Daily Archives: July 25, 2018

Angola

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ANGOLA

Angola is a country in Africa. This nation is located in the south-west of the continent. It is beside the South Atlantic. The climate is hot all year. The littoral is flat. The centre of the country is hilly.

The landscape is fairly fertile. Some of the land is scrub.

The people of this country are almost all black. The overwhelmingly majority of black Angolans are Bantu people. They speak various Bantu languages.

The Portuguese landed here in the 16th century. They named the land after a local king named Ngola. The Portuguese founded the capital Luanda. It used to be called St Paul’s of Luanda.

The Portuguese had no prejudice against interracial marriage. Many mixed race people were the progeny of interracial unions. It was usually a white male and a black woman.

The Portuguese took local people as slaves. They unfortunates were shipped to Brazil in horrific conditions. They suffered hellishly.

Over time colonial rule penetrated the hinterland. Only at the end of the 19th century did the Portuguese rule the whole of the land. Black people who were literate in Portuguese and who were Christians were assimilated. They became Portuguese citizens. They had rights but they also had to serve in the army.

The colonial authorities introduced literacy. They built roads and railways. Their architecture improved life immensely. Portuguese doctors and nurses saved countless lives. The country became part of the global economic system. There were many civilization advances under the Portuguese. The country had been iron age prior to that.

Angolan people who were not Portuguese citizens had to do unpaid labour. Many of them resented this. Only a tiny number of Angolans became assimilated.

The PIDE – secret police – repressed anyone who challenged the system. In the mid 20th century some Angolans were exposed to Marxist nostra. Others agitated for independence. Agostinho Neto was an Angolan assimilated man. He qualified as a physician in Portugal. He returned to Angola and protested against the political situation. He was arrested. His patients demonstrated for his release. The police shot dead several demonstrators.

In the mid 1960s an insurrection was initiated. There were three Marxist groups battling for sovereignty. These were the MPLA, FNLA and Unita. They had the assistance of the Communist Bloc and other African lands. Unita was tied to China. It was led by Dr Jonas Savimbi. These forces based themselves in Zambia and Zaire. Some of them were idealists and others were bandits.

The Portuguese Army found it difficult to contain the rebellion. They regarded the insurgents as franc tireurs and seldom gave quarter. In 1974 there was the Carnation Revolution in Portugal. The ultra-conservative regime was ousted. The new democratic Portugese Government granted independence to Angola and withdrew. Dr Neto became president. However, he died a few years later.

The country slid into a 27 year civil war. MPLA and FNLA united. They won an election. They instituted a communist system.

Unita turned to be right wing. It fought against the government. Unita was backed by apartheid South Africa. The South African Army invaded and occupied southern Angola. Unita sold diamonds and oil to finance itself. The United States refused to recognize the Angloan Government. Savimbi visited the USA where he was adulated by far right groups. He gained kudos by fighting communism. He had gone from being a Maoist to a  capitalist.

Cuban troops arrived to assist the Angolan Army. They beat the South African. Apartheid ended in 1994. The end of the Cold War meant that the USA recognized the Angolan Government. The country transitioned to capitalism.

The country gained stability in the 1990s. The conflict was not entirely over. Savimbi was slain in a skirmish in 2002. That was the death knell of Unita.

The dos Santos family rules the land. President dos Santos studied Oil Engineering in Baku when it was part of the Soviet Union. His daughter is a multi millionaire and dwells in London.

The official language is Portuguese. The capital is Luanda.

Most people are Christian.

This country borders The Democratic Republic of Congo. The Cabinda exclave borders the Republic of Congo. The nation also has frontiers with Zambia and Namibia.

The currency is the Escudo. Despite oil wealth this is not a prosperous country.

The flag has a black lower half and red

 

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  1. Which hemisphere is this country in?
  2. Is this country in Asia?
  3. Which ocean is Angola beside?
  4. Name the neighbours of Angola. Five marks.
  5. What is the name of the capital?
  6. What is name of the president?
  7. What is the currency?
  8. Why is Portuguese the official language?
  9. What is the derivation of the name of the country?
  10. What is the most popular religion in this nation?
  11. Name the three rebel groups of the 1960s. Three marks.
  12. Who was Dr Savimbi? Five marks.
  13. What did Dr Neto?
  14. Which foreign land did Dos Santos study in?
  15. What is the main natural resource of this country?
  16. Is this a rich land?
  17. Which Caribbean country had troops in Angola in the 1970s and 1980s?
  18. In what ways did Angola gain from Portuguese rule?
  19. Draw the flag. Five marks.

 

Anguilla

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ANGUILLA

Anguilla is a small island in the Caribbean Sea. It is a British Crown dependency. That means that it is internally self-governing. However, it relies in the United Kingdom for defence and foreign affairs.

The people of this country are mostly of African stock. Their ancestors were abducted in Africa by British brigands. The abductees were taken by ship to the island. There they were forced to toil under inhuman conditions.

 

The official language of the country is English. Most people profess the Christian faith.

This is not a prosperous place. It boasts no natural resources. Nor does it have much tourist trade.

The climate of Anguilla is warm year around. There are sometimes storms in August and September.

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Antigua and Barbuda

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ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

This country is a pair of islands in the Caribbean Sea. The climate of this country is warm all year around. They occasionally experience hurricanes in the autumn. The country is usually known by the name of the larger island – Antigua. The word is pronounced ”an TEE ga.” The letter U is redundant.

There were Amerindians on this island in ancient times. In the 15th century Europeans sighted the island. They landed. Europeans brought diseases which wiped out the indigenous population.

These islands are exceptionally fertile. They are good for cultivating sugar and other crops. Whites did not wish to do this work especially in view of the hot weather. They sailed to Africa. African nations fought each other very often. Those who were defeated were enslaved. White pirates purchased black people and took them as slaves. These luckless people were shipped across the ocean in dreadful conditions. They were subjected to savage cruelty. They were forced to work on plantations.

The British came to rule the islands. The official language of the islands is English. The capital city is St John’s.

The country became independent in the 1960s. The Birds ruled the country. That does not mean our weathered friends. The Bird family dominated. Vere Bird Senior was Prime Minister. His son Vere Bird Junior followed him. Junior’s brother Lester also held a senior post. They ran the Antiguan Labour Party. The Bird family owned several hotels.

The population is only around 100 000. Tourism is important to the economy. So are financial services.

The major religion is Christianity.

There are many expatriates who reside here. They are American, British and Israeli.

This country is a middle income one.

Antigua is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Elizabeth is Queen of Antigua and Barbuda. This nation is also a member of the Caribbean Community – CARICOM.

The flag has a red field. There is a white bar in the middle – it is horizontal. On the white there are blue and black shapes and a yellow sunburst.

The currency is the East Caribbean Dollar.

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  1. Which sea is this country in?
  2.  Which is the bigger island of the two?
  3. What is the official language?
  4. How many colours are on the flag?
  5. Who is the head of state of this land?
  6.  Which family held sway in this country for years?
  7.  How did African people come to reside in Antigua?
  8. What happened to the autochthonous people of the  isle?
  9.  What is the climate like?
  10.  What are the mainstays of the economy?