Epoche ( French for ‘the beautiful era’). There was progress in all areas of life. Impressionism was all the rage and had become mainstream.

Moving images came out in the 1890s. These were films. At first films were very grainy and there were hardly any cinemas existed. Gradually picture quality improved. By 1912 Hollywood, California was the centre of the film industry.

In 1914 the First World War broke out. It was the bloodiest conflict the West had ever known. Propaganda art was produced for the war. This was mostly based on much older styles.

The First World War had a profound effect on Western art. Impressionism was more or less killed by the war. Memorialism became the dominant theme for a while. War memorials, gravestones and tombs were erected. There were triumphal arches and cenotaphs built. There was grief and mourning in art.

Anti-memorialism was a reaction against the lugubrious and macabre nature of memorialism. Some people preferred to look forward and celebrate life. Anti-memorialists said that memorialism was militaristic and glorified war.

The regimentation of society during the war angered many. Many people became anti-establishment. They disliked army officers and traditional types. Those who were horrified by the war moved to new artistic styles.

Dadaism was an artistic movement of the 1920s. It was an absurdist movement. Dadaists did things liked make a telephone with a model of a lobster as the earpiece. They were ridiculing convention and everything that was old fashioned.

Surrealism grew out of Dadaism. ‘Surreal’ means not real – it is about fantasy. Dadaism had blown open the doors for art. Surrealism experimented with images that could not possibly be real. Dreamlike imagery was produced.

Salvador Dali was perhaps the renowned surrealist. Dali was Spanish but spent much of his life in France. Dali painted melting clocks and crazy scenes. His imagery was even frightening.

In 1927 The Jazz Singer came out. This was the first film with sound. Before that words appeared on the screen to represent dialogue. A pianist played whatever music he considered best for the film. Actors in silent films had to express even more with their faces because they could not say anything.

Abstract art became a major movement in the 20th century. Art usually represents something outside itself. A painting of a woman looks like her. A sculpture of a dog resembles a dog. A drawing of a forest glade looks like its subject – a forest glade. However, abstract art went against this. Paintings were painted that did not look like anything. These would be colours on canvas. This was a very radical idea. Drawings and sculptures were made that did not resemble anything else. Some people found this aesthetically pleasing and artful. Others complained that abstract art was craftless and pointless.

In the 1930s colour photographs were invented. Colour photos were very expensive. Moreover, the colours tended to be garish and the images were unclear. Most photographers preferred black and white until the 1950s.

There was an artistic movement in the 1920s and 1930s called Bauhaus. It started in Germany. It was about curves and simplicity. It rejected the grandeur and formalism of previous styles. In terms of painting and drawing it was about smooth and round imagery with warm colour. It was unthreatening and homely.

Totalitarian governments in Germany and the Soviet Union produced neo-classical art. It favoured gargantuan sizes and stylised imagery. This was true of architecture, sculpture and painting. It was a very macho style.

By the 1930s cinemas were all over the Western world. Cinema became the most crucial artistic medium. The first colour film was The Wizard of Oz which was released in 1939. It was a worldwide sensation.

After the Second World War pop art became widespread. This favoured cartoon like images. It was partly abstract but also expressionist. Images in pop art were recognisable as people, houses, plants or whatever but pop art did not try to make them at all realistic. It was sparse in its construction and unreal in its colour schemes.

Jackson Pollack was an American artist who threw paint at canvases. Was this art? Or just a mess. Modern forms of art were very unrealistic.

Some people are more traditional and prefer art that requires a gift for art and an effort to be made. They hold that art must look like something else.

In the 1950s most people in the Western world had televisions. Television became a very important artistic medium. People did not go to art galleries so much or read newspapers or books so much. Films were often shown on TV.

In the late 20th century the divide between high art and popular culture broke down. High art was intellectual, costly and exclusive. People ceased to paint on canvases much.

Installation art became popular in the late 20th century. Household items such as fridges, sofas and beds were displayed as art work. Some people thought that this was fascinating and artful. Others said that installation art was worthless and stupid.

In the late 20th century a group called Young British Artists (YBA) emerged in the UK. YBA were keen on installation art. Tracey Emin was a prominent member of YBA. Damien Hirst was another prominent YBA person. Hirst famously cut up a dead cow and displayed it as art. He won the very prestigious Turner Prize for this. Some commentators said that slicing up a cow was not art. What does it mean? A dead cow is not beautiful or thought provoking. Artists strove to be controversial. As they had to try to hard to get attention perhaps this means visual art is no longer so vital.

By the late 20th century cinema was the most important form of art. In the United States people say ‘movie’ whereas in the United Kingdom people say ‘film’. In the USA people go to a ‘move theater’ (note the spelling of ‘e’ before ‘r’ in the American spelling of theater). In the UK people go to a cinema to watch films. When talking about movies or films as an art form people tend to call it ‘cinema’. The art of film making is called ‘cinematography’.

There are art house films. These will be high brow (high intellectual level) and low budget. The plot will not be obvious and the actors are not famous. These demand a lot from audiences and are often strange.

Mass market films are produced by Hollywood. These have huge budgets and stars who are world famous. The story will be easy to follow and the visuals will be fantastic. These films are usually low brow.

The Oscars is the most famous cinema awards ceremony. It takes place each spring in Hollywood, USA. There are different categories such as best picture. By ‘picture’ they mean film/ movie. There is best male actor, best female actor, best male actor in a supporting role, best female actor in a supporting role , best score (music) , best foreign language film (i.e. not in English) and so forth.

Sculpture has declined as an art form. Likewise not many paintings are produced particularly not oil paintings. Very wealthy people sometimes have their portrait painted in oil paints.



  1. What was La Belle Epoche?
  2. What was memorialism?
  3. What was anti-memorialism?
  4. What is Dadaism?
  5. What is Surrealism?
  6. Who was Dali?
  7. What is abstract art?
  8. When did colour photographs come out?
  9. What is bauhaus?
  10. What styles did totalitarian governments favour?
  11. What is pop art?
  12. What did Jackson Pollack do?
  13. What is high art?
  14. What does YBA stand for?
  15. Who is Tracey Emin?
  16. What was Hirst’s famous piece of art?
  17. What prize did Hirst win?
  18. What is installation art?
  19. Is abstract art really art? Five marks.
  20. What is low brow?
  21. How do Americans spell ‘theatre’?



communication lesson 14


communication lesson 14.


Football has existed many centuries. However, football was often very different in past times. There were many different types of football in each region. In some places people were allowed to pick up the ball. In other regions this was forbidden. In some areas shin hacking was allowed and in other places this was prohibited. Shin hacking was kicking the shins. In some areas there were 10 players on each time and in other areas it was 20 players a side. Some villages said there was no limit to the number of players. Some places had lines drawn on a field to mark the area of play. In other regions there were no lines marking the pitch.
When people from one region traveled to another region to play football they often found that they were playing by different rules to their opponents. Because railways had been built people could travel further and faster than before.
In 1863 the Football Association was founded in England. This organisation is known as the FA. The FA got together football players from around the country. They discussed the various versions of the rules of football. That year the FA published the rules of football. The FA considered these the best rules. This marks the start of football as a properly organised sport.
Workers had Saturday afternoon off work from that time. Workers began to play football in their free time. The famous teams often grew out of teams made up of men who worked in a particular place. Manchester City Football Club was for railway workers. Arsenal F C was for those who worked at the Royal Arsenal making guns for the army. That is why there is a cannon on the symbol of Arsenal. Arsenal are known as ”the Gooners” – as in ”Gunners”. Football became very popular. People came to watch. Soon football clubs put up fences and would only allow people in to watch if they paid. Football clubs became rich organisations. At first only railway workers were allowed to play for Manchester City. Then the club changed the rule and allowed anyone to play. They just wanted excellent players. Likewise Arsenal at first only selected players from among men who worked at that factory. They abolished that rule and they searched for talented players from wherever.
The players began to take their sports more seriously. It was no longer just for fun. It was competitive. They would play a match on Saturday but they would train a few times a week. They began to work less on their ordinary job. The club paid them to train and play. Football became a professional sport.
Football spread around the world. The first international match ever was between Scotland and England in 1870.
Soon many countries were playing football. International matches became more common after 1900. Improving transport made it possible for teams to travel the world.
More newspapers were being printed. Improved transport allowed these newspapers to be taken around the country. Exciting accounts of football matches enthused many people. Newspapers began to print photos of the matches. Football became so popular that clubs could not just let people stand by the pitch to watch. They started to build stadiums so more people could watch the game. Companies began to sponsor clubs and pay for advertising in clubs.
In the 1920s radio broadcasts began. They often broadcast live commentary on the match. In the 1930s television broadcasts began and football matches were shown on television. At first televisions were extremely expensive and only a few people had tellies.
In 1930 the first football world cup was held. England refused to participate. They thought it would distract from club matches and club football was more important than international football.
The 1930 World Cup was held in Uruguay. The host nation won.
In 1934 the World Cup was held in Italy. Italy was ruled by a fascist dictator called Mussolini. Mussolini said Italians were superior. He had to make sure his people won. He bribed the referees. Italy won 2-1 against Czechoslovakia in the final. Italy was a formidable football nation. Even without cheating they would have done well but probably not won.
The 1938 World Cup was held in France. Italy beat Hungary in the final 4.2.
1. When was the FA founded?
2. What does the FA stand for?
3. Which two countries played in the first international football match?
4. What is an arsenal?
5. Who was originally allowed to play for Manchester City?
6. Which country hosted the 1934 World Cup?
7. Why did England not take party in the 1930 World Cup?
8. Who won the 1930 World Cup?
9. What was the result in the 1938 World Cup Final?
10. DO YOU like football? Explain you answer. (6)




There are many tenses in English. That last sentence was in present simple.

I am writing this. That last sentence was in present continuous as it used the ‘ing’ form for the verb.

I wrote a sentence in past simple. This sentence is in present simple but the one before is in past simple.

I have been to China. That previous sentence is present simple. I had been to India before I went to China. That sentence mentioning ‘India’ was in past perfect tense.

I will go to Brazil soon. That was in future simple.

I will be going to Brazil in July. That is future continuous.

I was traveling around Thailand in 2001. That sentence is past continuous.

I had had a good time there. That is past perfect tense.

Now write one sentence in each of these tenses: present simple, present continuous, present perfect, past perfect, future simple and future continuous.



There are several parts of speech in English.

A noun is a part of speech. A noun is a person, place or thing. Nouns are subdivided into proper nouns, common nouns and abstract nouns.

Felicity is a noun because ‘Felicity’ is a person – so is ‘George’, so is ‘Mildred’ and so is ‘Suzy’. The name of any person is a noun. These are proper nouns because each person is unique. A proper noun begins with a capital letter even if it is not at the beginning of a sentence.

China is a noun since it is a place. This is a proper noun because it is an exact place. Likewise Shanghai, San Francisco and Paris are proper nouns. A proper noun is the name of any city, street, country, organization, the title of a book, the title of a film etc… A proper noun must be exact. ‘The street’ is not a proper noun since it is not exact. ‘Oak Street’ is a proper noun since it is a precise place. ‘My country’ is not a proper noun since there are many countries. ‘Spain’ is a proper noun because there is only one Spain.

A common noun is any object – table, pencil, leg, frog, the sky etc….

An abstract noun is a noun that cannot be touched. These are things like ‘happiness, sleep, idea, goodness, truth, lies, future, wellness, hope and fear’. These things exist and can be experienced but they cannot be touched. They often exist in the mind. That is what abstract means – something which is not tangible.



Verbs are doing words. They all have an infinitive which is the core form of the verb. Some examples of infinitives are: to go, to come, to be, to have, to eat and to think. The infinitive is usually prefaced with the word ‘to’.

We used to say a ditty: Verbs, verbs – doing words!

Verbs do not have to be physical. Some non-physical actions are ‘to decide, to feel, to realise, to think, to be and to analyse’.


These replace nouns. Rather than say ‘Felicity’ I could say ‘she’ or ‘her’ depending on the context. The other pronouns are ‘he, him, it, that, these, those, we, us, they and them’.

There are possessive pronouns which show possession. Possession is about ownership or belonging. The possessive pronouns are ‘my, mine, ours, theirs, his, hers and its.’



A conjunction joins words together. The word ‘junction’ is about ‘joining.’ Remember a ‘junction’ is a railway station where two or more lines cross. Do you see the similarity between junction and conjunction? It is about connecting or joining.  Here are examples: ‘and, but, however, rather, moreover, therefore, because, furthermore, so’ etc….

These words connect others which is why the other name for conjunctions is ‘connectives’. Conjunctions and connectives are exactly the same thing. These are two different words for the same thing.


This word is pronounced ‘PREP o zish unz’ . However, it is easier to understand if you say it is ‘PRE poz ish unz.’. This is because prepositions are about the POSITION of words. Prepositions are words of position or direction. Here are examples: ‘up, down, in, out, above, below, beside, within, without, behind, beneath, away, far, under, over, along, around, by, with, to, from and many more.



  1. Define a noun. Then give ten examples – these can a mixture be from any of the noun classes i.e. proper nouns, common nouns and abstract nouns.
  2. Define a proper noun. Then give ten examples
  3. Define a common noun.
  4. Define an abstract noun.
  5. Define a conjunction. Give five examples.
  6.  Define a preposition. Give five examples.
  7.  Define a verb. Give ten examples.










Westminster School===========================================



Westminster School is in the centre of London. This area of London is called ‘Westminster’ because it is beside Westminster Abbey. St Paul’s Cathedral is the main cathedral in London. St Paul’s is 10 km to the east of Westminster. Then a new cathedral (‘minster) was built in the 11th century. It was to the west of St Paul’s. This new cathedral became known as Westminster. Originally London and Westminster were separate cities. In Mediaeval Christendom every city had a cathedral. A city could not have two cathedrals. A very large town was a town and not a city if it did not have a cathedral.

In the 1530s Henry VIII closed down many schools. This was part of his Dissolution of the Monasteries. Religious houses were suppressed. These were places that monks and nuns lived. They provided education. Henry VIII said that the monks and nuns were continuing the old form of Christianity – Roman Catholicism. Henry VIII had set up the Church of England. This form of Christianity was called Anglicanism as in it was founded in England (Anglia).

In 1558 Elizabeth I became queen. She decided to fill the educational gap created by his most illustrious father. She set up many schools. One of these is Westminster School. It is right beside Westminster Abbey. This is the royal church. Coronations take place there. Kings and queens are laid to rest there. Royal weddings have taken place there. The tomb of the Unknown Soldier is there. There is poets’ corner in which poets are memorialized. The throne there is St Edward’s Throne – as in it was sat upon by Edward the Confessor. Some have called it a national Valhalla. It is inspiring indeed for a young historian. Westminster scholar are allowed to take part in the coronation.

Westminster Abbey is one of the most historic places of worship in the realm. Edward the Confessor built it in the 1050s. The coat of Arms of the Saxon kings is etched into its stone. There were Benedictine monks there. The large community of monks was called an abbey. The head monk had the title of abbot. The abbey was closed in the 1530s and the monks were sent away. Despite that the word ‘abbey ‘ still applies to the cathedral there.

Those who win scholarships to Westminster care called Queen’s Scholars. This is because of Elizabeth I. There are also pupils who pay fees. At first the school was for boys only.

The curriculum was originally about Latin and Ancient Greek. There was some history and divinity. These were taught through Latin. Over time other subjects assumed greater importance such as Maths, the sciences, modern languages, art, technology and drama.

Many boys from the school went on to the two great English universities. This was a school for well to do professionals. It was unusual for the sons of the gentry to attend this school but some did.

Old boys of the school are called Old Westminsters. Many most distinguisher personages have attended this estimable school. Among them are Sir Christopher Wren, Kim Philby, St John Philby, Samuel Pepys, Cowper, Nick Clegg and Chris Huhne.

The school is very close to Parliament. Therefore there is a strong political connection.

For the past few decades girls have been able to attend the school in sixth form. There is a prep school called Westminster Under School.


  1. Which city is Westminster School in?
  2.  How did the City of Westminster get its name?
  3. What is an abbey?
  4. Is this school well regarded?
  5.  Do any of the pupils go to university?
  6.  Are there girls at the school?
  7. What is the name of the prep school?
  8.  Is the school near Parliament?
  9.  Name three famous pupils?
  10. Who founded the school?

Winchester College=============================



Winchester College is one of the most renowned schools in the Commonwealth. This school is located in the City of Winchester which is in the United Kingdom. Winchester is in the County of Hampshire. Hampshire is on the southern coast of England. It is a very historic city. In the 9th century it was the capital. The royal treasury was held there for centuries afterwards.

Winchester College is for boys aged 13-18. The word ‘college’ can mean a secondary school in the UK.

William of Wykeham (pronounced WIK um) was a bishop in 14th century England. He was known as ‘of Wykeham’ because he came from the town of Wycombe (pronounced ‘WIK um’). A bishop is a high Christian religious leader. Well-educated people were almost all clergy (religious leaders) in those days.

Richard II was the king at the time. He decided to found a new school. He gave a charter to the school set up by William of Wykeham. The college was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The motto is ‘manners maketh the man.’ This is ‘manners make the man’ in modern English. Richard II founded New College, Oxford. Boys from Winchester would finish the school and go on to New College, Oxford to complete their education. Those who attended Winchester were called Wykehamists because of the founder.

There is a large chapel in Winchester College. This is because the purpose of the school was partly religious. The school mainly taught Latin and Ancient Greek. It was founded for poor scholars. However, soon wealthy boys were allowed to attend but had to pay fees. In time other subjects gained more importance such as Modern Languages, Science and Mathematics.

This school developed its own form of football. It was known as Winchester College Football. People call it Win Co Fu. Cricket and mainstream sports are popular there.

By the 18th century it was a very distinguished school. However, it did not have as much cachet at Eton and Harrow. Aristocratic families tended to have their sons at one of the duopoly or Westminster School. Moreover, Winchester was too far from London.

Only one Prime Minister attended Winchester. He was Joseph Addington. He was the son of a doctor. Physicians were not considered upper class back then. They had to touch patients and do unhygienic things. Addington went on to Brasenose College, Oxford. From there he was called to the bar. Addington was mocked for his father’s profession.  He was eclipsed by Pitt the Younger who was a far more celebrated Prime Minister. There was some doggerel about him ‘Pitt is to Addington / As London is to Paddington.’

In the 19th century the college became known for producing senior civil servants by the dozen. Solicitors, accountants and solid but unimaginative people were said to attend Winchester.  New College, Oxford started taking non-Wykehamists in the 1860s. Now there is not much of a connection between New and Winchester.

In the early 20th century some leading socialist intellectuals emerged from Winchester College. Among these were Tony Crosland and Stafford Cripps. They were Labour Party politicians.

John Betjeman wrote a ditty about Wykehamists ‘Broad of church and broad of mind/ Broad before and broad behind’.

Sir Oswald Moseley attended the college. He served with enormous heroism in the First World War. He was elected to Parliament aged 22.  He then founded the British Union of Fascists. Moseley was imprisoned during the Second World War. Moseley was a hate figure for many. The college would prefer to forget that he ever attended.

In recent years the college has been short on star names. Geoffrey Howe was there. He was Deputy Prime Minister under Thatcher. There is one Hollywood actor who attended and that is your lot.

The school is exceedingly academic. It is not thought to be fabulous at sports or theatre. There are some Chinese pupils. This is a boys only school. Most pupils are boarders.


  1. Which country is Winchester in?
  2. Which county is Winchester in?
  3. When was Winchester the capital?
  4. Why was it important after the capital shifted to London?
  5. What is a bishop?
  6. Which bishop founded Winchester?
  7. Which king granted a charter to the college?
  8. What is Win Co Fu?
  9. In which century was the college founded?
  10.  Are there boys at the school?
  11. What other subjects are studied there?
  12. Which Oxford college was connected to Winchester?
  13. Which prime minister went to Winchester?
  14. Name two Labour MPs who went there?
  15. Which fascist went there?
  16. Which deputy prime minister went there?
  17. How do you pronounced Wykeham?
  18. What is the motto of Winchester?
  19. Are there day pupils?
  20. Are there any Chinese there?’
  21. What is your opinion of this college?

communication lesson 8


Be honest

crime verbs. Crime.

Second conditional

I wish/ If only



Honesty means telling the truth. It also means telling it in a way that is not misleading.

A person asks a man, ”Are you divorced?”

He could say ”no”. That might be literally true. But if he is in the process of getting divorced then it would be misleading to say ”no”. It would be more honest to tell the whole truth and say, ”No, but I am in the process of divorcing.”

There is a saying ‘honesty is the best policy.’ This adage is there because it is unwise to acquire a reputation for dishonesty. If people mistrust you then they will disbelieve you even when you are telling the truth. That is like the story of the boy who cried wolf.

However, some people consider there to be noble lies. The philosopher Immanuel Kant gave this example – if you are in your house and your friend runs in and says ‘help there is a man chasing me trying to kill me!’ and your friend hides behind the sofa. A moment later a man with a knife runs in and says ‘Did someone just come in here?’. Should you lie to save your friend? For most people it is a no brainer. Of course you should lie to save someone’s life! This is called a noble lie.

Imagine a relative gives you a birthday present that you dislike. It would be rude to say that you do not like the present. If your relative asks ‘did you like the present?’ should you say ‘no I hate it’? That would hurt the person’s feelings. So is it acceptable to say ‘thank you so much yes I like it’? Most people say that lying in this situation is acceptable.



  1. What is the saying about honesty?
  2. What does it mean to be misleading?
  3. Who came up with the story whereby a friend asks you to hide him or her?
  4. What is a noble lie?
  5. Why do people claim to like a present even if they dislike it?



Steal, assault, burgle, murder, kidnap, rob, defraud and embezzle are all crime verbs.

Steal is to take someone’s possessions without permission.

Assaulting someone is to hit or kick a person.

Burgling is to break into a building with the intention of stealing.

Murdering is to intentionally kill a person without lawful excuse.

Kidnapping is to take a person against his or her will and to hold that person as a prisoner.

Robbing is stealing by threatening violence or actually using it.

Defrauding is to trick someone into giving you money or something of value.

To embezzle is to steal some money from a fund that you are looking after.


Answer these questions and explain your answer each time.

  1. Is it robbery to take someone’s wallet?
  2. Is it burglary to steal an item lying on the street?
  3. Is it fraud to sell drugs?
  4. Is it stealing to buy water?
  5. Is it assault to hit in self-defence?
  6. Is it murder for a soldier to kill an enemy in a battle?



Crime is illegal activity. Laws are passed to protect people. People can do what they want so long as they do not harm others.

A crime involves a guilty act and a guilty mind. Stabbing someone is a crime. However, if a doctor injects you this is not a crime. The guilty act has been committed since he or she put a sharp object into your skin. However, the mind was not guilty since he or she did this with permission. The doctor is legally authorized to inject patients. She or he is injecting a person to benefit the patient’s health.

The police try to fight crime. They walk around to deter criminals. This means that criminals see the police and are scared off even trying to commit crime. Once a crime has been committed then the police are informed. They follow up the report and try to apprehend the criminal. A  suspected criminal will be arrested and taken to a police station. He or she shall be questioned. The police will gather evidence such as fingerprints and DNA. If there is enough evidence then the police will charge the person with a  crime.

A crime is sometimes called an offence or a criminal offence.

  1. Is it lawful to commit a crime?
  2. What are the two elements of a crime?
  3. Why is it not a crime for a doctor to inject someone?
  4. What is the role of the police?
  5. When someone is arrested where is he or she taken?
  6. If someone is arrested does that prove that he is guilty?

===================Second conditional. 
“Second conditional” or “conditional II” refers to a pattern used to describe hypothetical, typically counterfactual situations with a present or future time frame (for past time frames the third conditional is used). In the normal form of the second conditional, the condition clause is in the past tense (although it does not have past meaning. That is use of the past subjunctive), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional construction with the auxiliary would:
If I liked parties, I would attend more of them.
If it rained tomorrow, people would dance in the street.
The past tense (simple past or past progressive) of the condition clause is historically the past subjunctive. In modern English this is identical to the past indicative, except in the first and third persons singular of the verb be, where the indicative is was and the subjunctive were; was is sometimes used as a colloquialism (were otherwise preferred), although the phrase if I were you is common in colloquial language. For more details see English subjunctive § Use of the past subjunctive.
”If I (he, she, it) were rich, there would be plenty of money available for this project.”
”If I (he, she, it) were speaking, you would not be allowed to interrupt like that.”
When were is the verb of the condition clause, it can be used to make an inverted condition clause without a conjunction. If the condition clause uses the past tense of another verb, it may be replaced by the auxiliary construction were to + infinitive (particularly if it has hypothetical future reference); if this is done, then inversion can be applied here too:
If I were rich, … / If I were to be rich, … / Were I (to be) rich, …
If I flew, … / If I were to fly, … / Were I to fly, …

Write ten sentences in the second conditional.


I wish I were smart. I wish I had a PhD. I wish I had married Judith.

Write three ”I wish” sentences.

If only I had passed the M Stud. If only I had been called to the Bar. If only I had stayed at Oundle.

Write three ”if only” sentences.






communication lesson 4.


communication lesson 4

live forever

time conjunctions; if, unless, when , until, as soon as

verbs as prepositions

future conditionals

first conditionals- if unless



Some people like the idea of living forever. Religious people often believe that after they die they will go to heaven if they have been good.

In Ancient Greece there was a myth about someone who asked the gods for eternal life. This was granted. However, this person became decrepit and lived to the age of hundreds of years. Eventually this person asked to be released from this suffering and his wish was granted. Eternal youth was said to be more desirable than eternal life. The Greeks believed that there was a special potion called elixir which ensured a person would stay young forever.

The Bible has a story of Methusaleh living to the age of 800. In recent times scientists have been able to manipulate the genes of mice and feed them a healthy diet to make them live several times longer than normal. They were called Methusaleh mice.

A Frenchwoman lived to the age of 122. There are tales of people living to fabulous figures of hundreds of years. But this woman had a birth certificate and there is no doubt that she really was 122 when she died.

In highly developed countries women live longer than men. This is because men tend not to take care of their health so well and they do dangerous things. In less developed countries the men usually live longer than women. This is because women there tend to have several children and it is a strain on their health.

Countries with very long life expectancy include Denmark, Norway and Japan. Superb healthcare, a seafood diet and plenty of exercise help increase longevity. The Mediterranean diet is said to be the best in the world for this – fish, olive oil, fresh fruit and vegetables every day. Having a loving family and plenty of friends also extends lifespan.

In the most advanced countries life expectancy is 81. This does not mean that everybody dies in their 81st birthdays! The average is affected by a few infants dying. There are plenty people who live much longer than 81. Some people live to over 100. In Denmark becoming a centenarian is a banality. In the United Kingdom anyone who reaches 100 will receive a telegram from the Queen. The Queen no longer signs them personally because there are so many of them.

  1. What do religious people believe will happen to them once they die if they have been good?
  2. Who was Methusaleh?
  3. What is the Mediterranean diet?
  4. What is elixir?
  5. What was the nationality of a woman who lived to 122?
  6. Name three countries with a very long life span.
  7. What do British people receive on their 100th birthday?
  8. In advanced countries do women live longer than men?
  9. Would you like to live forever if it were possible? (Five sentences)



‘If’ is a conjunction and it relates to conditionals. The word ‘if’ precedes a condition to be fulfilled. Here are some examples:

‘If you eat well you will live long.’

‘I would not go there if I were you.’

‘If she studies hard she will pass.’

‘Have some fruit if you like’

Write four more ‘if’ sentences.

‘Unless’ is also for conditionals but it is about saying that a certain condition needs to be satisfied for else something else shall occur. Here are some examples:

‘Come here unless you want trouble’

‘Do not turn on the alarm unless there is a fire.’

‘Do not buy it unless you need it.’

‘You must be on time unless you have a good excuse.’

Write four more sentences with unless.

‘When’ is about the time that something occurs. Here are examples:

When I was young I was good looking.

When it was his birthday he received a gift.

When the plane took off I was relieved.

When did you last meet him?

Write four more ‘when’ sentences?

‘Until’ means ‘up to that time.’ Here are some examples

You must stay at school until you are 16.

I did not learn Spanish until I went to Spain.

Until you behave you will get no pocket money.

I could talk until the cows come home.

Write four more until sentences.

‘As soon as’ means ‘when a condition is fulfilled another thing will happen immediately.’ Here are examples:

As soon as you hear the alarm evacuate the building.

As soon as my dad comes home I hug him.

I will buy a car as soon as I can.

I will lose weight as soon as I can afford to join the gym.



Prepositions are words about position or place.

Some examples are; under, over, above, through, to, from and beside. These do not have to be physical positions or places but sometimes they are physical. There are well over 100 prepositions.

Here are sentences using verbs with prepositions.

Go over there.

Come up here.

She is reading a book by Mike Hazelhurst.

He is with his aunt.

Write four more preposition sentences including a verb.



Future conditionals are about ‘if’ something happens later then another thing will happen as a result of that first happening. It is about a condition being fulfilled in future.



“First conditional” refers to predictive conditional sentences (see above section); here, normally, the condition is expressed using the present tense and the consequence using the future:
If you make a mistake, someone will let you know.
if + present tense + future tense

If she gets it wrong she will be upset.

If Hector is petulant he will regret it.

If the princess is petulant I shan’t be surprised.

If Mehetabel gets married I shall be elated.

Write four more sentences using this grammatical structure.






“Third conditional” is the pattern where the condition clause is in the past subjunctive form of the present perfect (now identical with the past perfect even for the verb “be”), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional perfect. This is used to refer to hypothetical, counterfactual (or believed likely to be counterfactual) situations in the past
if + had + would have + 3rd form of verb
If you had called me, I would have come.

Here are examples

If she had been wiser she would not have gotten into trouble.

If he had been cautious he would not have been caught.

If they had been another race the police would not have shot them.

If he had not gone to the hospital he would have been fatally ill.


Write four more sentences like these ones.