unit 2 lesson 7


Talking about the future = Anne Keefe


I think I will buy

I think I will buy a pair of jens# will plus a evr is the futue simple

another one of future continuous

eight pm = a certain tnese is used to tlakm about timetabled events

presne tsimple is used for time ordinate conjjeucntions

a perfect tens must have the auxuilary verb have in it

contunious has to have   =ing in it

present simple is used qfter time subordinate conjunctions such as

when , as soon as, by the time

they are subordinators they make what comes after them dependent on the rest of the sentence

subordinate calsues or fime

when as sosonm as by the time. before,. as soon as,

what comes after that is in the presne tsimple

# when you see dadivd tlel him he owes me oney

that this indicates hen I will see davidsinc eit must be in the futuree



Talking about the PaST Dr Anne O Keefe


present perfect

has to have the ed form of the verb if it is regular or otherwise irregular particple

refers to event sin the past connects with the present

it brings an event from the oast up to the present, it is about an aspect = way of looking at an event overtime

it casts back in time from whether a year ago or yesterdta] putts tat as the time frame for the quwstions

using the time frame fro; the time up to now

other time esperxssions connected with thus

in my kufe. to date,

difference between for ans since, these proepsitions are often suing in lreaiton to present perfect# in many labaguegs ther eis one preposition here# the difference here we use for when talking about the duration fo time for the alst two minth] since refer sot previous point in time

I have not drnk for a  month#

I have been living in ieland for five years

# since  – yu must name the start time in the past#

newsworthy tense = it is still relevant, present perfect# happened past in ti,e but report it in present perfect makes it pertiennt

feeuqnr tuse of presenr perfetc to thing in the immediate past

just often sued with perrsent perfect


Unit 2 lesson 6 form and function


present , past and futue#

review tenses

see how tense and aspect make different forms

one should be able to produce the difenet forsm and explain thei function past tense does not always refer to past tie be conditional

if I had enough money I would buy it

aspect if action a re finished, ongoing or repeated

there are three aspect , continuous and perfective

tense combiens with aspect to make several different forms

these forms have different functions


talking about the present






unit 2 lesson 5 tense, time and aspect


understand tesne time and aspect relate to eahx tger# tense and time combien to make differne tforms such as present perftec continius

tense is the verbs form

present simple

# she qshes every sturdy] wshe will wash the car next saturdya is futue sumbole

futre simple has a diffent form to the resne rna dh THE PASt#

it doe snot sue infelciton # in the present simple we use es adeed to wahs to ake the person f or the fture simple we have to use differne towards#future simple has a different form

we use will ro is going to for the future

we cannot sue an inflection to form the future enad for tgis reason many rgemm

take the view that there at eonly two tesne present and past

look at it miorpholgcally  we only used ifelct form with present and past

texhcer etaxh all thes econtrcutins as tenses

# the futue is seen as a tense#

look at time

time refers to whether the verb can be daid ti dentie the past presne tor future

not that simple

present tense foe not always allude to the prssne time

# the trai leabe at nien oc lock tomorrow we use the prene timpel to refer to futu

past tnes eofe not wals refer to the past time  in this case ht epas timpel had refer sot rpesne tie

#tense and aspctec

aspect refers to whether actions are finised in progress or ing oing ro rveelant to the mment of speakinf# aspect idnciate the speker sperepction intime a sit is indicate din aparguxla evern prgas e ine gnlaubt her eare three apxtec sumpe; fr emxaple I QAHS THE CAE

# there is ni dicntion fow etteyrnt he action sic ompet eor wgethe tit sia  cotnuous ongoignaciton I was washing the cahe when we arrived

perfective apsetc = I have washed the car, we can see the action is complete

tense combined with axpetc to make serrla differne forms

# present simple and pas toncituous

I go to the gym

I am stufyin for my MA = that is predent contunios

# I go tot the gym last week  that is past simple

I have been to china = that is past perfect  to show a life e xperince

they had left before I arrived


# will I see you at thtree o clock

I am gpign tos tufy this eyar

present contunoish for a p;an in the near future# I AM MEETIGN MY FRIED AT FOUR O CLOCK

these are forms we can sue to talke about time

we can also combine aspects = perrctvie and contuous apsects to show that somethig has been contuing up tp the present, I have been washing the car this is the present perfect contunuos

tesme co,bines with asect to make servrla differne forms they have doffen fucntions

presne tismple can be used to ftaclk aboyt scheduled even in the near futue or facts

timebatbeld event snad about now

I am really hungr – that is now#

tense refers to form of the verb

aspect refers to whether actions are finished in progress or related to the miment of speaking

we us e present simple to tlak about the futue

tense combined with pect tog ive  diffenr eforms and have idffene uses




unit 2 lesson 4 clauses



look at ele;ents of clause

look at differnec ebween main clause nd subodirate# finite and non finite#

declarative, interrogative, imperative and excla;tive

one should understand qhat  clause is

identify the el;enet sf a clause# identify types of clauses

sentence hierarchy , clause is above sentence and below phrase, one of more phrases. it has a subject and a verb

the fearless warrior foygth barbely. the subject is warrior and the ver is fought

ele;ents of the clause

ele;ents can contain . subject and object and a adjunct or adverbial and a vern, a complement

a calsue can ocntian these bt deos not have to  a caluse can exist without thes ehut unlieka phrase on order to have a prhas ewe must aheva  vern but remember the prhase doe snot have a sbejct as a competbebt

calsue can consist only of a verb

a verb is essential for a clause

command and eat = these are lcauses becuas ehtye containa  verb

I gave my isster a DVD for her birthday

I is the subject have is the vern and direct obect is the sDVD and indirect onect is her a sister and the adjunct is her brthidya

the drect onect is the thing effecte dby the verb ,

the indirect object is sually the person or thing that recife a direct obect# her sister receives the a dvd WHICH IS TH direct object

# the adjunct adds extra info to the clause we can deket the adjunct and the snetnec till makes sense

#extra info is in adjunct,#

post modifier gives extra info about a noun# an adjunct gives extra info about the clause

ele;ents of a calsue, if we deket the adjunct the claus still makes sense

joe ut the palte on the table#

loom at phrase on the table. is this an adjunct?

no, it is not. it is a complement because it is needed to complete the clause.

put must hae a comple;ent, without te co;ple;ent would ne inco;plete

look at the elements. complement is on the table ,

linking  verbs, linking verbs are not action vebrs. be , see, become, taste and smell# clauses with liing verbs do not have an object they have a complement

she seems tired = tired s the compement

# the sky became dark = the subject is the sky, becam eis the verb and dark is the omplement

subject cmplenet  follows the everb and give sinfo aboyt the sibecyt

# surprised give sus more info aboyt the sibejdt maria you make me happy#

the subject is yu the verb is make the object is me

# the complenet is ahppy


;ain clauses and subordinate clayses# main clause are also called idnepent clauses, they make sense oon their own# subofridnate clauses depen on the main ckayse

if you re going to ths hop get some milk

get some milk is independent#

clauses of the same grammatical type such as indpdent clauses can be combiedn to dorm sentence using co ordianting cinjunctios

they can be used with fanboys, acronym

for and but or yet

he could not eat yet he did nt eat hungry

#I will call you if I am late or if I cannot come

two dependent clauses bave

calsue of the same grammatical type can be combined using co ordianting conjunctions#


finite and non finite clauses#s

finite calsues must have a verb that shows tense they can be main clause or subordiante

# we did nit meet her because we were late

it shows a past tnese throyght eh aixilairy bern it shows past tense throught he main verb verb were# they are finite as the both show tense#

non finite calsue do not show tense I had something to eat befor eleaving  this is finite becuas eit shwos tense the apt tense of the amin evrb hav the subrodnate ckayse , the in form does not show tnese

non finite clauses can be complement which take ing or the infitive so for example love hate enjoy and so on

I do not enhiy playugn tennis inte main the cimplene tis a non fitne clause because it does not show tense] I would the to taelt o dubkin every week] modal verb is woud the comlenet is non finite tor travel deos nto shoq tense

we are not going t look at relative clause or pronouns or rec=vise them#


clause types

four different types, declarative, statement foor of bad# interrogative clauses,

imperative clasyes#

exclamative clayses#

declarative ckayses can be positive or ebauve statemebt# I sqaz Jh akst week# I is th subject the adjunct is last week.

it did not taste very nice

subkect is it

did not taste is the very

comple;ent is evry nice

cimplement is essential

#interrogative clauses function as qustions  they can be affirmative or neaytive

what are you doingm  wh word is


# aixulairy is didn’t

didn’t you see her?

imperative lcauses are usually command structues or order they can be mad up of one verb

hurry is an imperative# don.t bil is is mad eu of a mai evr ad an auzulairt

#object is it

dont be sad

# main vern is be

auxilaury is do nit] as id compe;ment#

it follos a lining it is needed to colete the meaning o the clause

exclamative clause usiall have this word ord er

what plus noun olsu object olsu verb#

what a friend you are

second example # what a day it has been#

what a dya

exclative with hw

have how lsu adjectu plsu subject plus verb# it can also be followed by adverb plus subject polsu verb#

how auciky he moves

#note that exclamative clauses can also be formed like questions

they can have a an interrotivatie ordee# wasn’t she great

# didn’t she song well# they are fllowed by an exlcanauton so we know they anot wuqrisonts








Unit 2 lesson 3 hierarchy of a sentence phrases


there are noun phrases and verb phrases

prepostionql  phrwsem qdjectivql phrse

how does sentence relqt to difernt word clqsses# how it fits in the sentence ehierqhcy

one should be qble to identify types of phrases#

phrqse is midway in the hierarcy

fealess warrior  = in thos phras no verb

what is a hrase is a group of worfs that stand together wa s aunit and form part of a clause or a sentence

phrase does not vontaina subject and a verb it cannot coney a complete thought

a fearless warrior is a noune phrase# my sistre is a noun phrease

word classes can form basis of phrases they operta as head of the phras enun operates as the hea dof a noun phrase

a ver is the head of a ver phrase adejct ive heard of an adejecti phrase

an adverb is the head f an adverb phrase#

heads of phrases acna have qords before them such as detemrienrs or adverbs they can have words after them such a spos tmodifiers n complemenets#

#different types of phrases noun phrases etc,,,,

adverb phrase#

verb phrase

there are twzo types of evrb phrwas simple and complex

# simple verb phrase is part of name vern no main verb

I gave my sister  DVD for christmas

gave is the only verb = this is a simple verb phrase

complex verb phrase are more complex, they include on modal verb they have one or more auxiliary ver

click n the hyper links to find ut more informaiton

# shall should, may or miggt

auxiliary verb si a heloing verbs, three auxlisire are be do and have they assist the main verb

“the essay should have been completed,” should is modal verb

auxiliary verb in this sentence is have#

been is the main verb#

model verb always comes befoe the auxilaury vern or verbs

read more about meaning of auxiliary n verb phrase and typical erro by clicking on English grammar today links

noun phrase is made up of a noun for example sister

or a prounoun, I gave her a present, this is made up of any depentn words befor eor after the head

the ehad f a noun or a prounoun

possessive determiner is “my£

dependen t words give spsiif information about thrad my gives more information aboyt the head which is sister

different ypes of wotds can come before the hea d of the noun phrase theyc an be articlesm, determiners, nu;erbals , interrogative words such as which what whose and so forth

“his bedroom is a mess” in this sentence there qre tzo noun phrses

edorom is the heqd and his is a psossessive etemrinet# in the seocn noun phrase

a mess the noun is the hed that is mess the determiner is the indefint earticle


“many buldings were dtoryed that year”

two noun phrase , second noun phrase is that year, year is the heas na dthat is the detmienr it is demosntraitgve,

determiners and different tupes of detminers

another types that comes befpre that one isa  pre modifier these can be ajective pr adejctvie prhase so signle nouns or noun phrases

“he had very happy meemories” he is the head it is proun

very happy memories ia nother phrase, the head is memories

very is a pre modieirr

a second pre modifier is an adjective is ahppy


“you need a univerisy education”

you need = you is the head

education is the head#

a is a determiner

proe mdofier can be a noun = in this case it is university

complements = are phrases or clauses which are neded to complete the meaning o the non or they can be post modifiers hich give extra or specifi information aboyt the niun but are not essential to competht eh meaning

in a noun phrase the compelent comes immediately af5e yhe hea dof the mounprhas ewithout the comelt eme we would not udnertand enqta the noun trwfer sot#

“ther e is a rise in inflation” the head is rise which is a noun a but is followed by a  complement which in this case is a prepositional, phrase vecuas it does not containa subject and a ecebr int sun case we need the cieoeltn tocx oem;r the meaning got he eya da rise does not make any sense on tis own we need to know that ti tis a rise in inflation

# “the fact that the plane is getting warmer”

we need the complement for the sentence eto make sense

# post modifier sin nounmphrase “the man with grey hair£ man is the head this si followed by a post modieir, it is  prepsotional phrase , we know it s prhas ebecuas eit does not ave a subject vern comniantion#

with greya hair adds extra info about the man

“a hous neaby”

the head is the word house# nearby is a

”  that table she bought last year ” the post modifier

a noun phrase can be made up of the head with a compl;ent and a post modifier thin these cases the post modidier usually comes afetft eh comploemnt

“the claim that he was a thief appeared in the nesapper ”

the claim makes no sens eon it ll

the post modieirr is that appeare din the newspaper

“the feeling of hope that everyone shared,”


complement is that everyone shared is a prepositiona phrase

post modifier is usually after the complement

a complement adds essential info

that everyone shared isa  post modifier


prepositional phrases

prepositional phrase is mad eup of a prepsotion and the words tt fllowe it

” have my sister  present for her birthday”

the prepsotionala prhase is made up of for her brothday asin the prsto for and the ords that fllow it

look at differenr prespotional phrases

they met at a party . the preopsotion at and the non phrase part

# non one knew until quite receny# the prepsotipam phrase is

can you wait until after the meeting# in this example the presoptiaon is until afterv rh emeting it is made up of a prepsotuanla nd tha preopsitona phrase until is a prespition

se dcided on doing the course the preosptioanl phrase is on and an inf caluse doing the cours

e we were ameaed at what they wronte] the preopsitona; phrase s at what they wroyr

adjective phrases. go with nouns and change or add to their meaning#

you can see that the adjective phrase

#I gave my sisre an expersnive dvd for her birthya#

this adds to the meaning of the noun dvd

#adjective phrases ith come befor e anoun are called attributive phrases

I gave mys sier an expensice dvd# expensie is the adjective there and it is attributive adjective] adejectin pahrses afetra nuna re caed indicivtei phrases the dvd was expsnsie

int his danc expensice was a prediciativ eprhase and also an adjective

adjective phrases before a noun are called attributive adjectin phrases# sever eehather had been forecast# sever is the eha dof the adjective ephras

e it was a relaly winderuf evening

# we hve really wonderful as the atribtuive adjective eprhase

really is a modidier,

the adjective and the aveebr make up the attribtuie adjective phrase

adejtvie phrases can be predicative

these come aftet the noun the weather ic of

the predictive adjective phras eic odl coming after the nun weather#

these can complet the meaning of linking verns which do ntoexpres na ceiton sfeelm smeel and attse when predictei adjecitv prhsse cmeplete the meaning of linking verbs they act as  acomeplrnt to these verbs

it feels great# great is the adjevite phrsse which complete the meaning o feels

it tastes reallt awulf we have the adjective alweyfl but then qe have the averbr  really

really is in the adjective phrasw# the adjective awful is modified by really

# its seemed very starbeg# very starne is the preictaice adveject prhas

e some of the evrns  such as smell and tatse and are not ALWAYS ilinking evrns they canbe  an aciton

taste can be a  na ction evrn =he states the soup

the play was wonderful

the linking phrase I was

the adjecitv eiw nderful

the link is there to play . wonderful complete the meaning# john felt ally awful

awful is a an edjtive is it s compelent to the linng evrn felt so it comepett ehs meaning o flet and awdu if mldieied by the adver rbeally  so the rdivtei adjtci ephras eis reallt awful


adverb phrase

it can eba  signle advern such as

I agve mys sier a verye xpensice dvd for her brhtyda

very is the avdebr prhase#

the days passed very wuickly

in this sentec every wuickly I the adverb phrase it is mofied by the adver very

the second sentence # the days passed quickyl eboyh

they adverb is post modified by another aveebr enough

#adverbs and adverbs phrases can have different positon anywhere in the calsue

she is always late

she always leave early

be is an exaction = here the adverb comes after rthe verb

the adverb is after the verb

zhere the is more than one vern the verb comes after th first auxiliary verb so for example have# the two auxiliary verns in tat sencente are have and be# they have been very occaisonyl wring

the adverb pharse comes after rthe mdoerl verb is can#

the adverb phrase comes fetr it

types and meaning sna typical errors

there is a second link t reivew phrase clasees

a phrase is made up of one r more words but without a subject verb basis #

didffenrt words can operate as the head of the phrase

it can eb almost any par tof speech