Daily Archives: February 1, 2018

Trump opposes illegal immigrants except…

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nude models from Slovenia.

 

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Netherlands.

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NETHERLANDS

Netherlands is a country in Europe. This nation is located in the north-west of the continent. The Netherlands is on the fringe of the North Sea. The country is very flat. It borders Germany to the east and Luxembourg to the south-east and Belgium to the south. This country has mild summers and cool winters. It is fairly cloudy and rains quite a lot.

Much of the country is below sea level. Some of the country was reclaimed from the sea. The sea is held back by dykes. There is a story of a child who saw the sea leaking in through a dyke. He therefore put his finger in the dyke to keep the brine at bay.

The people of the country are called Dutch. This is a corruption of ‘deutsch’ or the German word for ‘German.’

The Netherlands was not part of the Roman Empire. It was later part of the Holy Roman Empire. This country has the Dutch language. This is a Germanic tongue. It uses the Saxon genitive – ‘s’ to indicate belonging.

The Netherlands came to be ruled by Spain in the 16th century. This was due too Charles V being Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. At this time Protestantism spread through the land. Most Dutchmen converted to it. In the late 16th century the Netherlands rebelled against the Spanish. This was called the Dutch Revolt. Some English soldiers came to help the Netherlanders since Spain was the chief foe of England. In the end the Dutch prevailed.

The Orange family dominated Dutch politics. This family had that name because they came from the French town of Orange centuries before. The Netherlands was divided into two dozen provinces. Each governed itself but they co operated on certain matters. The provinces of the Netherlands elected William of Orange to be the Stadtholder of the Netherlands. This office was not hereditary but several members of the same family were elected to hold this post. One of them was William the Silent. He was not an elective mute. His cognomen comes from his reluctance to be to be drawn on contentious matters. He was later assassinated.

The Netherlands is a seafaring nation. As it is by the sea it was natural that people should go fishing. They also sailed to trade. The Netherlands annexed islands in the Caribbean in the 16th century. Dutchmen also founded a colony in America called New Amsterdam. Governor Stuysevant was there. The city was later taken by the British and renamed New York.

Netherlanders set up trading posts in Africa. They bought people from other Africans. These unlucky people were shipped across the ocean to the Antilles. They were forced to toil under the broiling sun. The Netherlands conquered Suriname in South America. They sailed to the East Indies and founded a colony there. They built a city they called Batavia. This later became Jakarta. The Dutch ruled Indonesia.

The Dutch set up a way station en route to Indonesia. This was at the Cape of Good Hope. The settlement was named Kap Staad or Cape Town. That was in 1652. Dutchmen there had liaisons with local women. Dutchwomen were hesitant about moving there. Girls from orphanages were sent to find husbands.

The Netherland went to war against England a few times in the 17th century. Admiral van Tromp was the best Dutch admiral. He destroyed the English docks at Chatham. He even sailed up the Thames.

William III was a stadholder of the Netherlands and grandson of Charles I. William III wed his first cousin Mary – the daughter of James II. In 1688 he was invited to come to England. William III was a Protestant and his father-in-law was a Catholic. Most English people were Protestants.  Parliament declared William III and his wife to be joint sovereigns. James II had fled to France.

James II went to Catholic Ireland. There he was assured of fulsome support. William III pursued him there. At the Battle of the Boyne James II was defeated and he ran away. William III later defeated the rest of the Jacobites (supporters of James) in Ireland.

William III and his wife had no children. His family continued to dominate Dutch politics. The Netherlands allowed tolerance to religious minorities. Jews settled there. One of them was a renowned philosopher – Baruch Spinoza. The Dutch Reformed Church remained the state religion.

The Netherlands drained land and built many canals. The country built many windmills to power mills. Business thrived. The Dutch started to grow a Turkish flower called a tulip. The Dutch Guilder was its currency – valued abroad.

In the late 18th century the Netherlands was invaded by France. The Dutch were bested. The French cavalry charged across the ice to seize the Dutch Fleet lest it weigh anchor before the French could get them. The French wanted the doughty Dutch ships.

Napoleon was the Emperor of the French. He made his brother Louis King of Holland. Louis addressed the Dutch Parliament. Louis could hardly speak Dutch. He wished to say, ”I am the King of Holland.” He mispronounced it and said, ”I am the Rabbit of Holland.”

The Dutch copied the French tricolore but they Dutch put the colours in horizontal not vertical bars. The colours are red, white and blue with the red at the top. The colour orange is also associated with the country.

King Louis was soon chased out of the country. The Orange family came back. The Netherlands decided to formalise the paramountcy of this family. The monarchy was created. The Orange family have reigned ever since. The British had annexed the Dutch colonies in South Africa when the French controlled the Netherlands. The same went for Sri Lanka.

In 1830 some of the southern provinces revolted. They broke away to form Belgium. The British were keen to see this happen. The Netherlands had been too mighty beforehand. Moreover, the Brits did not want that territory to join France either.

The Netherlands stayed out of wars after that. The country liberalised and granted to vote to more people. It started to be more ethical in its colonies and banned slavery.

The Netherlands granted women the right to vote in the 1920s. The Netherlands was invaded by Germany in 1940. This was despite the Dutch having allowed the Kaiser to live there. The Dutch Queen fled to the UK and thence Canada.

There was some resistance to the German occupation. The German governor Dr Seyss-Inquart was particularly detested. Dutch Jews were killed by the Nazis.

In 1944 Allied troops landed by parachute at Arnhem. Many Dutch resistance fighters came out into the open. The Allied soldiers were defeated. The resistance fighters were soon killed. That winter the country could not get any food in from France because the Allies were there. The Germans were still at war. This was called ‘the Hunger Winter.’

In May 1945 the Netherlands was liberated. Queen Wilhelmina made a broadcast from London, ‘You are free!’

The queen came back. In the Netherlands East Indies the Japanese had started a nationalist revolt. The Dutch tried to restore lawful government there. They were assisted by loyal Indonesians. However, the nationalists won. The late 1940s was a time of severe hardship for the Netherlands.

In 1953 a terrible flood killed many people. After that the country went on to prosper.

The old queen abdicated in favour of her daughter Juliana. She later stepped down for her daughter Beatrix. Queen Beatrix then abdicated for her son Willem.

The King of the Netherlands is married to an Argentine. They have three daughters. The eldest of these has the title the Princess of Orange.

The Netherlands has the royal capital at The Hague and the parliamentary capital at Amsterdam. The latter is far bigger.

Schipohl Airport is one of the world’s busiest. It has five runways. KLM is the national carrier. KLM means Royal Dutch Airlines.

Shell Oil is half Dutch. Grolsch is also Dutch.

One of the provinces is North Holland and another is South Holland. People often say Holland even if they mean the whole of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is in South Holland.

The name of the Netherlands comes from it being low – close to sea level.

The currency is the Euro. The country is in the EU and NATO. It is a very liberal country and very pro LGB. Cannabis is tolerated here.

This country has many immigrants. The main communities are from Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Morocco, Turkey, China and India.

The Dutch own the ABC islands in the Caribbean, Sint Marten and Sint Eustatius there. There are many black Dutch people in the Netherlands.

Most Dutch people speak excellent English.

Famous Dutch people include the painter Vincent Van Gogh. Van Eijk, Van Dyk, Bruegel the Elder and Bruegel the Younger are all famous Dutch artists. They were known as Dutch Old Masters.

This country has a fantastic football team. It has been a finalist in the world cup thrice.

The Dutch are the tallest nation in the world. This partly due to eating a lot of Gouda cheese. Dairy products are packed with calcium and this is good for bones.

This country is a parliamentary democracy. Liberals and socialists have dominated for decades. The Party for Freedom led by Geert Wilders has become prominent in the past ten years. His party is against Islamicism and arguably anti-Muslim. This nation is very feminists but not puritanical.

Rotterdam is the second largest city. It has a huge port.

 

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  1. Which continent is the Netherlands in?
  2. Name the three neighbours of this nation.  Three marks.
  3. Which sea is beside the Netherlands?
  4. Describe the landscape of the Netherlands.
  5. What is the climate of the Netherlands like?
  6. What is the parliamentary capital of the Netherlands?
  7. In which city does the king reside?
  8. Was this country part of the Holy Roman Empire?
  9. Which monarch made the Netherlands part of the Spain domain?
  10. What was the Dutch Revolt?
  11. What position did the Orange family hold in the 17th century?
  12. Why did one member of the Orange family have the name William the Silent?
  13. Which country did William III become king of?
  14. Who was James II?
  15. Who was Cornelius van Tromp?
  16. Name three colonies of the Netherlands?
  17. Which country conquered this one in the 1790s?
  18. How did King Louis embarrass himself?
  19. What happened to the Orange family after the French were kicked out?
  20. Which country was part of the Netherlands until 1830?
  21. Which was the biggest Dutch colony?
  22. Name the national airline of the Netherlands.
  23. What is a famous Dutch oil company called?
  24. What happened the Netherlands in 1940?
  25. What did the Queen of the Netherlands say in a broadcast in May 1945?
  26. What was the hunger winter?
  27. Who was the queen after Wilhelmina?
  28. Who was the monarch of the Netherlands before the current one?
  29. Name three famous Dutch painters.
  30. Who is the King of the Netherlands?
  31. What is the original nationality of the queen?
  32. What title does the king’s eldest daughter have?
  33. What is the currency of this country?
  34. Is it in the EU?
  35. Name THREE ethnic minority communities in this country.#
  36.  Why is the Netherlands sometimes erroneously called Holland?  Three marks.
  37. Would you like to visit this land? Five marks.
  38. Why does the Netherlands have lots of windmills?
  39. Why did the Dutch dig many canals?
  40. Draw the flag. Three marks.

 

 

Nauru =======================================================

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NAURU

Nauru is a country in the Pacific Ocean. It counts as being in the continent of Oceania. Nauru is a series of small islands.

The people of this nation are mostly Polynesians. They were conquered by Germany at the end of the 19th century. In the First World War the New Zealanders defeated the Germans. The country came to be administered by New Zealand and the United Kingdom. This was the decision of the League of Nations. The League of Nations was the precursor of the United Nations.

The people of Nauru have English as their official language. They are mostly Christians of the Protestant denomination.

Nauru’s Flag has blue, white and yellow on it. The currency is the Australian Dollar. This country does not have an airline.

The population is 10 000. That makes it the second smallest population of any sovereign state.

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  1. Which ocean surrounds Nauru?
  2. Which continent is Nauru in?
  3. Does Nauru have a coast?
  4. What is the language of this country?
  5. Are there any Polynesians here?
  6. What is the population?
  7.  Is this the smallest population of any country?
  8.  What money is legal tender in this country?
  9. What is the major religion?
  10. Which two countries can Nauru after 1918?