This was impanelled in 1945.
The Allies agreed that the top leaders of the Third Reich would be brought to book for their alleged crimes.
The four major allied powers provided two judges each. These judges were from the Soviet Union, France, the United States and the Unite Kingdom. The languages of the foregoing countries were used in proceedings as was German. That was the tongue of the defendants.
The Allies were anxious to avoid the appearance of victor’s justice.
”Crimes against the peace of the world imposes a grave responsibility. The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so devastating that civilisation cannot repeat their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated.”
” that four great nations stung with injury and flushed with victory stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of the law he most significant tributes that power has ever paid to reason. ”
Robert H Jackson – chief US prosector
tribunal was not their to vindicate abstract speculation
not created to prove legalistic theories
crimes against peace
crimes against humanity
conspiracy to commit the foregoing crimes
15 other nations took part. International law was cited by Jackson
Germans were meticulous record keepers. They had a Teutonic passion for thoroughness. They were vain and were photographed in action
their own films and voices
”we would also make clear that we have no purpose to incriminate the whole German people.”
British judges Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe and
Sir Hartley Shawcross MP (St Helens)
the Allies did not wish to be revengeful. A man would only be condemned to die by unanimous judgment of the justices.
simultaneous translation was used for the first time.
The allegations against ALlied countries were not considered.
Defendants were provided with German lawyers free of charge.
Goring spoke trenchantly.
Speer admitted the crimes of the Third Reich but claimed he did not known about all the atrocities
”Even the most warlike people have recognised some limitations on the savagery of warfare which were expressed in international agreements to which Germany became a party.”
brutal treatment of POWs- some murdered
v true of airmen captured
they led their people on a mad gamble for domination. they diverted resource to the creation of a war machine to sustain the master race. they enslaved millions
bestiality and bad faith on part of the Third Reich
November 1945 the trial opened
Jackson reminds the court of difficulties in the case – never before has a trial been conducted to bring within the scope of a trial the developments of a decade covering a continent.
the world demanded immediate action
though perhaps at the cost of the finished craftsmanship
Jackson said the case was completely adequate.
Jackson said the prosecutors must be fair and temperate because there was a huge disparity between the prosecuting nations and the defendants’ nation. This might lead the world to think the trial unfair.