This case is about adverse impact of certain policies on ethnic minorities.
A company hired people on the basis of their test scores. African Americans on the whole did worse than whites and this was held to be attributable to their poorer schooling. Their schools had been underfunded and overcrowded.
Testing people in a way that was not relevant to the job was not allowed.
a judge said equal opportunity had to be real. He likened the testing to offering milk to both a stork and a fox. such equal opportunity is specious.