Daily Archives: April 3, 2015

Ку-клукс-клан (The Ku Klux Klan )

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Ку-клукс-клан (The Ku Klux Klan )

Ку-клукс-клан был основан в 1866 году, сразу после Гражданской войны в США. Ку-клукс-клан  сокращенно называют  ККК. Он  был создан бывшими солдатами Конфедерации. Конфедерация состояла из нескольких  южных штатов США. Конфедерация откололась от Соединенных Штатов в попытке сохранить рабство. Во время Гражданской войны рабство в  США было отменено. KKK была создана  несколькими белыми  южанами, которые были ошеломлены известием об отмене  рабства.  Они не предлагали вернуть афроамериканцев  в рабство, но  полностью отрицали равенство между черными и белыми.

KKK ходил по ночам в белых одеждах. Сначала для них  это было развлечением,  чтобы напугать   афро-американцев, делая вид, что они  призраки. Некоторые афроамериканцы заняли высокие должности  на Юге сразу после Гражданской войны. Некоторые из них стали судьями и конгрессменами. Многие белые южане были категорически  против черных. Они были возмущены тем, что черные  занимают  высокие посты. KKK решил возродить превосходство белой расы террористическими методами.

KKK могли посылать письма с угрозами расправы, афроамериканцам, которые бросили вызов господству белых. Жизнь  белых, с  сочувствием относящихся к  черным, также была под угрозой. Члены KKK могли  появиться  около чьего-то дома посреди  ночи,  окружить его,  а потом могли оставить  горящий крест в качестве предупреждения.

KKK  терроризировал афроамериканцев, которые требовали равенства. Эти мужчины или женщины могли быть  похищены  ККК и жестоко высечены. Иногда KKK линчевали людей, то есть, вешали их в пубдичных местах. KKK не полиция, и они не имели права казнить людей. Это были убийства. Сотни или даже тысячи людей собирались, чтобы посмотреть на эти преступления. Многие белые американцы поддерживали KKK. Членами ККК были некоторые полицейские и даже несколько судей. Члены KKK были настолько уверены в себе, что они часто  даже не скрывали свои лица, при совершении  убийства. Они не всегда надевали  капюшоны и иногда позволяли  себя фотографировать во время совершения преступлений. Почти никто из них не был осужден.

В конце 19 века организация была фактически распущена, к этому времени южные штаты приняли законы, признавая большую часть прав афроамериканцев.  В южной части США  практически не было черных полицейских или судей. Почти все афроамериканцы не могли голосовать на юге. В северных штатах ситуация была немного лучше.

В 1920 г. ККК понемногу  начал возрождаться. Члены ККК были против культуры джаза и  алкоголя, но  некоторые единомышленники были лицемерами и пили. KKK выступал против коммунизма. Они утверждали, что все, кто, хотел расового  равенства, были коммунистами. Они ненавидели католиков и иммигрантов из Восточной Европы, а также  выходцев из Латинской Америки. Латиноамериканцы это  люди, говорящие на испанском языке. Латиноамериканцы,  рожденные в  США, получали гражданство, но ККК утверждал, что эти латиноамериканцы (или латиносы)  не были американцами.

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  1. Когда был основан KKK?
  2. Что  означает аббревиатура  ККК?
  3. Каковы были цели ККК?
  4. Как KKK терроризировал чернокожее население?
  5. Что такое линчевание?
  6. Почему KKK был фактически распущен в конце 19-го века?
  7. Какие убеждения  были у ККК в 1920г.?
  8. Почему KKK иногда не скрывали свои лица, во время линчевания?
  9. Кто такой куклуксклановец?
  10. Почему KKK рассматривается как зло? (6)
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Leading cases in the law of property. Beginning with B.

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BANNISTER v BANNISTER

Ms Bannister inherited to cottages upn the decease of her spouse. She the sold one of them to er brother in law for below market price. They had an oral deal that she would be permitted to remain therein for life rent free. He then reneged on this and essayed to boot her out.

It was held that there ead w as a constructive trust in favor of the female. Fraud had been attempted by the male.

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BARCLAYS BANK  v O’Brien

This is about undue infleince. Mr O’Brien was dishonest about obtaining a mortgage for hie matrimonial home. MRs O’Brien signed an agreement about the mrtgage without reading ti and obtaining independent adivce. That is her look out.

Undue influence can negative an agreement in land.

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BASS v GREGORY.

Bass and her tenant owned a pub. Beer was brewed in the cellar and ventilation was needed to le the fumes out. Tne neighbour blocked this.

Gregory owned the water well. For 40 years fumes had come out this way,,

It was held that therewas an easement since this exercise had been for so long..

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BERNSTEIN of LEIGH v SKYVIEWS

The defendants had flown and taken an aerial photos of the plaintff’s land. The plaintiffs said this was trespass. The court held thta so long as the flight was not so low as to interefer wit quiet enjoyment there w sno trespass . One only need to ctronolt eh airspace above on;e land inascmuch as one needs this for rodianry sue.

This overturned the ancient dictum cui eius solum usque inferons ad caelum.

Hobbes said when two parties cannot agree about land the role of the court must be to adjusidctae in a reasonable manner.

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BINIONS v EVANS

Mr and Mrs Binions purchase d acottage from the Tredgerar Estste. They promised the Tredegar Esate that they would permitt eh poor widow Evans to remain in her house for aslong as she should live.

She was said to be a tenant at weill. It was found by the corut that Mrs Evans had a right to stay.

It was held that a contracutal licence is an equiablt interest in land/

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BRISTOL AND WEST BUIDLING SOCIETy against ELLIS

There was a mortgage. Mrs Ellis fell into arrears when her hubby upped and left.

She wanted to delay payment. She wnated a payment plan that would give her 98 years to repay. The court of appela ruled agains this. Her debt would rise too much owing to interesr. Moverove one could not be surw hat would become of the property market. She had wished to stay ther euntil such time as her chidler had finsihed their schooling

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BRUTON v LoNDON and QUADRANT housiNG TRUST 1999.

The local council gave London and Quandrant Housing Trust a licence to use land to accommodate the homeless..

The Housing Trst let Mr Bruton stay in a house in returnf or rent. The Housing Trust could re enter it.

Bruton said he was a tenant and the Housitng Trust had an obligation to repair the building.

The Housing Trst nem dat quod non habet. They did not have a lease themseelves so could not grant  sublease

The court said therewas a contracualt lease or non-proprietayr lease. SO Bruton was made a tenant

This is tendentious becuase it went against previous doctirne. Morevoer, people are rleuctant to let the home;ss live in budoigs lest the homelss person turn intoa  tenant.

Te courts judgement was in line with Street v Mountford.

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BURNS v BURNS

Valaleriaerie Burns and PPatrick Burns lived togeter for 19 years. They never wed. Patrikc biugh a house in his na.e Valerie did not contribute to the urchase price but contribued to household expnses.

They split up. 1984. She was not beneficially entitled to the fmaily home.

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Leading cases in English land law. Beginnign with the letter ”A’/

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Eves v Eves. This is a 1975 case. Eves purchased the home nd gave the legal title to his girlfriend. Janet decorated the property and broke the piano wotha  ahmmaer

The cort held that there was a constructive trust held by Eves for his bird. She a quater share.

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ABBOT v Abbot.

This is a 2007 case. It was decided by the Privy Council. This came from Antigue and Barbuda. It concerns constructive trusts.

,Mr Abbott was the registsred owner. He acknowledge that his goodwife has a share but quibbled about the size thereof. Goody Abbott wanted more of the land.

Baroness Hale said the court would be mindful of the whole course of dealing betwitzt the two paersons. The law had move don since Llodys Bank v Rossett.

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AG SECURITIES V VAUGHAN.

This case is about exclusive pssession. This company had a long term lease of a 4 bedroom house. They sublet one room to Mr Vaughan./ 3 other wer ein the house. All moved in at different times and sgned different deals.

In 1985 AG Securities termimated the leases. The court held that the occuperieds had a licence and that AG securities could not do this. These people did not have exclusive posession which is required for a lease.

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ANTONIADES v Villiers

Antoniadies had a long lease of a property. He sublet to a couple – Villiers and Miss Bridger.

Mr Villiers and Ms Bridger had exclusive possession of their room jointly. They had a lease despite the agreement saying they only had a license to occupy.

Lor Templeman said that tenants had some securty of tenure and protection uunde the Rent Acts. An attempt to contrarc out of statute would be struck down. Such devies woulc be shams/

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Ashbuurn Anstalt v  Arnold. 1988.

Rent is not needed for a tenancy

This is a court of appeal case. They said certainty of duraiton is needed.

Arnold and Co had a lease of some premises. The sold the remainder of the leasr to Matlodge. Matlodge gave Arnold and Co a license to stay there until the next quarter when Matlodge would need the place.

Matlodge was going to reddevelop the place. Anrold and Co would then lease a ship space of 1000 sq metres.

Cavendish and Co acquired the freehold and the lease.They accepted that tey wpuld honour the agreement ith Arnold and Co.

Legal and General Assurnace Soiety took over Cavendish Co. They too aaccpeted the contract re Arnodla dn Co

Legal an General then sold the proprtty to Ashburn Anstalt. This was subject to Ashburn Anstalyt honourong he agreemenw ti Arnold and Co.

Ashburn Anstalt had no plans to redevleop the property but wanted Anrold and Co out anyway.

It was held that there was a lease and this bount Ashburn Anstalt . Occupation agreement was certain enough.

It was an overriding interesta nd there was actual occupaitn. It was note registerd as an estate contarc but this mattered not.

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Aslan v Murphy

There was an agreement saying the licensee could only use the room for certain hours. The jduge helld this was a sham.This was not a true bargain.

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A dream of a road

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I was in a far-off country. Fra from Ireland that is. I walked around a large concret buiding. It was sparael funsihed insdie. There were many small rooms. The iftted carpets were beieg and rough. It was like the Zurich rehearsa building. Poeple were going there for counselling sessions it seems to me. Differnet rooms wwr elabelled with counties of irlenad atheir names. Middle aged men and women were there. They paid me little attention. I cam out the front of it. It was like tge Farrer Theatre.

Later I saw a road leading steeply up a hill. It was asphal and in very good nick. There were a few lanes in either direction. It reminded me of one in Baku leadin t Bakixani.

Later I was in walking dow n a street. I had a job as a govenror for a very affluent family. It was like the Papathoams one. There was a branch of Lloyds bank. Te staff wer ein acuas and in there. i saw   the window they wer eon their computers and they wer eonf acebook and looking stuff up forn fun. o banking was being donw. For some reaosn they were staying in the bank overnight and the comptuers were hanged to alow them to do this stuff.

One of them was a black man a bit younger than me. He was somehwta chubby and wore glasses. He was reading my blog. I had made some damagng admssions and wssigeering He was not a n unsympatheitc chaarcter. I feare dhe woul tell my boss and I would get the sack forthwith.

This is a warnign for me to be more guarded. I spoke toRoger about approaching SImon. Would I evern work ijb banking

Then I was leaving a budlig. there wer sveral aprties of schoolchidlren One group of girls was very obstreperous. The slender headmistress was young for her job and wals ahving a hard time controlling some of the veyr mouthy ones. The headmistress indicated for me to leave. I went bast her na dont the street. SOme of the teenage schoolgirls had run away and were hiding in the park across the street. I was shcoked at how rude they wer eot their hetdhacer. This woman was very respectal abd dressed the part. In Tatler I have ebenr eaidn u about who was head. I alos looked up Fiona HSw isince Joyce our hostess of last knew went to school with her and FIONA Was cheeky to all the staff.