study harm inflicted by crime and study ideas of what harm means
they suggest best way to lower harm
is there a consensus about what constitutes a crime
If 90% agree does that mean the rest are wrong? The 10% might know better
conflict model says that crime is subjective.
those with power decide what a crime is. The law reflects what the mighty want
the state defines crime and serves certain interests – those with power from a gender model are male
whites hold power
from an economic point of view it is those with wealth and power.
values of the victors.
crack cocaine gets a sentence 20 times higher than powder cocaine
so many crimes are about protection of property. matters most to the affluent
says much about motivations
symbolic inter actionism. is relative
there is no one objective best solution. people come to an understanding
you are who you know
association theory – criminals are those who were surrounded by criminals
labelling – people commit crime due to labelling
individual people gets called a punk in school
people do things to get by. differential association. Inteactionist way of explaining crime
there are divisions in theories
legalistic definition of crime as determined by a court
those who are observed committing crime, caught and convicted
what about those who never get caught
intelligence or coping tests people who commit crime are subnormal intelligence
edwin sutherland includes criminals who did not get caught – a crime that has the possibility of being penalised if caught. all of a sudden the question becomes wider. some people are punishable but not punished. white collar offenders
who is going to jail?
billions of dollars lost. measurable harm – muggers get a long time
speeding is punishable.
most speeding harms no one
one needs to get significantly above the speed limit to be punished
marijuana laws. sheriffs around the country who do not enforce the law. small growers should register with us
federally it is a crime as a state level it is not.
crime is not just a violation of law.
more informal version is a norm. social expectation of behaviour
could be a crime. deviance.
deviants who commit legal acts are informally punished
some people smoke. informal punishment’ controversial clothes
variation of criminal activity
upsets normative order
critical criminology. violation of norms. social expectations who set it
some people are in a position set the rules. political filter. who gets to say what is crime? political or economic
response to non criminous acts
there should be a lack of certainty at end of the lecture. we do not know what crime is or what criminologists are talking
some things are a crime because they just are. Not an adequate explanation
look for evidence.
mala in se crimes – always banned. rape and murder. condemned irrespective of culture or economic system
mala prohibita – illegal in some places not others. bad because they are banned. in some cultures or times they are banned. traffic violations. gambling. substances
until 1985 it was not rape to rape one’s spouse in Maine. Until 1975 a man could not rape his wife.
a wife can rape a husband. definition is about penetration of any orifice by any object
people used to be assaulted and that was permissible under the law. Legal slavery.