lecture by Borge Bakken at the Australian NationaL uNIVERSity
survey in china asked if a rich man and a poor man commit the same crime who is more likely to get the death penalty? 70% said the poor.
laogai – people there 91% wanted to abolosh or reduce death penalty. 31% wanted abolition
concrete situation changed their attitude. they had seen the injustice of the system from the inside
moralist core argument is a failure.
the common man sees flaws of judicial system. in old days death penalthy was used to exterminate the bad
the rich get richer and the poor get prison – geoffrey ryman
survey of executon – 62% of those executed were jobless or rural residents/
people are aware that people are unjustly sentenced to death because of sloppy procedures and unjust treatment. corrupt judges
55 death penalty offences including theft. used to be 69.
would you still support death penalty if you know about wrongful executions
innocence frame changed opinion in many lands
chinese are becoming aware of wrongful execotion
2005 a court reopened a rape murder where a suspect was caught 10 yeas after someone was executed for this
a btcher in mian country was executed for a crime he did not commit. a woman’s dismembered body was found in a river. aurhtorieies said a butcher must have done it because the body was dissected very well
they do not use evidence much but confessions.
forensics dna not used much
procedures are only 30% of people in court are defence lawyers. defence lawyers are seen as bad for defending criminals
the woman who was supposed to have been murdered turned up alive
cases on blog.
a hunan citizen was released from prison when his neighbour he supposedly murdered reappeared. left an impact
in the press
people ask for compensation
max planck survey addressed innocence. potential for change
theoretical question – are innocent people might be wrongly executed. 60% said it happened 26% said it did not
44% of pro death people said they would not support death penalty if they knew of wrongful executions
48% of people would support death penalty even f they knew of wrongful executions. that is lower than in UK
Japan, korea and taiwan – all have higher level of sipport fpr death penalty.
2002 survery – 82% supported death penalty
if told the state had already abolished death penalty the support for it fell from 82% ot 60%
state uses people as a pretext for being retentionist
is the state bans death penalty – public opinion follows suit
no strong cultural incentives to support death penalty in USA
when USA aboloshed death penalty only there did majority support death
in Poland most people support it
public opinion survey when we look at aggregates we see change
people with strong core values do not change
they are in core value groups’
opinion follows a flatline of stability in these groups
some people follow the environment and new info
they turned to innocence frame. in literature they represent systematic change called the signal
they influence the climate of opinion in short time
ambivalent group/ did not dare to answer question
no we do not know fluctuates between core value group. turned if change in the way in which they lean towards one part of the spectrum
look at signal group to see change in the making
ambivalent group follow change – tell us about direction
this group often say do not know or not sure. sometimes 75% said do not know about deterrence
58% were in favour and 14% against
these people have no clue? The neutrals?
abolitionist minority is growing.
vividly illustrated towards perceived efficiency of the death penalty – prevents crime? Just a little or a lot
core value group pro death penalty people
they say it is a deterrent and it is moral. criminology say it is not a deterrent
people who are abolitionists. some are against it for moral reasons even if it is a deterrent
in questions after another the ambivalent leans towards abolition
the old hundred names is to blame for capital punishment
chinese masses are not as retributive as we have been told
public opinion has changed faster than legal institutions
1995 survey by academy of social sciences
high class people less likely to support death penalty than the lower class
absolute highest support for death penalty among military and police
43% of people said there was too LITTLE use of death penalty among them
28% of retired officials wanted more executions
personell in legal sector most liberal. only 9% said there was TOO LITTLE use of death penalty
oldest people most pro death youngest most anti
women a little less punitive than men
masses – sought twice as many supported abolition compared to central part cadres
50% wanted more use of death
party cadres – intellectuals. illiterates and those with primary school of death penalty were twice as likely to support abolition than the higher educated
black people more anti death in USA than whites
30% with highest education wanted more capital punishment
only 20% of illiterates wanted more death penalty
only elite group against death penalty is lawyers
more support for reducing the death penalty
high income respondents had fear of death penalty for economic crimes. No clear line between entrepreneurship and corruption
survey on legal scholars in wuhan. 2007. questionaire. 96% of people in survey had a legal education. respondence to same surveys. support or oppose death penaly. in favour 63% of death general population 57%
there are backwards and advanced mass opinions.
we have to educate the masses.
we need masses on our side to abolish the death penalty so said a chinese leader
common people are more liberal on death penalty than the elite
no penal populism
penal elitism in china. elites are more conservatives than the masses that they use as an excuse for upholding it
death penalty is held aloft by the state. state is too slow moving. secrecy of numbers executed. they do not give stats
should govt publish number of executions. 64% said yes and 16% said no
public opinion is ahead of govt
myth of revengeful opinion. penal norm is far from old mainstream assumption that we learn to act punitively
penal norm is not part of never changing core culture
innocence frame is driving force behind change
beginning to establish itself in china
how you frame a debate.
”greater than the tread of mighty armies is an idea whose time has come.”