Daily Archives: September 15, 2017

Unit 1 lesson 4, phonology and grammar


how words group together in semqntic qnd syntactic relations


colligation and

multiword items

words group together either semantically or by meaning such as synonums, antonyms

they ca group syntactically

through lexical pattersns such as idioms

collocation – this is the likelihood of two words coming together such as strong coffee not study cofffe


they do not have to be adjacent but close such as the coffee is strong , it collocates#

lexical relaitonshop indepdnent of grammar

# not concenred with predpositons such as to and for or proinusn such as his and her

we are concenred with conente words

these include niuns vers and most asverbs

such as the noun coffee or the adjective strong

collcation . words attarc each other

let s recap. not nor;ally concenred with grammar words

it is not about articles m not usually ncleud in stufy of collcation

open words clase also called the content words , adverbs, nouns and adjectives

closed words classes are preposition an conjunctions and articles

which words collocate,? very nisy, yes# utterly hungry – no

very dead does not work nor does very mariired but not with bnary things

#utterlt collocates with wrong and stupid nit not with hard and hungry# utterlt collocates with subjective negative words . maters of opinion

two kinds of collcation strong and weak

words which collciate with many ther words are wewak such as very, verys torng m very nice

a strong collcation are those which combine with a very small number fo words such as proudly disturbing this does notm collcate with many ither word sushc a sprodiunyl small

big is a weak collcation

strong collocation is wish

this collocate does not collocate with many other words

co;;on zords change a lot from what collocates with them , do make and have and get  draw meaning frol their collctae sushc as in get the door get the meaning

these are de lexical verbs do make and get

go m get make and catch#

catch a cold is different fro; catch a bus, the verb draws its meaning fro; the noun

get a phone get the idea#

what words collocate with phone?

british national corpus of ten million words

phone collocates with pay phoe, phone lnem , phone ansewer, phone card, using phone


this is different fro; collocation

colligation is about attraction between a lexical item and a grammatical category

choose a partner, choose and paterner attract eac other

partner is the ibject int hsie case# choose is ollowed by an object

choose a course

choose a gift, choose is followed by an object or a verb infinitive

Mccarhty and walsh say that colligation is about grammar ^ it is syntactical

WHICH words colligate with phone? gRAmmatical categories that can be used are

IN bnc WE find that grammatical patterns are phone is onem on the phone, has not had a phone put in yetm ,

analyse examples

colligation is a relationshop of syntax phone is a vern in this case

phne them = them is an object

phone MPI

MPI is an organisation

words collocate with cerain other words

phone collocates with number

but in colligation we like to know that phone colligates with some grammatical pettersn an object

prepositional phrase on this number

# phone me on this number

BNC , plunger and plummet

explore the colligational patterns

third syntactic relation, multi word items

multi word item is co;pound words made up of a noune plus a noun

# chairperson and window cleaner# hard hat, soft spotm, grindstone, pushchair vern plusa  paricle such an adverb or a preopsiton such a stake off or whip off


multi word items are prepositiona; phrases

single word items

# noun phrase#

at the end of the day this functions like one word

dro; ti;e to ti;e

it functions as a signle item so it is a multi word ite;

phrasl word and idio; . these are ;uti word ite;s

partile is a preposition or an object or both

meaning or a phrasal vern isdifferent fro; its partsm take off is different fro; to take

work out is differne fro; to work

idipm is a certain order which is diffeeent fro; the meannf of the words in their won#

such as in your face# face to face

lexical chunks can be treated as signle words ushc as social for;uale such as farewell see you soon, I was wondeirn if

# sentence ebuldiers# the thing is

what I mean is

these are treated as single words


TRANscript of Friends#

idio;s and lexical chunks

#recap , words relate to each other in two ways

to be relases fro; prison m to be dishacgred fro; a hospital

these are related by meaning , shared meaning can come in synonyms and antonyms

metaphor can have sahred meaning

suyntacti relationships

these are related syntactically through lexical pattersn

release collocates with prison

to release someone from prsion but not to check out fro; prison

to eb disahcgee fri hospti but to be disahcregd frol a hotel

collogatin is abou grammar

to eb relaaed followed by preposition followed by the object

to be released fro; prison

to be released fro; captivity

collocation and colligation are in vocabulary matrix chapter four





Unit 1 lesson 3 word relations


how do words group tpgether in meaning . semantically

and syntactically#

words can group together in synomony , antonymy and metaphor, hyponomy

zwords group semantically by meaning as in synonny;s

they can be grouped by patterns of word  such as by syntactically

phrasal verbs etc,,, by the role in grammar by idiom and collocation

synonomy and antonymy

synonyms mean the same

to be release rom prison to be discharged from hospital to check out of a hotel

they all have a similar meaning but they are not synonys because we cannot substiture one for the other

synonym for thin is slim , skinny slender

these are synonyms . they are interchangeable

very few words are few synonums

register tells us whether a word is a true synonym

whether the context is formal or informal

skinny is informal

slender if positive but skinny is not

polysemy , words can have more than one meaning

rough sea and rough football match

rough can be uneven or violent but these cannot all eb used with different words

roygh in the context of sea is chiopy but we cannot have a choppy football sea

one rto one match for meaning is rare except in technical terms

cell phone and mobule phone

sidewalk and pavement is a one to one match

rubbish and garbage

synonymy is limited by regusre academic versus conversational regiuster

teensy is not academic

synonymy is attracted by collocation,

opposite is a synonym of contradictory

we do not say the contradictory sex

you can get into trouble if you do not know synonyms

if student ewants another word for argument and finds other alternatives which are not apposite sucg as quarrel or fight

synonyms are words are almost the same

antonyms are opposite

#cld is opposite hot

antonym is limited

sea we can say cal; is the opposite of rough but for the surface we cannot say a calm surface but we can say a smooth surface

verb plummet , plunge is a snyonym

british national corpus is a collection of a hundred million wirotten and spoken words in the UK to see ow they fit together

hyponomy in semantics

hypername is a category of words such as fruit or animals

fruit is a superordinate word and apple is a subordinate word so it is a hyponym

animal is a hypernym but tiger is a hyponym

hyponym is mansion of house

sandal is hyponym of shoe

water is a hyponym of liquid and

beret is a hypnym of hat

hypernym is vehicle

car is a hyponym

byt car can be a hyper nym and then have hyponyms below that such as hatch back and peope carrier

semantic relations = metaphor

theseare phrases that are used to make a comparison between thungs which are unalike but have something in common

snow is a shite blanket

their hme is a prison

we find it in literature and broadcasts

these are visual and linked to cultural constructs and vary between languages


fire is a wild beast

wild fires terrorise Sydney

metaphor , think of phrases for time as a valuable commodity

love is war

time is money

love is a journey

metaphors can be dissi;ilar across languages

Chinese and English they share some metaphors , anger and heat are linked

blood boiled, raging hot

fla;e of anger in chinesem angry air

metaphors are visual

can help one make association , these help comprehension and memory

what we think and do

argument is war, clip from trumps twitter account . notion of battle and fight

metaphors we live by . lakov and Johnson

file is on moodle

metapjor is pervasive

listen to podcast from irish radio show, interview with boy band

how many metpajors which are hardest

14 instances of metaphor

conclude, group words semantically and syntactically

;eaning , hypnyms and metaphor , hypernyms











A dream of the dark one


I bedrea;t ;e of the lanky bald chap who stands stooped.

I met him outside in the summer. he was soft spoken as is his wont, I do not recall what we discussed,. We were beside a merry go round, I was at one with little Filip the other day< somehow my thoughts turned to religion and ideology, I wondered how people come to subscribe to such things, Is it all psychological conditioning?

This was not an anxiety dream . I hall visit London next week, Perhaps it alludes to that,