Daily Archives: May 18, 2015

ПЛАНЕТА МЕРКУРИЙ – Mercury (planet)

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ПЛАНЕТА МЕРКУРИЙ – Mercury (planet)

Меркурий – самая близкая планета  к Солнцу. Планета названа в честь древнеримского бога. Меркурий – маленькая планета. На ней намного жарче, чем на планете Земля. Никто и никогда не был там. На Меркурии очень сильная гравитация. Там нет ни жизни, ни воды. Меркурианский год очень короткий, потому что, располагаясь близко к  Солнцу, эта планета может вращаться вокруг него только в течение нескольких месяцев.

Существует  химическое вещество, под названием Ртуть (Mercury), которое не имеет ничего общего с планетой Меркурий. Элемент Mercury  металл, который является уникальным, потому что он находится в  жидком состоянии. Ни в коем случае не прикасайтесь к этому веществу, потому что оно ядовитое.

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  1. Какая планета самая близкая к Солнцу?
  2. В честь кого была названа планета Меркурий?
  3. Является ли  планета Меркурий холодной?
  4. Сколько человек побывали на Меркурии?
  5. Химический элемент Меркурий,  связан с планетой с таким же названием?
  6. Следует ли  касаться элемента Mercury?
  7. Есть ли гравитация на Меркурии?

ПЛАНЕТА НЕПТУН – NEPTUNEPLANET

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ПЛАНЕТА НЕПТУН – NEPTUNEPLANET

Нептун – это планета, 8-ая от Солнца. Она очень холодная. Нептун имеет 13 спутников. Эта планета  была обнаружена в 1846 году, до этого телескопы не были достаточно сильны, чтобы увидеть ее.

Ее масса 15 раз больше массы Земли. Нептун  по размеру в 57 раз больше, чем  Земля. У этой планеты  занимает годы на орбиту вокруг Солнца. На ней есть водород, гелий, метан, и даже этан.

Она названа в честь древнеримского бога морей.

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  1. В честь кого  названа эта планета?
  2. Когда она была обнаружена?
  3. Во сколько раз Нептун больше Земли?
  4. Почему Нептун не настолько превосходит  Землю по массе, как  по размеру?
  5. Какие газы есть на Нептуне?
  6. Какая по счету планета Нептун  от Солнца?

Венера – Venus

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Венера – Venus

Венера – планета, вторая по близости к Солнцу. Венера названа в честь римской богини любви. Планета Венера очень горячая, потому что она находится недалеко от Солнца. Она меньше, чем наша планета. Никто никогда не бывал на Венере. Период обращения Венеры вокруг Солнца 274 земных суток, то есть за один год Венеры. Это немного меньше, чем год на планете Земля. Люди называют ее сестрой Земли. Венеру иногда можно увидеть с Земли. Температура на этой планете составляет 462 градусов по Цельсию. Это температура убьет человека. На 96% атмосфера Венеры состоит из углекислого газа.

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1. Какая планета вторая по близости к Солнцу?
2. Какой газ основной на Венере?
3. Как долго длится год на Венере?
4. В честь кого названа эта планета?
5.Насколько жарко на Венере?
6. Какая планета более горячая Земля или Венера?
7. Хотели бы вы полететь на Венеру?

Венера – планета, вторая по близости к Солнцу. Венера названа в честь римской богини любви. Планета Венера очень горячая, потому что она находится недалеко от Солнца. Она меньше, чем наша планета. Никто никогда не бывал на Венере. Период обращения Венеры вокруг Солнца 274 земных суток, то есть за один год Венеры. Это немного меньше, чем год на планете Земля. Люди называют ее сестрой Земли. Венеру иногда можно увидеть с Земли. Температура на этой планете составляет 462 градусов по Цельсию. Это температура убьет человека. На 96% атмосфера Венеры состоит из углекислого газа.

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1. Какая планета вторая по близости к Солнцу?
2. Какой газ основной на Венере?
3. Как долго длится год на Венере?
4. В честь кого названа эта планета?
5.Насколько жарко на Венере?
6. Какая планета более горячая Земля или Венера?
7. Хотели бы вы полететь на Венеру?

Thugee

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Thugee

The main religion of India is Hinduism. Most Hindus are peaceable people. Hinduism has many gods and goddesses. Hinduism does not see destruction as evil but as a part of life. Kali is the Hindu goddess of destruction. Kali means ”black” in the Hindi language. Thugee means deceiver in Sanskrit the ancient language of India.

In the 13 th century a sect called the Thugee developed in Hinduism. Only a tiny minority of Hindus were part of this sect. The Thugee believed that killing people was an act of worship to the goddess Kali. The Thugee were extremely secretive about their cult. Only family members were part of it.

There was no police force in India at the time. India was an empire ruled by a Muslim dynasty at the time. The Indian Army was only semi-effective at controlling the country. People travelling long distances on the roads were in danger or being robbed or murdered. People carried weapons with them for defence and often travelled in large groups.

The Thugee would decided to target a caravan of people travelling along a road. If 50 people were travelling the Thugs would not have 50 of their men ask to join the caravan at once. That would seem intimidating and would be suspicious. The Thugee would have 5 men ask to join the caravan at the beginning. The Thugee would have no weapons on them.  A few hours walk along the road a few more Thugee would be waiting. They too would have no guns or knives. They too would ask to join the caravan of people walking or riding. A few hours later more Thugee would ask to join. These men and women would have no weapons. The Thugee often knew each other personally. Sometimes they recognised each other by certain code words and hand gestures.

The Thugee would gain the trust if their intended victims. Late at night at a given signal they would strangle their victims with scarves. The Thugee would have surrounded the camp and make sure there were no survivors. Strangling people was silent and left no blood. They would quickly bury the bodies; divide the booty and move out at dawn. The Thugee would split up and move off in different directions. This would reduce suspicion. No evidence would be left. The Thugee were Hindus but they were willing to kill people of their own religion as well as Muslims. Most Hindus knew nothing about the Thugee and would have been outraged of they had known their religion was being misused to justify such cruel crimes

The Thugee murdered for religious motives. They also did so for material gain. Thousands of people were killed this way over the years. There were plenty of bandits along India’s roads. For a caravan of travelers or merchants to disappear was not so rare. The Thugee were very well practised and cunning.

In the 18th century the British began to establish control over India. The Britishers learnt Indian languages and began to understand Indian culture.

A Captain William Sleeman of the British Army in India found out about the Thugee. He was horrified that the Thugee killed thousands of men, women and children each year and got away with it.

Captain Sleeman was determined to put a stop to it. He found a Thugee who had been convicted of murder. He had this man tell him everything about the Thug. A deal was made with this man. He had turned King’s evidence. In return for this information he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Sleeman was able to place informants inside the Thug organisation. These were men arrested on suspicion of Thuggery. Sleeman would tell them that they had enough evidence to have them executed. These men would be persuaded to become informants in return for their lives. Sleeman discovered that the Thugs used the same burial sites time and again. They usually persuaded their marks to camp in a place the Thugs had used before. It would be somewhere with soft soil so it would be easy to dig graves. It would be beside a road but have a topographical barrier such as a cliff or a river on one side to prevent the escape of any victims.

Sleeman knew the Thugs came from certain families. He used surnames to identify likely suspects. Over 1 400 Thugs were sentenced to life imprisonment or hanged.

In the 1830s the organisation was mostly crushed. It did not disappear entirely until the 1890s. This was partly down to police work. It was also owing to the fact that railway travel become common. Road travel decreased.

Thugs has passed into English to mean brute.

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1. Who were the Thugs?

2. What religion did they profess?

3. Which goddess did they worship?

4. Why did they want to camp somewhere with soft soil?

5. How did they identify each other?

6. Who was Sleeman?

7. In which decade were the Thugs mainly smashed?

8. What invention also led to the decline of the Thugs?

9. How did the Thugs kill?

10. What is turning King’s Evidence?

10 Rillington Place

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10 RILLINGTON PLACE.

For years this was the most notorious address in the United Kingdom.

John Christie was born in the United Kingdom in 1899. He had a strange personality and was bullied at school. He also had a bad relationship with his father. Christie was lacking in confidence and had a very quiet voice.  He was a soldier in the First World War. He suffered a head injury from a shell explosion in the war. This caused him to undergo a severe personality change.

After the war Christie attempted to form relationships with some women. They tended to be very rude to him because of his strange personality. Christie was physically attracted to women but at the same time hated them. He felt he had been humiliated. Christie could not achieve an erection. He married in 1920 but his marriage was unhappy. He and his wife had no children. They divorced after 4 years. Divorce was very unusual in those days and was seen as shameful. At some point Christie discovered that he could only become sexually aroused with a dead woman.

Christie worked as a postman. However, he was caught stealing postal orders and was sent to prison. Several times in the 1920s and 1930s he spent short spells in prison for theft.

When the Second World War came young men were no longer allowed to join the police. They had to join the military instead. Some of the younger policemen went off to join the army. The police where desperately short of manpower. Christie was 40 and just too old to rejoin the army. He volunteered for the police. The police were delighted to have a former soldier in excellent physical condition join them. They accepted him immediately. They did not bother to check whether he had a criminal record.

In 1943 Christie was living along at 10 Rillington Place, London. He invited a young woman to his house and killed her. He buried her under the garden. Later that year he invited Muriel Eady home. He poisoned her and buried her in the garden too. This was getting revenge on women. That year Christie left the police and started work at a radio factory.

In 1948 a couple called Timothy and Beryl Evans moved into Christie’s house. The house had several rooms. They paid him rent. Timothy Evans was a poor truck driver. He was a man of inferior intelligence. The Evans’s had a baby daughter. Beryl Evans was soon pregnant again.

In 1949 Beryl Evans and her baby daughter were both found strangled. The police arrested Evans. He allegedly confessed to the murders. He then said he had never confessed to them. The words used in the confession do not fit his vocabulary. He was a dim man and knew very few words. Evans insisted that Christie had killed Mrs Evans and the baby.

The police were faced with a choice. They could believe that Evans did it or that Christie did it. The police could not bring themselves to believe a former policeman would commit murder. They decided to go with their theory that Evans was the murderer. Timothy Evans was charged with a double murder. He went on trial. Christie testified for the prosecution. The defence looked to see if Christie had a criminal record. He indeed turned out to have an extensive criminal record. He had lied when joining the police and claimed to have never even been arrested. Despite Christie being untrustworthy the jury believed him.

Evans was found guilty of murder and sentenced to death. He protested his innocence to the end. He was hanged in 1949. In fact what had happened was Christie had offered to procure an abortion for Evans’ wife since the couple could not afford another baby. Evans and his wife Beryl agreed. This procedure went wrong and to cover this up Christie made it look like she had been strangled. He also murdered the baby too.

In 1953 Christie’s ex wife Ethel moved back in with him. One day they had an argument and he strangled her. He then wrote letters in her name to friends. He pretended Ethel had moved to another city. He sold her jewellery and emptied her bank account.

In 1953 Christie began inviting women to his house. He would have them sit in the kitchen. He would release carbon monoxide into the room. That would make them faint. He would then strangle them. They would be buried under the kitchen. He did this thrice. He had sex with their corpses.

In 1953 Christie moved out. He rented out the house to another couple. The new man in the house decided to do some repair work. He dug up the floor only to find dead bodies. He was horrified! He informed the police. An extensive search found all the bodies. In the 1949 investigation the police had not searched the garden. Now they found 6 female corpses!

The police realised some of these women had been murdered 10 years before. That was befor Evans had moved in. Christie must have done them in!

The police put out a nationwide notice: Arrest John Christie! Christie saw the news and booked into a hotel in London. Bizarrely, he did not try to flee but stayed in London. He used his real name in the hotel!

A few days later a policeman in London saw Christie and noticed that he looked very worried. The police officer asked the man his name. Christie gave a false name. The police officer thought he recognised him from photos of Christie. Christie was arrested.

Christie admitted he killed these people. He claimed to have been insane. His insanity plea was rejected. He was found guilty. In July 1953 he was led to the scaffold to be hanged. He said to the hangman, ”I have an itchy nose.” The hangman said, ”It won’t bother you for long” and pulled the lever.

This is a truly revolting case. Christie was one of the most sordid criminals in British History.

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1. When was Christie born?

2. What was his personality like?

3. What happened to him in the First World War?

4. Why did the police let him join?

5. Why should the police not have thought Evans did the murders?

6. What lessons can we learn about personal safety from these crimes?

7.  What was Christie’s motive?

8. How was Christie stupid when the police were hunting him?

9. Does this case prove the death penalty is a bad idea?

10. Was Christie insane/?

The Yorkshire Ripper.

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THE YORKSHIRE RIPPER.

Yorkshire is a county in the middle of the United Kingdom. In the 1970s young women were found in this county stabbed to death. They were killed one by one. They would be found by a quiet road in the countryside stabbed to death. Who could commit such a crime? The police surmised that it was a lonely old pervert.

The victims of these crimes were mostly young women with little money who came from troubled backgrounds. The press dubbed the killer – the Yorkshire Ripper. This was a reference to Jack the Ripper who murdered women in London 90 years earlier.

The Yorkshire Ripper began to branch out. He started killing women from stable working class families and middle class families too. He killed in several different towns around Yorkshire. The public became terrified. There was a massive public demand that the police do something about it. These savage murders were all over the newspapers and television. The police mounted a huge operation. They appealed to the public for help.

After a murder the police would advertise on television and in the newspapers. Did you see anything the night of the murder? Did you see a stranger in the town where the murder took place? Did you see a car you did not recognise? Do you remember anything suspicious? The police received thousands of letters and phone calls. Some people were trying to help. Most of the leads led to nothing. Some of the callers were fantasists or pranksters. Some if it was genuinely helpful. A truck has been seen in the area of the murders in most cases. Several witnesses described a slim man with a black beard. Sometimes he attacked women but they survived. They were able to give the police a description.

Police psychologists speculated that the killer had a pathological hatred of women. They noticed he moved around a lot maybe for his job or maybe to avoid detection. They assumed he would be middle aged or elderly.

The police received tapes in the post. A man recorded himself on tape saying he was the Yorkshire Ripper and challenging the police to catch him. There were no fingerprints on the envelope or tape. The police played the tape on television and asked if anyone recognised the voice. The police spent a huge amount of time on investigating this tape.

In August 1981 a murder was committed. The next day the body of the victim was discovered. A few miles away a police officer stopped a lorry for having false number plates. The driver look unusually nervous. The policeman suddenly had an instinct. ”Tha’s the ripper thee!” he shouted in his Yorkshire accent. The policeman grabbed the truck driver and handcuffed him.

The suspect was named Peter Sutcliffe. He was a tall, slim 33 year old truck driver with a black beard. He was found to have a knife, hammer and rope in his truck. They found out from his company where he had been driving over the last few years. His movements tallied exactly with the Yorkshire Ripper murders. When a murder had been committed in Leeds he had been in Leeds that night. When a woman was stabbed to death in Halifax he had been in Halifax that night. This was the case for all 13 murders. Astonishingly he was happily married. He did not hate women at all but liked killing them. He said God had commanded him to kill women!

Sutcliffe soon confessed the the murders. He said to a friend, ”I will get 10 years in the loony bin.” Sutcliffe maintained he never sent a tape to the police. The tape on the voice did not match his.

Sutcliffe was found guilty but insane. He was sent to a mental hospital for life. He was diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic.

In 2006 a man came forward. He admitted that he had sent a tape to the police in the 1970s pretending to be the Yorkshire Ripper. He had done so because he was bored! The police wasted a lot of time investigating this false lead. Over the few months after that tape was sent more women were murdered. Had the police not wasted their time with this tape the killer might have been caught and women would have been saved. That man was John Humble. He sent to prison for 8 years for perverting the course of justice.

Sutcliffe is still in a psychiatric hospital.

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1. What was the name of the Yorkshire Ripper?

2. Where is Yorkshire?

3. Were the tapes real?

4. How many people did Sutcliffe kill?

5. Where is Sutcliffe now?

6. What was his job?

7. Why was Sutcliffe arrested?

8. In what way did Sutcliffe not fit the profile the police had created?

9. How were the public able to help catch him?

10. How can we prevent such crimes?

Politics

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POLITICS

Politics comes from the Ancient Greek word ‘polis’ meaning ‘city’. Politics is about how we run our cities and more broadly our country. We live in communities. We have to live together and we need rules to get along. We have to decided what is allowed and what is forbidden. We face common problems and we have to decide how to deal with those. This is what politics is about. There are many different viewpoints on what should be done. We discuss these different ideas and argue about them. Eventually a community has to choose what to do.

In democratic countries different political parties are allowed. Each party has a different set of opinions. The party comes up with policies. These are ideas of what should be done. They will suggest new laws banning certain things. Maybe they will repeal existing laws that ban things right now. For example, keeping a lion as a pet is not allowed in the United Kingdom. You might want to repeal that law.

Money has to be spent on public services. We have laws to say some things are not allowed- they are crimes. We have to have police to catch criminals. We need courts and judges to administer justice. There are prisons to put criminals in. This all costs money. So tax is paid so we can have this system. There are also emergency services. If a house is on fire the fire brigade is called. If someone is injured in a car accident we call an ambulance. They are taken to a public hospital. That all costs money. Emergency services are paid for by taxation.

Parliament meets to debate these issues and vote on them. MPs need to be paid. We also have to pay for the repair of their building, for the electricity bill, for the paper they use. That is paid for through tax.

Tax is a big issue. How much should we pay>]? Should rich people pay a higher percentage than the poor? How rich is rich? These are all political controversies.

The army, navy and air force all cost money. Should we ever go to war? If so in what circumstances? These are political matters.

There is foreign policy too. Which countries should we be friendly with? Which foreign governments should be criticise? Is it wrong to criticise the internal affairs of another country? Should we refuse to trade with countries that mistreat their citizens abominably? Which international organisations should we be part of? Which treaties should we sign?

Politics is about so much. What should the content of education be? How long should people have to go to school? Politics can solve many problems like global warming and poverty. However, politics can also create problems through unfair or foolish policies. Politicians often promise things they realise they cannot deliver or do not even want to deliver. Politicians can win votes by directing hatred and certain groups. Politics  is often reported as being about personalities and not policies.

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1. What is politics?

2. What is the etymology of this word?

3. What is an election?

4. What is foreign policy?

5. What is an emergency service?

6. What is tax?

7. What is a party?

8. What is an issue?

9. Why do people vote for a party?

10.  What are your political views? (6)