Category Archives: Educational texts




Armenia is a country which can be regarded as part of Europe or part of Asia. This country is in the Caucasus Mountains. Her neighbours are Georgia, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran.

The climate of Armenia is cold in winter and mild in summer. This country has no coastline so the climate does not vary hugely. The country is mountainous. The land is fairly fertile and very well watered.

The Armenian language is almost unique. It has its own alphabet. The letters often looks like letter ”U”.

The Christian faith came to Armenia very early. This is the first officially Christian country in the world. It is now secular. The Armenian church is autocephalous.

In the Dark Ages Armenia was much larger. At one point this nation ruled land from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. At other times the Armenians ruled much of what is now Azerbaijan.

Various empires have conquered this land such as the Byzantine Greeks. The Turks attacked this land too in the 10th century AD.

Armenia does not have natural resources to speak of. Armenians moved around the world as merchants. They traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire and beyond. They settled in Romania, India and as far afield as Singapore.

The Armenians were surrounded by Muslim Empires. The Ottoman Empire was Muslim as was Iran. The Iranians conquered Georgia which was a nearby Christian land. Armenia’s only star of hope was Russia. Armenia formed an alliance with Russia.

Armenia became part and parcel of the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Russians moved to the country. Many Armenians learnt Russian. The Russians built the railways and factories. The Armenians and Russians usually got along very well. Socialist nostra were disseminated in Armenia. Some Armenians joined radical groups such as the Bolsheviks. One Armenian Bolshevik was Stepan Shaumpanian. He organized revolutionary activity in Azerbaijan.

There was an Armenian area of the Ottoman Empire. In the 1890s many Armenian civilians were killed by some Turkish people. In 1915 the Armenian Genocide took place. Some Turkish soldiers killed hundreds of thousands of Armenian civilians. They were killed directly by being shot and indirectly by being forced marched for hundreds of miles without food. Many Turks were innocent and some courageously saved the lives of Armenians.

Socialist nostra spread in Armenia prior to the Great War. In 1917 the Bolshevik Revolution took place in St Petersburg. A new communist government was proclaimed. Lenin became the Russian leader. V I Lenin proclaimed that non-Russian countries of the empire were allowed to become independent. Armenia became independent.

There was a significant Armenian minority in Azerbaijan. There was fighting between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. Many Azerbaijani civilians were slain.

Two years later V I Lenin had a change of heart. He decided that he wanted Armenia to be a communist state and to be united with Russia. Lenin was in touch with the Turkish Government. Turkey and Russia had been at daggers drawn for centuries. Turkey and Russia hatched a plot. They invaded Armenian simultaneously. Armenia was bested. She was forced to be the Armenian Socialist Soviet Republic. In 1922 Armenia became part of the newly formed Soviet Union. Armenia was briefly united with Georgia and Azerbaijan in the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republic.

In the 1930s collectivization came to Armenia. Farms were taken off peasants. Communist ideology was rammed down people’s throats. Those who were suspected of wanting independence were arrested by the secret police. They were interrogated under torture and sent to slave labour camps in Siberia. Many people were executed. There was a lively terror.

In 1941 the Great Patriotic War broke out. Armenians were conscripted into the Red Army. Many served with distinction.

After the Second World War more people from other republics moved to Armenia. By this time almost all Armenians were fluent in Russian which was the prestige language.

In the 1960s Anastas Mikoyan, an Armenian, became the Soviet head of state.

In the late 1980s the Soviet Government freed political prisoners. Freedom of speech was allowed. People campaigned for independence. There was fighting between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.

In 1991 Armenia became independent. Nagorno Karabakh was an Armenian region which Stalin gave to Azerbaijan. Armenia liberated this area. But in doing so the Armenian Army killed thousands of Azerbaijani civilians particularly at Khojali.

The war came to a close in 1994. But it is still a frozen conflict. There is sniping across the ceasefire line. Armenian controls 20% of Azerbaijan. Armenia is heavily reliant on Russian arms sales.

Many Armenians work abroad such as in Russia and Turkey. There are large Armenian expatriate communities in the USA, France, the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Lebanon and Syria. Some of them are the tennis player Andre Aggasi, Cher and Dr Kevorkian. France recognized the Armenian Genocide for what it was. President Sarkozy was hailed as a hero in Armenia.

Surnames from Armenia end in ”ian”.

Brandy from Armenia is famous and highly prized.

The capital city is Yerevan.

The currency is the Dram.

Armenian Airlines in the national carrier.

Armenian is the official language.

This is not a rich country at all.

The Flag of Armenia is orange, blue and red horizontal bars.

Serzh Sargasyan was the president until 2018. He retired. He shoehorned his protégé into office. This man was forced out by huge protests.



  1. Which two continents can this country be regarded as belonging to? Two marks.
  2. Is this a country with a littoral?
  3. What is the capital of this land?
  4. What is its currency?
  5. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  6. What is the official language?
  7.  Does it use the Latin language?
  8. What is special about the coming of Christianity to Armenia?
  9. Is the Armenian Church part of a wider church?
  10. Which country did Armenia fight in the 1990s?
  11. Was Armenia part of the USSR?
  12. Why did Armenia have an alliance with Russia in the 18th century?
  13. Which Armenian was the Soviet head of state?
  14. What was the Armenian Genocide? Five marks.
  15. Name three famous émigré Armenians. Three marks.
  16. What distinguishes Armenian surnames?
  17. Name five countries with significant Armenian communities?
  18. Is this a rich land?
  19. Name the neighbours of Armenia. Four marks.
  20.  What is the climate like?
  21. What is the landscape like?

22. Why do many Armenians speak Russian?

23. Which country attacked Armenia in 1920 along with Russia?





Ethiopia is a country in Africa. This nation is in the east of the continent in a region called the Horn of Africa. This country has several neighbours – Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Kenya and Somalia.

This is the most mountainous country in Africa. It has many abysses hence the former name Abyssinia. The climate is hot. However, in the mountains it can be cool.

The Queen of Sheba ruled this land in Biblical times. She wed King Solomon. Jews came to Ethiopia millennia ago. They are Falasha Jews.

Christianity came to this nation in ancient times. Most Ethiopians are Christians. They are Coptic Christians. Their form of Christianity is the same as in Egypt. Copt and Egypt are etymologically linked. Egypt was called ”Gpt” by some. The Coptic Christians observe Jewish dietary laws. They refrain from pork. In church they speak a language called Ge’ez – men and women sit on opposite sides of the aisle. They all wear white prayer shawls and their day of worship is Saturday.

When Islam started the Muslims were persecuted in Arabia. Some of them sought refuge in Abyssinia. The King of Abyssinia gave them shelter. Islam spread to all the nearby countries. Muslims tried to conquer Abyssinia. But because of the mountains they could not.

In Medieval Europe people had heard of a Christian monarch in the Near East or Africa. They believed he was called Prester John.

Coffee is cultivated in this country. Because of the high altitude it grows very well. There is a town there named Kaffa. This may well be where the word coffee comes from.

The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic. The main ethnic group is the Amharas. There are several ethnic minorities with their own languages. Amharic has its own alphabet. It is the only written language in Africa to have its own alphabet.

The Amharas are Nilotic and not Bantu. So is their language.

Ethiopia fought her neighbours a lot. She conquered some Somali land – the Ogaden.

In the 19th century the country came into contact with the British Empire. A British ambassador was sent to Addis Ababa (New Flower) which is the Ethiopian capital. The Emperor of Ethiopia was Twedros (Theodore). He had a row with the ambassador and had him imprisoned. The British sent an expedition to free the ambassador. It cost a fortune and was very difficult owing to the mountains.

The British defeated the Ethiopians and rescued their man. Tewdros fought to defend his palace. He committed suicide as the British and Indians entered the palace. The British then withdrew – they could have easily annexed the land.

In the 1890s Italy conquered Eritrea which was the coastal region of Ethiopia. The Italians then tried to conquer the rest of Ethiopia. In 1896 they were defeated at the Battle of Adoua. Italy lost the war. It was unprecedented for a European country to be defeated by an African one.

In 1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia again. This time the Italians carried they day. They used poison gas. Italian occupation was brutal and there were many massacres.

In 1940 the Allies drove the Italians out of Abyssinia. The Emperor Haile Selassie was restored.

Selassie’s admirers in Jamaica founded a religion called Ras Tafari. This is after the man’s former title. Ras is like duke and Tafari is a city.

In the 1970s Marxist army officers overthrew Selassie. He was imprisoned and later slain. The new government tried to create a communist state. There were rebellions against them.

In the 1980s the country was ruled by a tyrant called Mengistu Haile Mariam. A horrific famine broke out. Concerts such as Live Aid were held to raise funds. A song called Feed the World do they know its Christmas time was sung. Many people were saved.

In the 1990s communism was overthrown. The country transitioned to democracy and capitalism.

This country has a cordial relationship with China. Many Chinese work there now.

The Ark of the Covenant is in Ethiopia. One monk guards it. Only he is allowed to see it.

The currency is the Birr.

The flag is red, yellow, green bars and a blue disc in the middle with a yellow symbol on it.


  1. Which continent is Ethiopia in?
  2. What is the former name of this nation?
  3. What is the landscape like?
  4. What is the climate like?
  5. What is the main religion of this country?
  6. What is the official language of Ethiopia?
  7. What is distinctive about Amharic?
  8. What is the main ethnic group of Ethiopia?
  9. What is the capital city?
  10. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  11. Which European country defeated this one in the 19th century?
  12. Which country lost the Battle of Adua?
  13. In which year did Italy successfully invade Abyssinia?
  14. Who was the Emperor of Ethiopia in the 1940s?
  15. Which religion worships Haile Selassie?
  16. What are Ethiopian Jews called?
  17. What is unusual about Ethiopian Christianity? Five marks.
  18. Who was the ruler of this country in the 1980s?
  19. What disaster struck the country in the 1980s?
  20. What holy artefact is in this country?
  21. Which Asian land does a lot of trade with this one?
  22. What is the currency?
  23. Name five neighbours of this country. Five marks.
  24. Would you like to visit this country? Five marks
  25. =================================================




Estonia is a European nation. This country is in the north of the continent. It borders Russia and Latvia. The climate is mild in summer and very cool in winter. This country is beside the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea.

This nation has Estonian as the official language. It is connected only to Magyar and Finnish. This language originated in west Russia.

Estonia has been an identifiable nation for centuries. This country was pagan until the Middle Ages. This country converted to Christianity. When the Reformation occurred the Estonians mostly changed to Protestantism.

Estonia was conquered by various other countries such as Denmark and then Poland. Estonia became part of the Russian Empire in the 17th century.

In 1917 the Russian Revolution took place. Lenin became the new leader of communist Russia. allowed Estonia to become independent.

In 1940 Estonia became part of the Soviet Union. In 1941 the country was invaded by Germany. Many people were killed under the occupation. In 1944 the Red Army re-entered Estonia.

In the late 1980s a nationalist movement started in Estonia. In 1989 there were large scale demonstrations for independence.

#In 1991 the country regained its independence.

Estonia joined the European Union. It is also a member of NATO.

The Flag of Estonia is a black, blue and white tricolour. These are horizontal bars.

There is a large Russian minority in the country.

Estonian is the only official language.

The capital is Tallinn. Its etymology is Danish Castle. This city has a very well preserved mediaeval centre.

The population of this nation is of the order of one and a half million.






Germany is a European country. This nation is in the west of the continent. It is beside the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The neighbours of this country are France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland.

The climate of Germany is mild in summer and cold in winter. The Alps Mountains are in the south of the country. It is possible to ski there.

The ancient people of this land called themselves in Dietsck. This meant people in their language.

The Romans were the first civilisation here. The Romans fought a tribe there called ‘Germanii’ another they called ‘Allemanii’. This is where the word Germany and Allemania come from. The Germans under Hermann defeated the Romans in a  major battle. However, the Romans conquered southern Germany.

Christianity came to Germany in the 2nd century AD. It took centuries before everyone converted.

The Roman Empire fell in Germany. Goths ruled Germany. This was the Dark Ages.

In the Middle Ages Germany was divided into 360 states. They gradually became part of the Holy Roman Empire. The Empire was feeble and disunited at first. The German states varied from city states, to archbishoprics to duchies and kingdoms. Some were tiny and a few were large.

The emperor was elected by a handful of magnates. The Habsburg family in Austria managed to have their man elected for centuries.

The Germans fought pagans to the east. They Christianised them. They invaded Russia to bring Catholicism to the Orthodox Russians. The Germans lost the Battle on the Ice at Lake Peipus.

In 1517 Dr Martin Luther wrote 95 these. He as a Catholic monk and his theses were criticisms of the Catholic Church. In 1521 Luther broke away and founded Protestantism. He was protesting against the Pope. Luther translated the Bible into German. His Saxon dialect influenced standard German.

In the 16 and 17th centuries there was a huge amount of fighting between Catholics and Protestants. In the Thirty Years War a third of the German population was slain.

There was a Jewish community in Germany. They were discriminated against by law.

In the 18th century Prussia emerged as a mighty state. The Hohenzollerns ruled it. Bavaria was another prominent state and was often an ally of France.

The French under Napoleon conquered Germany. Napoleon put his relatives and cronies on German thrones. Napoleon was defeated and his acolytes were sent packing. The German states were mostly authoritarian and reactionary.

The German nationalist movement was founded in response to the defeat of France. In 1848 there was a revolution in Germany and many other countries. Liberals, socialists and nationalists were behind this.

Germany united gradually. It was completed in 1871 when the German states defeated France. At the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles the other German princes proclaimed the King of Prussia to be German Emperor. There was a Reichstag founded at Berlin. The states were reduced to 36. They were allowed some autonomy.

The Industrial Revolution really took off in Germany in the late 19th century. The country was acclaimed for its prowess in science and technology.

Germany acquired colonies in Africa and the Pacific Ocean. In the late 19th century German built up her navy.

In 1914 Germany started the First World War. The war went fairly well for Germany at first. However, soon the country as mired in trench warfare. German industry did well to supply the army. The Allied blockade slowly starved the country. The suffering was too great.

In 1918 the Kaiser abdicated and skipped the country. The Weimar Republic was proclaimed. Socialists, liberals and the Catholic Centre Party dominated the next 15 years. Conservatives railed against the Weimar Republic.

The Nazi Party came to office in Germany in 1933. They grew popular because they exploited the Great Depression. Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. He quickly established a dictatorship. He took land from other nations.

In 1939 the Second World War broke out. Germany eventually lost this war and the cost was very heavy.

The USSR occupied East Germany and founded a communist state. The Western Allies occupied West Germany. They founded the Federal Republic of Germany there.

Germany reunited in 1990.

Germany is a very affluent country.

This nation has German as its national language.

The currency is the Euro. The country is part of the European Union.

The Rhine is a major river in Germany. The Danube also flows through this country. This is the longest river in western Europe.

Germany has a superb football team. The country has hosted the World Cup.

The capital city is Berlin.

The Flag of Germany is red, black and gold – top to bottom. These are horizontal stripes.


  1. Which continent is Germany in?
  2. Which two seas is this country beside?
  3. What tribes did the Romans name in Germany?
  4. Which German leader beat the Romans?
  5. What is the climate like?
  6. What is the main mountain range in the south?
  7. Is it possible to ski in Germany?
  8. What was the Holy Roman Empire? Five marks?
  9. Which French emperor conquered Germany briefly?
  10. In which year did nationalists attempt a revolution in Germany?
  11. In which room was the German Emperor proclaimed?
  12. In which year did the First World War start?
  13. Who led Germany from 1933 to 1945?
  14. Germany was divided into how many countries from 1945 to 1990?
  15. What is the currency of Germany?




Guinea is an African nation. This country is situated beside the Atlantic Ocean. Guinea is not far north of the Equator. It is hot all year.

The people of Guinea are mostly Bantu. In the 16th century European merchants sailed to this land. They traded with the indigenous people. The Guineans did not perceive themselves as being Guineans. They were divided into tribes one might say nations. They often warred against each other. Those who were defeated were often taken as slaves.

France conquered Guinea in the late 19th century. French remains the official language.

In 1960 Guinea became independent. It was run as a communist state. It stayed like that for 30 years. It has since become capitalist.

The currency of Guinea is the CFA France. CFA stands for Communaute Financiere Afriquaine. This currency is shared by many Francophone African nations. The currency is pegged to the Euro.

The flag of Guinea has a red, yellow and a green vertical bar.

The capital of Guinea is Conakry.


  1. Which continent is Guinea in?
  2. Draw the flag.
  3. What is the currency?
  4. What is the language of this country?
  5. What is the capital?
  6. Which hemisphere is this land in?
  7. Does this land have a littoral?
  8. What race are most people in this country?
  9. #In which year did this nation become independent?
  10. What political and economic system did the government pursue after independence?




Italy is a European nation. It is in the west of the continent. This country has the Mediterranean Sea on three sides. The climate is mild in winter and warm in summer. This nation has several neighbours – France, Switzerland, Slovenia and Austria. Italy is unique in that it entirely surrounds two other sovereign states. These are the Vatican City and San Marino.

The sea to the west is the Tyrrhenain Sea which is part of the Mediterranean. To the south is the Gulf of Otranto. There are Italian islands in the Gulf of Sirte. To the east of Italy is the Adriatic Sea. The Ionian Sea separates Greece from Albanian and Greece.

The Alps are the mountains that bound Italy to the north. Monte Bianco is in this range. It is the tallest mountain in Italy. The summit of Monte Bianco is in France and the French call it Mont Blanc (Mount White). It is the tallest mountain in Western Europe.  The range of mountains that forms the spine of Italy is the Appennines. Italy is a fairly mountainous country. The north is much more fertile than the south. The south is drier. The country has two large islands – Sicily and Sardinia. Sardinia is where sardines come from.

The Etruscans were the first civilised people in Italy. They lived in north central Italy. They gave their name to Tuscany. The Ancient Greeks settled Italy. They named it after italos (meaning ”a bull”). The English word tallow is derived from italos.

The Phoenecians also settled in Italy. In the 9th century BC people settled in the lower Tiber Valley. The city of Rome was founded in roughly in 800 BC or thereabouts. The legend says that Romulus and Remus set up this city. The area around Rome was called Latium. The language of these people was Latin. Rome has seven kings one after another.The last one was Tarquinius Superbus ”the proud”. He was ousted. He fled to his crony the Etruscan king Lars Porsenna.

Rome achieved martial prowess. Rome was able to overmaster her neighbours. Within a few centuries the Romans had conquered the whole of Italy. The Roman Republic was ruled by two consuls at a time.

Roman invaded Gaul (France) and other countries. The Roman war machine prevailed. The Roman Empire came to rule much of Europe, North Africa and West Asia.

The Roman Empire declined in the 5th century BC. The empire split into eastern and western halves. The western half finally collapsed. The eastern half survived as the Byzantine Empire.

The empire converted to Christianity until Emperor Constantine. Italy became several different countries in the Dark Ages. Visigoths ruled for a while.

This country was then part of the Holy Roman Empire. This was German dominated. Italy was divided into city states. These included Venice, Genoa, Florence and others. These city states often fought against each other despite all being nominal parts of the same empire. These city states were ruled by ducal families and dominated by affluent merchant families.

Italy was dominated by other countries in the Renaissance. Northern Italy was governed by the French and southern Italy was ruled by the Spanish.

Italy was culturally advance. It had some illustrious universities. The country was celebrated for its fabulous architects, gifted artists and clever engineers. These professionals were sought by other countries.

In the 19th century a nationalist movement started in Italy. Northern Italy was under Austrian control. Nationalists emphasised the country’s Roman heritage. They wished to return to past glories. The Italians spoke many different dialects. Few of them spoke Standard Italian which was really the Piedmontese dialect. Liberals and radicals were nationalist. The Italians were almost all Catholic. The trouble was that the Catholic Church was opposed to liberalism and nationalism. The Pope ruled the Papal States which comprised much of central Italy.

The French assisted the Italian nationalist cause. After several conflicts Italian unification and independence was achieved. The Kingdom of Italy was founded in 1861. Its capital was Turin. The Savoia family was the royal family. The first monarch was King Victor Emanuel. However, the pope still ruled Rome.

Only in 1870 did the Italian Army take Rome. The pope was allowed to rule the Vatican City but he did not recognise the Italian State.

Italy annexed African countries. These were Eritrea and Somalia. Italy had little industry and could not compete with other European countries.

Southern Italy was poverty stricken in the late 19th century. Many people there were illiterate. They tended not to speak Italian. They regarded the government as foreign. They looked to the Mafia to resolve their problems. There was large scale emigration from Italy to other countries. They mainly moved to the United States. People also went to France, Australia, the United Kingdom and Brazil.

In 1911 Italy attacked the Ottoman Empire. She seized the Dodecanese Islands and Libya. Italy pioneered aerial bombardment.

In 1915 Italy entered the First World War on the Allied side. The Italian attack on the Austro-Hungarians stalled. In 1918 the war ended in Allied victory.

There was mass unemployment in Italy after the First World War. Communist nostra were widespread. There was a lot of political violence.

Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party. The Fascists did well in an election. They threatened to seize power. The king caved in and appointed Mussolini as prime minister. The Fascists gradually changed the law. They established a dictatorship by 1926.

Mussolini invented the word totalitarian. He set up youth organisations. There was slow economic growth in Italy. Dissent was stifled by the secret police – OVRA. The country was a one party state. The government co operated with the Catholic Church.

Italy attacked Abyssinia in 1935. The war was slow going for Italy but ended in victory. This damaged Italy’s relations with other country. Italy then weighed in on the Nationalist side in the Spanish Civil War. In 1940 Italy joined the Axis side in the Second World War.

Italy was losing the war. In 1943 Mussolini was overthrown. Italy joined the Allies. Mussolini was rescued by the Germans. Mussolini and some fascist hardliners then set up base in northern Italy. The Second World War became a civil war in Italy.

In 1945 Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans. He was executed by firing squad.

Italy lost her colonies. The country was wrecked by war. The country had a referendum on the monarchy. Italy narrowly chose to abolish the monarchy. Male members of the House of Savoy were banned from re-entering Italy. They moved to France.

The communist party was a major force in politics. The Christian Democrats were the main anti-communist party. The USA funded the Christian Democrats. They managed to win the elections and keep the communists out.

Italy’s economy improved. However, there was still significant emigration. Italy joined the European Coal and Steel Community. She was a founder of the European Economic Community in 1957.

Italy has hosted the summer Olympics and the winter Olympics. This country is famous for its football team – Gli Azzuri. There are many excellent football clubs in the country. Italy won the world cup a few times.

Pavarotti was an Italian opera singer. The country produced many famous composers. Rossini and Verdi are among them. These two wrote operas. Vivaldi wrote the Four Seasons.

Italy is well known for her cuisine. The Mediterranean diet is very salubrious. It consists of seafood, olives and salad. Spaghetti and pizza are popular around the world.

The flag is a tricolour. It is vertical bars – green, white and red. That is left to right.

The currency is the Euro. Italy is in the European Union (EU).

The national anthem is Inno Mammeli. It was penned by 19 year old Goffredo Mammeli.

The capital is Rome.

This is a lay state. Most people are Catholics. There has been immigration from Romania, Russia, Ethiopia, China and Somalia. Some of the immigrants have become Italian citizens. Some of the new Italians are Muslims.

Italy has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world.

This country is renowned for fashion. Dolce e Gabbana is an Italian brand. So is Bennetton.  It also produces stylish cars. Lamborghini and Ferrari are some of them.


  1. Which continent is it in?
  2. Name the neighbours of this land. Six marks.
  3. What is the capital city?
  4. Which was the first civilisation in Italy?
  5. What language did the Romans speak?
  6. What river flows through Rome?
  7. Which mountains are the northern border of Italy?
  8. Draw the  flag. Five marks.
  9. Which mountain range forms the spine of Italy?
  10. What is the language of Italy?
  11. Who was the last king of Rome?
  12. What did Rome become after Tarquin was driven out?
  13. Who founded Rome? Two marks.
  14. Name a country conquered by Rome.
  15. When the Roman Empire split what was the eastern section called?
  16. When did Rome become Christian?
  17. Which empire did Italy become part of after the 5th century.
  18. Name two countries surrounded by Italy. Two marks
  19.  What is the main sea beside Italy.
  20. Which country dominated northern Italy in the 16th century.
  21. Who ruled Rome until 1870?
  22. Would you like to visit this land? Five marks.
  23. Which side was Italy on in the First World War?
  24. What happened in Italy in the Second WORLD War? Five marks.
  25. What is the national anthem?
  26. Which currency does this country use?
  27. Is this country in the EU?




Kuwait is a country in Asia. It is in a region called the Middle East. This nation is well north of the Equator. It is warm in winter and very hot in summer. The country is almost entirely flat. This nation is beside the Arabian Gulf. There are two neighbours of Kuwait. These are Iraq and Saudi Arabia. There is also a neutral zone. This zone is jointly controlled by Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

The land is almost entirely desert. It is also very flat. The rainfall is very low.

This country is peopled by Arabs. The Kuwaitis have Arabic as their official language. Islam is the state religion. Almost every Kuwait is a Sunni Muslim.

This country was part of the Islamic Empire in the 7th century AD. Most of the people of this land were nomads. They followed their herds of camels. They searched for oases.

The Ottoman Empire then ruled Kuwait. The Al Sabah family ruled Kuwait on behalf of the Ottoman Sultan.

The British signed treaties with the sultan of Kuwait. By the mid 19th century Ottoman rule was solely titular. The sultan of Kuwait agreed to only have foreign relations via the British. The British provided for the country’s defence.

In the 1960s Kuwait became independent. The country grew wealthy due to oil. Iraq threatened to invade. The British sent troops and warships. This deterred Iraq.

Many foreign workers moved to Kuwait. They were Palestinians, Indians, Pakistanis, British, Filipinos and Bangladeshis.

In 1990 Iraq annexed Kuwait. The royal family fled. The United Nations demanded that Iraq withdraw. The Iraq tyrant, Saddam Hussein, stood fast. The UN set a deadline of 15 January for Iraq to pull out. Hussein refused claiming that Kuwait was the 19th province of Iraq.

UN forces had massed in Saudi Arabia. UN planes bombarded the Iraqis for weeks. Finally in February 1991 a ground war began. The Iraqis were driven out of Kuwait. The UN soldiers carried on deep into Iraq. Finally peace was signed.

Kuwait had been liberated. The monarch allowed men to vote. To be a Kuwaiti one had to prove male descent from Kuwait back to 1930.

Kuwait Airlines is the national carrier.

Q8 is a Kuwait chain of filling stations abroad. Oil is the basis of the economy.

The capital of Kuwait is Kuwait City.

The Flag of Kuwait is red, black, white and green. These are the Arab colours.



  1. Is there much precipitation?
  2. Name the neighbours of Kuwait?
  3. What is the most important thing for the economy?
  4. What is the official language?
  5. Name three major migrant labourer nationalities?
  6. Draw the flag. Five marks.
  7. What happened to Kuwait in 1990-91?
  8. What is the official religion?
  9. What is the name of the capital?
  10. Which European nation provided protection for Kuwait until the 1960s?
  11. What is the climate like?
  12. What is the landscape like?
  13. Does this land have a littoral?
  14. Which hemisphere is this country in?