Europe seeks peace and posterity in 1945
bipolar world. cold war
USA tries to impose ideology
end of Second World War. this affected nation states.
nationalism and authoritarianism rose together
Soviets took over E Europe
the USA had the Marshall Plan.
European Economic Community
neo functionalism supported by Haas and Mitroning
supra national institutions were founded
in order to make some things happen one needs institutions. supra national is above the states
1940s and 50s neo functionalism loses importance
1970s changes in global politics and european integration process
state are still important
they do not only give their power. they like a say. integration is limited to how much state is giving
andrea moraucic come uo with idea of liberal inter governmentalism
he argued that the whole bargaining process that we see in integration is done by governments
major decisions are taken by governments
because of that one needs to put the accent on the naitons
interdependence and role of institutions is important
intl demand for cooperation. states are important in critical decisoons
this was a reflection of oil crisis. stagflation. states used to react together and they became introverted
more limited with perspective towards further co opeation. put national interest first
this was a realist perspective
other theories become more important with changes of european integration process.
1980s. multi level governance became more popular
. explain developments in european integratiom better
EU integration helps in multi level process
happens at sub state level.
intl organisation influence process.
Scottish referendum. a federal state. this could have impacted the EU.
1990s. 2000s. as the development occurred we see different ideologies influencing explanation
institutionalism – rational choice theory
widening v deepening. widening – more member states
deepening – the EU is integrating ever more
there is a tension. continues.
they can go together. some say being more hetergenous one makes the EU shallower
free trade. common market. customs union
difference between the customs union and common market is there will be a common external tariff in the former.
common currency. one needs central bank. monetary union.
monetary policies need to be in line. rules and standards need to be agreed. valuing currency
1960s. empty chair crisis. decisions had to be unanimous. . 1962 – France walked out
this created a problem. no decision taken at european council
luxembourg compromise. if a decision is related to a national interest then a country can opt out
less important decisions can be takne by simply majority or QMV