what is discourse analysis? why analyse it?
discourse analysis happens in texts.
scientific – Clancy does not like it in relation to that.
substances means sounds and symbols
lang as form.
words combin with others. these interact with syntax
two parts of presentation. lexis as discourse. grammar as discourse.
hwo do we talk about these in relation to discourse.
what doo we mean by discourse. look at it from form viewpoint
”fish” in relation to a person. we have to imagine a situation wherea fish can represent a person?
construct a world around the sentence. ”which one of you is the fish?”
context in which sentence is used. forum does not prvide meaning
ABOUT all irish counties besides NI and donegal
two speakers in 20s fixing something
”so whas the problem”
”we needed to replace the print head.”
lexis as discourse.
”so” is not connected to noun or noun phrase. so is optional.
optionality to discourse markers. speaker choose to use them
participants – radio show on tattoos
”they saw capatins has tattoos.”
anywayand so have no grammatical function. they have a discoure function. in leaner dictionary – these say tht
so and anyway – introduce new comments
words used to change topic. singals to other particpants. managing discourse. discoursive.
words in lexical
look at words though lens of discourse.
most frequent t2,3 ad 4 word chunks n BNC baby
you know – most frequent use in BNC baby. it is not lexical.
you know – appeal to shared knowledge and soliaorty.
you know is optional. not attached to clause. I mean
”I mean” softens discourse agreement. prefaces disagreement. pushed disagreement further out. inter personal use.
you know and I mean. features of discourse manage roles and responsibilities.
soften things or make them more polite.
a lot of – vague category markers
vague category markers – that kind of thing
vague category marker can have meaning if it alludes to something else.
VCMs are interpersonal. they are in group markers. They are polite.
VCMs – also have a structural use in conversation. look at lang as discourse. when speakers say and that kind of thing.
or anything like that – british English 65 per cent of occurences followed by speaker change
native speaker or non native speaker interaction. native speaker uses VCM.
non native speaker does not realise that the native has finished speaking. inter cultural difficulties.
non native speaker uses VCM but do not use turn. #
50 per cent of VCM followd by speaker change
one last slide.
synonomy. speaker says ”so I have no lectures.”
”which is harder like” agreeing through synonomy. synonomy used to agree.
”it is cold outside.” ”yes it is freezing.”
building solidarity through agreement
BNC. stereotypical getting. opening exchange.
looking at lang in context. lang as form. go on to talk about grammar.
grammar as discourse. example – illustrate grammar. sentence. I have just had my breakfast. present perfect. relating to function of recent time to present time.
”I am only after having me breakfast” Irish. this is like present perfect.
”Be + after + ing” marks outcome not time.
not a time marker- looked at lang in contexts, refusal of offers of food.
”you finsihed”. ?
auxiliary verbs sometimes omitted. we sometime suse grammaticall correct techniqyes
ellipsis signal informality and friendshop.
we indicate it is a ifnormal situation. shouw our recintion that it is an ifromal sotuaion. maintain relatiomnship between people
use grammar as discouse.
family members. speaker says ”tell dad about th prawsn mary”
canonical past simple tense – to tell a tale
”Kieran came out and he was like how mch wee the prawns. she foes I don’t know. he said roughly how uch are they?”
change frim past simple to present tense. historic present. see it in narratives. choice not cimpulsory
use correct option in context
I narrative present becomes marked becase it is different. present indicates that I will tlaj about an iportn even in sotry.
co construction. finishing one anohters sentences.
these are friends. in 20s.
”she is supposed to be a right bitch.”
”she has a sexy arse n fairness”
completing another’s utterance. unproblematic to finish another’s sentence.
a lot of co construction goes on
conditionals co constructed 1 in 10 times
these are not static
if clauses are ofte tricky. inter personal. ”if there is anything you can do.”
grammar is used unusually. lexis is not always used in a dictionary sense.
lexis and grammar are shared resources. inter action
we must ask what speakers are saying?
what are their gooals?
where are they? what are they doing?