Anastasia ===========================================

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born 1901

1917.

yekaterinaburg

claimants

1920. berlin

polish or Russian.

claimed to be another princess.

alexander Tchaikovsky

glebb botkin

legal case.

fransizka schakwoska.

ingird bermgman film 1950

anna anderson

 

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UK politics state of play =====================================================

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Bo Jo article in Torygraph. eye on top job. Tory party out of love with him

Theresa May in 2017 suggested she would serve till end of Brexit. then to end of term. ouster?

remainers want meaningful vote on Brexit deal. they have had many votes already. EU withdrawal notice bill. EU Withdrawal bill. what is meaningful? only if they win. cf Denmark and Ireland.

remainers wanted no referendum. as they lost they want another. Justine greening wants a second referendum.

political cross dressing. Mandelson said hard Brexit would be better. farage said staying in eu woud be better

UKIP up in polls. had their last hurrah.

NI – different laws from GB. Single market a solution.

Labour trying to discomfit tories over Brexit. like over Maastricht. opportunist

Lab ahead in polls.

Lib Dems silent. hardcore remain does not help

Lord Rennard said no more referenda. liib dems used to love referenda because they lost elections.

NHS difficult

immigration down

schools funding and recruitment crisis.

 

Australia

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AUSTRALIA

This country is part of the continent called Australasia. Australasia consists of New Zealand and Australia. Australia is derived from the word meaning ”southern” in Latin. The country is an island. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Tasman Sea to the east. There is the Arafura Sea to the north and the Antarctic Ocean to the south. The climate of Australia is hot all year in some areas. The northern part of the country is tropical. The southern area is Mediterranean biome. There is desert in the middle of the country. This is called the red heart.

Australia is the 8th largest country in the world in area. The capital city is Canberra it means ”meeting place” in an Aboriginal language.

The original inhabitants of this land are the Aboriginal people. They have dwelt in Australia for 20 000 years. They have their myth called the dreamtime. There were dozens of Aboriginal tribes each with its own language. The Aborigines did not have a common identity and were unaware of people on the other side of Australia. They dwelt as hunter gatherers.

A Dutch sea captain named Abel Tasman sailed around Australia in the 17th century. The island of Tasmania is named in his honour. The Tasman Sea is also named after him. French mariners also sailed in this zone. The Netherlands colonized Indonesia. The Dutch traded with Aborigines.

In the 1780s Captain James Cook of the Royal Navy circumnavigated Australia. He mapped the coast. Captain Cook’s ship bumped into the Great Barrier Reef. Cook was later killed on Hawaii.

In 1788 the first British immigrants arrived in Australia. They landed at Botany Bay. It had this name because it had many plants which are not found in Europe. Botany is the study of plants. Most of the British immigrants were involuntary. They were criminals. They had been sentenced to transportation. This meant being shipped to Australia. The prisoners had to work for seven or fourteen years depending on their sentence. They voyage was lengthy and perilous. The work in Australia was very demanding. This was penal servitude. Not many survived. Those who did were free in Australia. People were transported for trifling offences such as larceny.

The Colony of Botany Bay was later renamed New South Wales. For a while of the governor was Captain William Bligh. Bligh is the man who was captain of His Majesty’s Bark the Bounty at the time of the mutiny. There was a mutiny against him in Australia too.

In time other colonies were founded – South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Queensland and Victoria. There were also territories such as the Northern Territory. New Zealand for formed as an adjunct of New South Wales.

Botany Bay grew into Sydney. This city is named in honour of the British Home Secretary Lord Sydney. The city of Melbourne was named after the British Prime Minister of the 1830s Viscount Melbourne.

More settlers arrived in the 19th century. There were clashes with the Aborigines. Some British immigrants were racist towards the Aborigines. Some Aborigines were murdered and the whites who slew them were not punished.

British aristocrats were sent out to be governors.

Australia was fairly lawless in the outback. There were bush rangers – banditti. Ned Kelly was the most infamous of these.

Sheep farming was one of the most lucrative things to do in Australia. There was also mining.

In 1900 it was decided to federate Australia. The colonies and the territories were united. Until that time they all had a separate relationship with the UK.

Political power

Australia had to find a capital for herself. There was a rivalry between Melbourne and Sydney. It was decided to set up a new capital between them. This was Canberra. It took 30 years to build the capital city. In the meantime Melbourne served as the capital. Canberra means ”meeting place” in an Aboriginal language.

In 1899-1902 Australia troops fought in South Africa. They defended the British Empire from the Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free State. The Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) was formed.

British immigrants continued to arrive in significant numbers. There were also immigrants from Germany and Denmark. Chinese labourers also came. There was discrimination against the Chinese. They were not permitted to take their womenfolk with them.

In 1914 the First World War broke out. Australia was part of the British Empire. The empire was an entity under international war. As soon as His Gracious Majesty George of that name of the fifth declared war this meant that Australia was at war. The Prime Minister of Australia vowed that the country would support the Mother Country to the last man and the last shilling.

Australians volunteered to fight. The ANZACs were dispatched to the Middle East. The fought against the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Gallipoli.  This battle went on for months and was trench warfare. Perhaps this is why Australian soldiers are known as diggers.

The Ottomans won. The heavy losses of that battle were seared into Australia’s collective consciousness.

Australia considered introducing conscription. Not enough men were putting themselves forward for the ANZACs and the Royal Australian Navy. The government put the matter to referendum. The Catholic Church campaigned zealously for a no vote. The majority voted against conscription.

In 1918 the First World War came to an end. The Prime Minister Hughes demanded severe punishment for the Central Powers.

In the 1920s there was another influx of immigrants from the British Isles. They fled high unemployment in their part of the world.

Sydney Harbour Bridge was constructed at this time. Some men died building it.

In 1929 the Great Depression struck. Australia was severely affected.

 

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current state of Brexit =============================================================================

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UK is leaving

stayng in single market until a new agreement

unlimited transition

but then new deal has to be agreed by all 27 member states

no more subvention. limited immigration

EU migrants can get permanent status very easily more so than commonwealth people – windrush immigrants

NI should stay in single market. different laws for different parts of UK

Scotland will ask why can we not stay in the EU or single market?

Scotland has no land border with EU

Good Friday agreement

everyone on NI wants soft border.

 

Muslim community UK ===============================================================

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Been here since 1600s

Ottomans allies of England 1588.

1800 Indian restaurant

caliph had good relationship with the UK

sharia law was more humane than English law until 1820s.

muslims 4 % of ppu#

divers.e shia sunni. many ehtnjcities

reactionaires down to unbelievers.

concentrated in London , brum, manc and bradford

muslims in all professions

in police. NHS etc…

Muslims in all parties.

Muslim community growing.