Daily Archives: September 17, 2017

unit 5 lesson 7 mood and voice


mood  =  recognise moods of hrammar


# voice = active and passive


voice in grammar = it indicates whether the subject is acitng or being acted upon#

mac an earny builder built those houses#

mac and early bulder sis the sibecyt# those huse os the object#

mac and early are the doers the agenrt#

those houses is the recipient of the haction# a thief tole the mney the theif if the doer

#the money is the receipient of the action#

passive coice, subject is reversed#

those houses were bult by mac an aeanry builers# theya re the recipient of the action# they are he agnet or doers#

final sentence. the money was stolen  y a thief#

the subject in this case is the rcieptn o the action

the theirf if the agent or the doer#

voice gives us info ont he roels of partciapnts# agent or doer# receiiptn is diffenrt’

voice changes the semanric relation shio bweten the sibect a ndn obect of the verb

how useful is thr passive voice# allows speaker or weite to make cjoices##

it gives focus#

Nissan cars are made in jaoan#

Nissan cans re the subject of the senrnec#e allows the write to be imeprosnal and to creat sdiatbce# in academic writing we use a body of ets5 is analysed# it empahseis new info

#the oumpic games will e histed by Tokyo

this uts emphasis on Tokyo

we put the enwsehty item at the end# in cases# werehe were do not know who did the action r it is not importnta

it is sueful where we do not wish to name the person

msiatkes were made# this is jking referred to the past exhnoeratitve tense since doesr ir not mentioned


used of passive voice tense#

present simple passive is sued to tlak about egenral or eprament states# as is present simple active#

this is s agenral turth

# history is tiagh by miss james

similarul prsnt perect imsple pasosve is used to tlak about past action

they have opened a new motorway

new mptraya has been opened# in btih cases it us used to talk about apast ation with a  present reult



in grammar is nit mention

ist is the form the ver takes to show hos it should be viewed# a command, a desire or omsthign uncertain# three main moods#

indicative, imperative and subjunctive

indicatice mod is expressed through main vern finite verb, that shows tense

I saw the film  a, saw has a dientie time# I eat lucnhe, # eat has a time#

can be used for asking quiesiton or expressing opeinijns as if fatcs

interrogative clause  is in the idnciatic emood#

types of clause#

the polce have found weapns is declarative# li vepool will win# it declaetive#

do you know what time it is|? interrotibe

# in the idnciate mood

we can used iffeent tenses in this mood

the majority at ein the idnictiatce mood


imperative mood

relates to roder or reqiests

open the windoq

finite verb has an implied you


subjunctive modo is used in formal stules

commandm stipulate , recommednm require,m suggest

we use the prsnet subjunctive = the infinitve without to

I propose , I insist

#only in thied person singular that we can see the subjunctive

we would say he complete normally. he is allowed etc…

howveer f we talk aboyt the first person

the second person singual we do not see a change

the third person singaulr that we see the inlection change

another use to make statement of necessity

prsnr subjeucnti

it is essential that he follow the prodcueres

it si onl used in formal stules

expresses wishes or desire in hypoethical situaitons# past subjeucntive

if I were a irch man not as in I wish I was a rich man# I wish I were ther

e I wish he were thee

#it is assocated with formal styles





Talking about the future = Anne Keefe


I think I will buy

I think I will buy a pair of jens# will plus a evr is the futue simple

another one of future continuous

eight pm = a certain tnese is used to tlakm about timetabled events

presne tsimple is used for time ordinate conjjeucntions

a perfect tens must have the auxuilary verb have in it

contunious has to have   =ing in it

present simple is used qfter time subordinate conjunctions such as

when , as soon as, by the time

they are subordinators they make what comes after them dependent on the rest of the sentence

subordinate calsues or fime

when as sosonm as by the time. before,. as soon as,

what comes after that is in the presne tsimple

# when you see dadivd tlel him he owes me oney

that this indicates hen I will see davidsinc eit must be in the futuree



Talking about the PaST Dr Anne O Keefe


present perfect

has to have the ed form of the verb if it is regular or otherwise irregular particple

refers to event sin the past connects with the present

it brings an event from the oast up to the present, it is about an aspect = way of looking at an event overtime

it casts back in time from whether a year ago or yesterdta] putts tat as the time frame for the quwstions

using the time frame fro; the time up to now

other time esperxssions connected with thus

in my kufe. to date,

difference between for ans since, these proepsitions are often suing in lreaiton to present perfect# in many labaguegs ther eis one preposition here# the difference here we use for when talking about the duration fo time for the alst two minth] since refer sot previous point in time

I have not drnk for a  month#

I have been living in ieland for five years

# since  – yu must name the start time in the past#

newsworthy tense = it is still relevant, present perfect# happened past in ti,e but report it in present perfect makes it pertiennt

feeuqnr tuse of presenr perfetc to thing in the immediate past

just often sued with perrsent perfect


Unit 2 lesson 6 form and function


present , past and futue#

review tenses

see how tense and aspect make different forms

one should be able to produce the difenet forsm and explain thei function past tense does not always refer to past tie be conditional

if I had enough money I would buy it

aspect if action a re finished, ongoing or repeated

there are three aspect , continuous and perfective

tense combiens with aspect to make several different forms

these forms have different functions


talking about the present






unit 2 lesson 5 tense, time and aspect


understand tesne time and aspect relate to eahx tger# tense and time combien to make differne tforms such as present perftec continius

tense is the verbs form

present simple

# she qshes every sturdy] wshe will wash the car next saturdya is futue sumbole

futre simple has a diffent form to the resne rna dh THE PASt#

it doe snot sue infelciton # in the present simple we use es adeed to wahs to ake the person f or the fture simple we have to use differne towards#future simple has a different form

we use will ro is going to for the future

we cannot sue an inflection to form the future enad for tgis reason many rgemm

take the view that there at eonly two tesne present and past

look at it miorpholgcally  we only used ifelct form with present and past

texhcer etaxh all thes econtrcutins as tenses

# the futue is seen as a tense#

look at time

time refers to whether the verb can be daid ti dentie the past presne tor future

not that simple

present tense foe not always allude to the prssne time

# the trai leabe at nien oc lock tomorrow we use the prene timpel to refer to futu

past tnes eofe not wals refer to the past time  in this case ht epas timpel had refer sot rpesne tie

#tense and aspctec

aspect refers to whether actions are finised in progress or ing oing ro rveelant to the mment of speakinf# aspect idnciate the speker sperepction intime a sit is indicate din aparguxla evern prgas e ine gnlaubt her eare three apxtec sumpe; fr emxaple I QAHS THE CAE

# there is ni dicntion fow etteyrnt he action sic ompet eor wgethe tit sia  cotnuous ongoignaciton I was washing the cahe when we arrived

perfective apsetc = I have washed the car, we can see the action is complete

tense combined with axpetc to make serrla differne forms

# present simple and pas toncituous

I go to the gym

I am stufyin for my MA = that is predent contunios

# I go tot the gym last week  that is past simple

I have been to china = that is past perfect  to show a life e xperince

they had left before I arrived


# will I see you at thtree o clock

I am gpign tos tufy this eyar

present contunoish for a p;an in the near future# I AM MEETIGN MY FRIED AT FOUR O CLOCK

these are forms we can sue to talke about time

we can also combine aspects = perrctvie and contuous apsects to show that somethig has been contuing up tp the present, I have been washing the car this is the present perfect contunuos

tesme co,bines with asect to make servrla differne forms they have doffen fucntions

presne tismple can be used to ftaclk aboyt scheduled even in the near futue or facts

timebatbeld event snad about now

I am really hungr – that is now#

tense refers to form of the verb

aspect refers to whether actions are finished in progress or related to the miment of speaking

we us e present simple to tlak about the futue

tense combined with pect tog ive  diffenr eforms and have idffene uses




unit 2 lesson 4 clauses



look at ele;ents of clause

look at differnec ebween main clause nd subodirate# finite and non finite#

declarative, interrogative, imperative and excla;tive

one should understand qhat  clause is

identify the el;enet sf a clause# identify types of clauses

sentence hierarchy , clause is above sentence and below phrase, one of more phrases. it has a subject and a verb

the fearless warrior foygth barbely. the subject is warrior and the ver is fought

ele;ents of the clause

ele;ents can contain . subject and object and a adjunct or adverbial and a vern, a complement

a calsue can ocntian these bt deos not have to  a caluse can exist without thes ehut unlieka phrase on order to have a prhas ewe must aheva  vern but remember the prhase doe snot have a sbejct as a competbebt

calsue can consist only of a verb

a verb is essential for a clause

command and eat = these are lcauses becuas ehtye containa  verb

I gave my isster a DVD for her birthday

I is the subject have is the vern and direct obect is the sDVD and indirect onect is her a sister and the adjunct is her brthidya

the drect onect is the thing effecte dby the verb ,

the indirect object is sually the person or thing that recife a direct obect# her sister receives the a dvd WHICH IS TH direct object

# the adjunct adds extra info to the clause we can deket the adjunct and the snetnec till makes sense

#extra info is in adjunct,#

post modifier gives extra info about a noun# an adjunct gives extra info about the clause

ele;ents of a calsue, if we deket the adjunct the claus still makes sense

joe ut the palte on the table#

loom at phrase on the table. is this an adjunct?

no, it is not. it is a complement because it is needed to complete the clause.

put must hae a comple;ent, without te co;ple;ent would ne inco;plete

look at the elements. complement is on the table ,

linking  verbs, linking verbs are not action vebrs. be , see, become, taste and smell# clauses with liing verbs do not have an object they have a complement

she seems tired = tired s the compement

# the sky became dark = the subject is the sky, becam eis the verb and dark is the omplement

subject cmplenet  follows the everb and give sinfo aboyt the sibecyt

# surprised give sus more info aboyt the sibejdt maria you make me happy#

the subject is yu the verb is make the object is me

# the complenet is ahppy


;ain clauses and subordinate clayses# main clause are also called idnepent clauses, they make sense oon their own# subofridnate clauses depen on the main ckayse

if you re going to ths hop get some milk

get some milk is independent#

clauses of the same grammatical type such as indpdent clauses can be combiedn to dorm sentence using co ordianting cinjunctios

they can be used with fanboys, acronym

for and but or yet

he could not eat yet he did nt eat hungry

#I will call you if I am late or if I cannot come

two dependent clauses bave

calsue of the same grammatical type can be combined using co ordianting conjunctions#


finite and non finite clauses#s

finite calsues must have a verb that shows tense they can be main clause or subordiante

# we did nit meet her because we were late

it shows a past tnese throyght eh aixilairy bern it shows past tense throught he main verb verb were# they are finite as the both show tense#

non finite calsue do not show tense I had something to eat befor eleaving  this is finite becuas eit shwos tense the apt tense of the amin evrb hav the subrodnate ckayse , the in form does not show tnese

non finite clauses can be complement which take ing or the infitive so for example love hate enjoy and so on

I do not enhiy playugn tennis inte main the cimplene tis a non fitne clause because it does not show tense] I would the to taelt o dubkin every week] modal verb is woud the comlenet is non finite tor travel deos nto shoq tense

we are not going t look at relative clause or pronouns or rec=vise them#


clause types

four different types, declarative, statement foor of bad# interrogative clauses,

imperative clasyes#

exclamative clayses#

declarative ckayses can be positive or ebauve statemebt# I sqaz Jh akst week# I is th subject the adjunct is last week.

it did not taste very nice

subkect is it

did not taste is the very

comple;ent is evry nice

cimplement is essential

#interrogative clauses function as qustions  they can be affirmative or neaytive

what are you doingm  wh word is


# aixulairy is didn’t

didn’t you see her?

imperative lcauses are usually command structues or order they can be mad up of one verb

hurry is an imperative# don.t bil is is mad eu of a mai evr ad an auzulairt

#object is it

dont be sad

# main vern is be

auxilaury is do nit] as id compe;ment#

it follos a lining it is needed to colete the meaning o the clause

exclamative clause usiall have this word ord er

what plus noun olsu object olsu verb#

what a friend you are

second example # what a day it has been#

what a dya

exclative with hw

have how lsu adjectu plsu subject plus verb# it can also be followed by adverb plus subject polsu verb#

how auciky he moves

#note that exclamative clauses can also be formed like questions

they can have a an interrotivatie ordee# wasn’t she great

# didn’t she song well# they are fllowed by an exlcanauton so we know they anot wuqrisonts