broken windows litter.
signal crime is welcome. spiral of decline
from Chicago School
situational crime prevention.
inner city sink estate. railway track by it. bombarded by stones. fences is too low.
access road into estates. cars are stolen a lot. broken into. vandalised.
problems wooded area – overgrown area. children smoke crack in the woods. street walkers. kids escape on rat runs after mugging. they know the routes.
what is to be done? Adapt the environment to design out crime .
bloomsbury square and russell square – had a reputation for cottaging and drug dealing
they adapted the environment
big bushes were removed. there is natural surveillance now. deters crime
higher fences and gates to regulate traffic in and out. cars are stolen and can only go through gate. defensible space. public space becomes private space
no rat runs . regulate movement. cut back trees
big cameras ;- light the area. set up concierge.
stairwell stank of wee wee. graffitti and rubbish
change the environment. people like to have space that they can defend. create it. put doors in each landing. only people who live on the landing have access thereto. people out hanging baskets outsode the house and leaving bikes out. they take an interest in the area outside the house. if it looks good people behave well
form follows fear.
if people are scared and put big gates up. this sends out signal that people are frightened. there are grilles.
environment impacts in individual and group behaviour
this has an explanation outside a person
right to buy – stable community. crime falls
janet foster applied the study to england and found council estates have v strong communities different to shore, mckay and burgess found in the USA