Daily Archives: May 3, 2015

Anti-tobacco education.



Tobacco is a plant which originally grew in America. Now it is grown in many warm countries. Tobacco can be dried and smoke as cigarettes or cigars. Sometimes it is smoked in a pipe or chewed.

About 400 years ago tobacco was taken out of America for the first time. It became fashionable to smoke it in a pipe. People had no idea that it was bad for their health. In the 19th century cigarettes were invented. Tobacco companies advertised smoking to make it seem smart and attractive. In the 1930s in Germany a study demonstrated that smoking is bad for people’s health. It was difficult to have a control group in those days because about 90% of men smoked and almost as many women. There was no such thing as a no smoking zone so everyone was a passive smoker. In 1950 Dr Richard Doll studied lung cancer patients in London. Out of 800 of them only 2 did not smoke. Dr Doll published an article in the British Medical Journal proving that smoking causes lung cancer.

Smoking is very injurious to your health. Smoking massively increases the risk of lung cancer. Smoking also increases the chance of other cancers and of having a stroke. Smoking can make it impossible to have children. Smokers on average die 12 years earlier than non smokers. The last few years of a smoker’s life are usually years in bad health.

Smoking is fairly addictive. Nicotine creates a craving. People desperately want their next cigarette. They are stressed out without it. Smoking is expensive. It is inconvenient because they are always getting out to buy more or going outside in the cold to smoke.

Smoking makes it harder to breathe. Smokers cannot perform well in sports. Smoking damages the vocal chords and ages the skin.

Smoking is not clever or impressive. Anyone can smoke. It is not an achievement. The more intelligent someone is the less likely they are to smoke because they understand the dangers associated with it. People of inferior intelligence are much more likely to smoke because they do not grasp that smoking is harmful.


1. Where is tobacco originally from?

2. What are different ways to smoke?

3. What cancer is smoking most likely to cause?

4. Why do some people smoke?

5. Why are less intelligent people more likely to smoke?

6. How much younger do smokers usually die?

7. Who published a paper in 1950 showing that smoking causes lung cancer?

8. What will smoking do to your sporting performance?

9. Why is it hard to stop smoking?

10. What is your opinion of smoking? (5)

Palm Jumeirah



This is an amazing man made place in the Dubai. The Palm is in the shape of a palm tree. It comes off the mainland of the UAE. It juts into the Arabian Gulf. There are branches and palm fronds. There are hotels,shops and houses.  There is a marina to anchor ships. The rich and very famous have bought properties here. There is a fantastic aquarium here. Hotels here do amazing brunches on the weekends.

A company called Nakheel reclaimed the land from the sea. There are other similar projects going on at this time.

There are some lovely beaches here. The beaches are sheltered from strong currents. It is very safe here.


1. What is the palm?

2. Which country is it in?

3. How was it created?

4. What is on the palm?

5. Is anything similar planned?

6.Which company built the palm?

7. Why are the beaches safe here?

8. Do you like the palm?

Sheikh Khalifa



This man is Sheikh Khalifa Al Nahayan. Sheikh is a noble title. He is the Emir of Abu Dhabi. He is the President of the United Arab Emirates.

Khalifa is his first name. Al Nahayan is his surname. His family has ruled Abu Dhabi since 1761. He was born in 1948. He is married and he has several children. He attended the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst. He helped to found the Emirati military.

His father died in 1992. He was Sheikh Zayed and his image can be seen throughout the UAE. That is when Sheikh Khalifa became Emir of Abu Dhabi. He is a generous donor to charity.  He speaks English and Arabic.


1. When was he born?

2. In which British institution did he study?

3. Does he give to charity?

4. What is his father’s name?

5. What is his surname?

6. What is his title in relation to Abu Dhabi?

7. What is his title for the UAE?

8. Do you like?

Mercedes G class.



This is a car and it is very nice! The G is short for gelandwagen which in German means ”cross country vehicle”. It is is designed for driving over fields.

It has been manufactured in Austria since 1979. It is made by Mercedes a German car company. Karl Benz founded Mercedes over 100 years ago. He named it after his daughter Mercedes.

This is a boxy car. It has a body on frame construction. Originally it was a military vehicle. Now it is a civilian one.

It is safe and comfortable. It is fairly expensive. It is a sports utility vehicle.

It is a four wheel drive. It has a front engine.


1. What is Mercedes G Class?

2. What does G stand for?

3. WHich country is it made in?

4. When was it first made?

5. What was its original purpose?

6. What is good about it/

7. Have you been in it?

8. Do you like?

Five Nights at Freddy’s



This is a computer game. It was invented in 2014. Many people think it is scary and awesome. It is set in a fictional pizza restaurant at night. This is Freddy Fazzbear’s Pizzeria.

In it there is a teddy bear. There are many frightening stuffed animals. They come to life and start to move. The teddy bear has to track the movements of these toy animals with security cameras. It is like a horror film. The game takes between four minutes and eight minutes. It is possible to jumpscare the player and the lights go out. Then he loses.

You have to move the joystick and press the buttons. It is popular all over the world.

Do you want to go to Freddy’s House for the night? How about five nights? Watch out!


1. What is the name of the game?

2. When was it invented?

3. Is it played on a computer?

4. Where is it set?

5. What toys move?

6. How long does it take to play?

7. Do you like?

8. How do you play?

My paternal grandmother.


She was born in November 1907 in Ireland. Her native county was Clare. She grew up only a few miles from the Cliffs of Moher. Despite living within walking distance of the Atlantic Ocean she never learnt to swim. Her named was Brid. Her family was Catholic like almost everyone in the county. At school confirmation was coming up. She had picked herself a pretty one. She chatted to another pupil about it. The other girl said – you can’t have that name, I am choosing that one. Rather than stand her ground she gave way. There is no rule in the Catechism against more than one child in a class having a certain confirmation name! My grandmother opted for Ita. She later winced to recall it – she thought it hideous.

She was one of six children. There were three girls and three boys. She was in about the middle. Her mother was named Susan. Susan was also from Clare. Susan’s mother died when Susan was little. There has been five children of that marriage. Her father had remarried partly to have a woman to look after his children. Nine children were the progeny of that union. 14 children cannot be easy to raise. The stepmother was not kind to the children of her husband’s deceased wife. Previously I only ever saw things from the perspective of the children and not the stepmother. I have to sympathise with her. It would be so difficult to treat them fairly. Perhaps it was just their misconception that she was bad to them. Anyhow, my great grandmother went to the United States. She worked as a maid in Boston for a few years. She was there long enough to obtain citizenship. She did not do it though. She returned to Ireland. This was very rare for the time.

Brid grew up on a farm of a few acres.  It was all spring land and boulders. There was a well down the road. It was a two room cottage they lived in. This was a very run of the mill house for Ireland at the time. It has since been sold to an American couple.

At Christmas they got tiny present because the family had little money. They did not live in the wretched poverty that affected some families at the time.

With the howling gales outside the firmly believed in phantoms. I snorted with derision that my grandmother should believe in such nonsense. My sister chided me. There were loud noises at night and there was no electricity. It would be easy to start to believe in the supernatural in such a situation.

Brid went to the local national school. They had to take sods of turf for the fire. Children who were too poor to do so were not permitted to sit near the fire. This was harsh. However, if they school had not enforced this rule then perhaps some who could afford to contribute peat would not have done so. Ideally of course there would be no need to require children to bring turf.

They were taught entirely in English. The home was Anglophone. My great grandparents also spoke Irish but did not teach it to their children. They could speak it when they did not want the children to comprehend of what they were talking.

Brid came to the age to go to secondary school. There was little money around the house. Her father bought bicycles for the boys so they could cycle the many miles to the secondary school on Ennistymon. He would not pay for bikes for his daughters. Perhaps he could not. The girls stayed at school till 17 but could not move ahead in school years. It was quite something that they attended even that long. The school leaving age had been raised to 14 in 1918. Most people finished school aged 14.

Michael, her eldest brother, worked in the Customs House in Dublin. He must have been there when it was burnt by the IRA in 1921. Michael then became a priest. He was exalted but also feared because of his sacerdotal station. Once he came home and spoke of Brid and her elder sister Ann becoming nuns. They were having none of that. They immediately went to England and became nurses. I do not know why they did not do that in Ireland. There were meagre prospects in Ireland whether one became a nurse or not.

She worked in London and Kent. They were miserably paid. They had to do cleaning more than medical care. I was only an old slap dash nurse she said. She said her sister Ann was superb at her job. ” Yerra I was only an old slapdash nurse. Ann cared for titled people – now” That ”now” was added with pensive pride. Ann was an accomplished person who never wed. I noticed my grandmother’s automatic reverence for the nobility.

Ann would economise by going into Lyon’s Corner House and getting a pot of hot water.

In London there was ample scope for experimentation but nurses were appallingly underpaid at the time. There were no care assistants. They had to do all the humblest tasks. They were not allowed to provide much of the medical care. Almost anything medical was done by doctors.

The razzmatazz of London must have been a jarring contrast to rural Ireland. Think of the lights of Piccadilly. In the 1920s there were a few non white people in London. I would wager that she had never seen a person of another race in Ireland. The dullness of bucolic life was something she never professed to miss.

She was stocky and agricultural. She was not a beauty.

Brid had two boyfriends at the same time. Both were in the Irish Army. She told each of them that the other was a cousin on the other side of the family! An Irishwoman at the time could easily have 50 cousins. She got away with this fib. Eventually she married Mr Woode.

She married in around 1940. She had a son, a daughter and a son in that order. The girl died as an infant and is interred in London.

They lived in an area of London called Kilburn. Many quipped that it was County Kilburn. Irish people identify themselves by their county and Kilburn was so Irish as to qualify as a county of Ireland. In 1952 they returned to Ireland. However, they did not go to her native county but to Cork.

She was a stocky and self-possessed woman. She was not a reading type and she was anti-social. She had rude health and purported to believe that illness was malingering. Those who were sick lacked moral fibre. Her house was none too clean and she was not especially feminine. That said I never saw her wear trousers. She voted Fianna Fail on the basis that they cared for ordinary people. She was a conventional Catholic and would never dream of skipping mass. A portrait of the Pope and her brother the priest graced the front room. It was a very Irish concept. This room was pin clean and its fine furnishings were too good for us to go into. Only high status guests could be entertained there on very unusual occasions.

She was downright hostile to her neighbours. She was a decent grandmother and cared for us. Grandchildren spent the day at her house and sometimes overnight. It is shameful that she got little thanks or recognition in return.  We would be served salad and ham when we visited her house. This repast never varied. It would the be followed by trifle. She had a dry wit. She chided her daughter in law ”ah you are very stout.” She liked the broad build of one of her granddaughters and chided the other ” you are springing up like a weed.” When asked to sing she declined jocularly, ”I wouldn’t want to frighten the cats.” She could engage in lightning verbal repartee.

Her younger son was artful in avoiding work. He left school early. He had been bunking off so his education was haphazard. Then he was apprenticed to a mechanic across the road. He could not be bothered his barney to get out of bed in time for work. He lost that job pretty quick.  She was at a loss for a way to make this scapegrace earn a wage. This pressaged a lifetime as a chancer. He went to London and worked on Carnaby Street running a stall selling leather goods. He was an accomplished swindler. He knew how to tail a moist tail and bilk his soft hearted aunt Ann out of her hard earned pension. This layabout sorely tried her patience. He was notorious for scamming decent people. He was absurdly affronted when anyone accused him of pecuniary dishonesty. Stout denial was a strategy. Windfalls from his aunt kept him in funds.

She developed an anti-black prejudice. She detested blackies but could not say why. Her nephew had a Kenyan friend named Francis. She received Francis courteously and was nonplussed by his articulacy and urbanity. For him she seemed to make an exception.

She was at daggers drawn with a woman over the hedge. There was a dispute over about an inch of garden. A flurry of solicitor’s letters threatened devastating legal actions. In the end it transpired that my ancestress was the one who was under a misapprehension was to the boundary. In the end her antagonist forgave her. When my grandmother was very debilitated towards the end it was this neighbour who tended her. There was no easy familiarity. They were never on first name terms.

She was apparently relentless in bawling out those whom she disapproved of. She biting towards her sons when she felt they had failed her. At the age of 25 she said her son did not have the right to go to Dublin for the weekend without her say so. She would not be gainsaid.

She was fairly religious. A portrait of John Paul II graced her front room. She would never dream of not hearing mass. Her religiosity seemed joyless. When her brother the priest came to stay the household was oppressed by religion. There were ceaseless prayer sessions – praying mindless decades of the rosary about the Blessed Virgin; joyful mysteries and sorrowful mysteries. All the joyful ones seemed sorrowful. Irish Catholicism at that time was blighted by arid formalism. As mass was in Latin it made people unthinking in their faith. She believed in its ethical scruples. In the late 1980s she expressed her adamant opposition to divorce. ”I am against it because of the kids.”

She came to stay with us a few times when I was 11-15. I noticed she spoke to herself in her room. She had been alone to much this was unsurprising. She was fond of her eldest son and his mimetic talents. She said he was the soul of the place.

She knew what was happening in the First Gulf War. ”Bush is telling Saddam to get out of Kuwait. The old mind is not gone yet.”

I remember her having me cut the hedge. She would show me how to do it and say ”look at.” I always noticed she phrased it wrongly. It ought to be ”look at it.” I would say ”I get the hang of it” and start doing it for her. I was seven.

I found her a decent person if not especially warm. Nor did she have a polished appearance. My mother told me that in her heyday this grandmother of mine had been formidable and even tyrannical. But the atmosphere was light. I never felt stressed and anxious around her. My mother and I only once stayed overnight in her place. I never saw her belligerence.

I recall her saying, ”I have enough money to bury meself.” It would have been more pleasurable for her to spend the cash on something else. There was never any jamboree in her house. What would she have done to live it up? A pilgrimage to Lourdes I suppose.

After her husband died she started to treat herself to regular trips to the front room. She could bask in her new uninhibitedness. It was also an indulgence to eat off  her finest china. A bed is made to be slept on. This was a lesson my grandfather never absorbed. She was not a warm or gregarious person. Because she was my grandmother does not mean that I ought to deceive myself about her.

Only in the last two years of her life did she decline. She was largely senile. She was trapped in her front room. A nurse came to tend her daily. Only then did I inquire about the Second World War. ”Do you remember the war?”/ ”By God I do. Twas terrible. Bombs going off everywhere and you didn’t know if you were going to be killed.” I should have asked her much more. She would have recalled the Great War and the Troubles. She did not seem in the least bit Anglophobic.

She spent the final year of her life in a nursing home. By the end she had patently lost her mind. I saw her perhaps a month before she died. She was comfortable but not compos mentis.

She died at the age of 90. Only perhaps 30 people attended her funeral.

Property law newsletter January 2015.


property rights are protected in registered ad unregistered land

a pproperry right binds a third party but a personal right does not.

property law is not just land law

one must establish whether a right is personal or proprietary

if you are staying in a hotl room and the hotel is sold the new owner does not have to let you stay there. your right is not proprietary

One has a contractual licence to stay in a hotel room

If one had a lease to be in a room that would be different since that is proprietary

A piece of land can eb the subject of sveeral simutaneous rights – fee simple, lease, easement, covenants, mortgage

– these can bind third parties

In land more than in non-land property there are often equitable property rights that bind third parties. A ppurchaser often encounters equitable as well as legal rights

law needs to balance rights of people with an interest in the land and the right s pf buyers. Alienabiluty must be there

purchasers need to know what pre existing interests in land there are

Is an interesta  lease? See street v mountfird?

If so is it legal or equitable?

LPA 1925. A legal lease can be a property estate in land/

Is a lease legal or equitable? Depmmds on how it was granted, how long it was for and wether it is in registered or unregistered land

A lease under 3 years can be legal provided the lessee possess the land and pays a market rent. ootherwise it is equitable.

unregistred land – a legal interest will bind the world except puisne mortgages

registered land – a short lease is not regitsrable under the LRA. It cannt be protected by notice. it is an overriding interesr nder LRA sec 3

a leaase over 3 years must be created by deed to be legal otherwise it is equitable.

unregisterd land – a legal interest will bind the world. If a legal lease is long – over 7 years – it will be registravle . that is up to the lessee to do it

registered land —  if it is over 7 years there is no further requirement to make it legal. it is not regitravle under the LRA but it can be proetcte dby notice. it is not necessary to do so because it is an overriding interest.

If a lease is not legal it can be equiable under walsh v londsale

unregistered land – the required contract to create a legal lease is an estate contract

if the formalities are not met it may still be ok under the LPMPA

if it is not legal it is equitable. it is not overreachable under LPA

it is protectable as a land charge. it is not valid against a ourchser for money or money;s worth


it is not a registravle untetesr but can be protected by notice. if this is done it is binding against a ppurchaser for value

if not protected by notice   then it is binding against a purchaser as an overriding interest

it can also be binding if the lessee is iin discoverbale actua occupation

if neither legal or equable it is void

if someone is in esclsuve possession is apyign rent than this person can get a lease. legal periodic tenant or erdhaps a tenant at will

Tenant at will if no rent is paid and there is no period.