Latvia is a country in Europe. This nation is located in the east of the continent. It is adjacent to the Baltic Sea. This country borders Lithuania, Estonia and Russia. This country has a cool climate. Most of the country is pine forest.

The transport network is good in terms of roads. The railway system is behind the times.

This country has sometimes been independent. At other times it has been part of the Russian Empire. This nation was sometimes pagan. It became Christian in the Middle Ages.

In 1918 Latvia became independent. In 1940 it rejoined the Soviet Union. Many Latvian politicians and intellectuals were sent to labour camps in Siberia. Not many ever returned.

In 1941 Latvia was invaded by Germany. The Latvian Jewish community was killed in huge numbers. In 1944 the Soviet Union retook Latvia.

In 1991 Latvia proclaimed her independence. There is a significant Russian minority.

The Latvian Flag is dark purple and white. The top and bottom horizontal bars are dark purple.

The currency of the country is the Lat. Latvia is part of the European Union. She is also in NATO.

#The official language of Latvia is Latvian. The capital is Riga. It is on the sea.

Latvia is a high income country. It has a very well preserved mediaeval centre. Wagner was head of the opera house.


  1. In which continent is Latvia in?
  2. What are the three neighbours of this country? Three marks.
  3. Draw the flag. Two marks.
  4. Which empire was Latvia part of?
  5. In which year did Latvia become independent in the early 20th century?
  6. When did Latvia become independent most recently?
  7. What is the currency of Latvia?
  8. Is Latvia in NATO?
  9. What is the large ethnic minority in this country?
  10. Which sea is this land by?

Hannity of fake news.===============


Fox News is Fake News.

lies all the time. claims to be under surveillance. puts on hurt face. was all in favour of unlimited spying. anyone who wanted to restrict it was against national security.

illegal spying is wrong. what is his source? No corroborating info. trump his pal is responsible. if trump cannot control FBI he is feeble.

Hannity bangs on about Hillary. she is bad but will never be president.

shut down muslim American spokesman because he would not agree with him,

false stories. accused a gay man of being anti gay.

malevolent. no recognition of wrongdoing by the USA and Israel.

Map on classroom wall


produced by ministry of education.

It showed crimea as part of another country. It has since been coloured in by hand to show it as part of the motherland. What an extraordinary oversight that the Ministry of Education showed it as being part of the wrong country. It has always legally and morally belonged to the Motherland.




Luxembourg is a country in Europe. This small nation is situated in the west of the continent. Luxembourg is landlocked. The landscape is very hilly. This country borders Belgium, Germany and France.

The Romans conquered Luxembourg. It later became a Grand Duchy. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire. It has been independent since 1806. This country was occupied by Germany in 1914 and 1940.

NATO has this nation as a member. Luxembourgish troops served in the Korean War.

Because of Luxembourg’s much larger and more puissant neighbours she built up her defences. This country was called Gibraltar of the north.

Radio Luxembourg was a famous radio station from the 1920s. It played popular music.

The Benelux was formed in the 1950s. The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg co operated on various matters. The Benelux was an embryonic European Economic Community. These countries co-operated on trade, regulation, electricity, telecommunications and transport.

Luxemburg was a day one member of the European Economic Community (EEC). The EEC turned into the European Union (EU).  The European Court of Justice is sited in Luxembourg. The currency used here is the Euro.

The name of the city and the country are the same – Luxembourg.

The Luxembourgish Flag is a tricolour. The bars are horizontal. The top bar is sky blue, then it is white and the bottom one is red. This is the same as the Dutch Flag except for the shade of blue.

There is a large Portuguese minority in the country. This nation has a thriving financial sector. It is one of the richest countries in the world.

The Luxembourgish language is closely related to German. Most people here can speak German and French.

This country has gorgeous architecture. It has many well preserved buildings. There is a ducal palace and fabulous cathedral. The infrastructure is superb. There are plenteous parks and art galleries.


  1. Which continent is Luxembourg in?
  2. Draw the flag. Three marks.
  3. Which language is Luxembourg most similar to?
  4. What other nationality lives in Luxembourg in great numbers?
  5. What European Union institution is based in this nation?
  6. Which empire was this country part of until 1806?
  7. Name the three neighbours of this nation. Three marks.
  8. What was the Benelux?
  9. What sea is Luxembourg on?
  10. What money is used here?


lANG in context. 3.5 discourse of friends


discourse of friends.

analuse spoken transcript of friends. generate list f defining characteristics of discourse of friends

hymes 1974 model applied to friends

look at friends from pint of view of st clair and coulathurd Birmingham school model

speaking – nature of friendship. apply hymes to the model

contextual matters. nature of relationship.

symmetric tole relatioshp in friendship. usually equal unlie family,

what are poer rleations. family is at stake – it can end. stable.

one can lose friends, people are careful. people are not so direct.

sme shared knowledge. nature if fixed and astable friendshop varies.

nature f friendshop – appluign speaking model depends on speaking model

friend sfor a log time ma affect symmetry of speaker relations.

type if friendship

friendhsp repertories. different types

close friends v acquaintances. we do things with acquainstance.s best friends foe eotioonal support

socio linguistic variables. look at them for conversation. female friendshops – different lingsutic friendhsop diffeene tform male amle and male female

different social clases and educational abckgrounds.

roles may have imaact n lang in friendship group. diffeen roles. comic in group. manager in grouo,#

roles fiex in family not inf rienhsi groups.


friends 1.

politeness markers. some hedges. vcatives.

Birmingham school.

how can we interept the etxrac ? apply st clair and coulahrd – intiaiton reposne feedback. cosndier evry speke rutrn. how does it function in temr sof intiiton reposne and feedback

rising intonation. tagged as an initiation. these happen as questions usually.

response to initiation,

another intiaitona nd another response.

speaker A LOOKS TO E – feedback on response.

IRF – initiation response feedback

some conversations are invented for teaching.


friends 2.


females. 20s. shared accomm.

initiations. they are often signalled by questions. not all questions are initiations.

some statements are initiations. five initiations

lexical repetition of down.

sometimes it is unclear if something it an initiation or a response.

linguistic features in extract. topic changes. three changes. very rapid. unproblematic. niot signalled. no marker to chnge tpic.

#no lverpapping or interruttpn. more symmetrical. no power to interrupt or overlap. that happesn in families instead

# hugh shared knowledge.

cohension amng friends. backward pointing. lxicla chaining and repetition. synonymety. earrings chain and watch. reformulation nd echoing – idnicatro of informal and intimes speech soldiairyt

nice – reformuasleew t lovley in next turn.

spud ws reformauledt as potato in next turn


no pragmatic marking with like and now. v unusual not to have it.

vague language. kind of copper – common in friends speech. indexed shared knowledge. we like to appar non expert and we approxiaet


friends 3. males watching telly in shared accomm

taboo lang. vocatives. short turnes. ejaculatos. overlpapping.

”I d say did he?” tag questions. pragmatic marker like. echoed ”like”

”i’d say did he” pragmatic marker


friends rapid topic change. little overlap and interruption. shared knowledge often situaitona l. v cohesive.

differing turn lengths.

taboo lang. vocatives. pragmatic markers. socio linguistic variables such as gender. length of friendshop can play a role.

acint more like famil – fewer pragmatic maarkers if they re frinds for yonks.