Daily Archives: February 22, 2015

Activity 8.2. Page 119. Law of property


Since thhere is no such easement as a right to privacy or a right to a view, now would a landowner who intends to sell part of his lad prevent the purchaser from interfering with his privacy or spoil his view?


He should put in a restrictive covenant.There is no rigght to light only to suffienct light. If someone builds a house in front of your’s you still have a view but it is of a house.

He can make sure this will bind future buyers as per Tulk and Moxhay 1848

The Kremlin.


The Kremlin.

This is a castle in the middle of Moscow. It is a complex of many buildings. There is a wall around it. It is beside the River Moscow. The Kremlin is a symbol of the Russian Government. When people say ‘the Kremlin’ they often mean the Russian State. There have been buildings at this place for 1 800 years.

The Kremlin as we know it was built 1339. Ivan III was the first tsar to live in the Kremlin. Tsar Ivan III had many new buildings put up in the Kremlin. He brought architects from Italy to help.

The Ivan the Great Bell Tower dates from the 14 th century. It is one of the most impressive buildings in the Kremlin.

The Trinity Monastery in the Kremlin is where Tsars of Russia were crowned.

In 1812 the French took Moscow. The French Emperor Napoleon ordered the Kremlin to be blown up. However, the French only succeeded in destroying a small part of the Kremlin.

In 1918 V I Lenin started to live in the Kremlin. Lenin was the leader of the Communist Party and the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union. Some Red Army soldiers killed in fighting in 1918 were buried in front of the Kremlin Wall. That was the start of the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. The most famous people in the USSR were buried there.

Lenin’s Mausoleum is in front of the Kremlin.

President Putin has his offices in the Kremlin.


1. How long have there been buildings there?

2. Which tsar was the first to live at the Kremlin?

3. Is there a wall around the Kremlin?

4. Who nation tried to blow up the Kremlin?

5. What building was used to crown the tsar?

6. Who Soviet Prime Minister lived in the Kremlin?

7. When people talk about the Kremlin what do they mean besides the castle?

8. In which century was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower built?

9. Who ordered the Kremlin to be destroyed?

10. What is the Kremlin famous? (3)

Moscow. Reading Comprehension.


Moscow is the capital of Russia. The first capital of Russia was Kiev. Moscow became the Russian capital city in 1327.

In 1704 the capital of Russia was shifted to St Petersburg. This decision was made by Peter the Great.

iN 1812 Napoleon, the Emperor of France, invaded Russia. Napoleon took Moscow and burnt the city. But Napoleon was defeated and the French Army ran home.

In 1918 Moscow became the capital city again. There was a lot of fighting in Moscow in the Russian Civil War at that time.

In the 1930s many amazing buildings were built in Moscow. In the Second World War Germany attacked the Soviet Union. Some German soldiers reached the edge of Moscow. But the Germans were defeated by the Red Army. A piece of music was written about this ”March of the Defenders of Moscow.”

The main river flowing through this city is called the Moscow River.

Moscow has over 10 000 000 inhabitants. Moscow is a world famous city. Moscow hosted the Olympics in 1980.

The Moscow Metro is famous for having beautiful stations.

Red Square is considered to be the centre of Moscow. Beside it there is a huge shopping centre called GUM.

Moscow has many famous buildings such as the Bolshoi Theatre, the Parliament of the Russian Federation and the Kremlin. The most famous building in Moscow is St Basil’s Cathedral. This is a fantastic and unique building. It was constructed on the orders of Tsar Ivan IV.

Moscow is home to the best universities and the best hospitals in Russia. Moscow has three airports and many railway stations..


1. When was Moscow founded?

2. Why is the Moscow Metro famous?

3. Which city was the capital of Russia 1704-1918?

4. What river flows through Moscow?

5. Who ordered St Basil’s Cathedral to be built?

6. What is the square in the city centre called?

7. Name the most renowned theatre in Moscow?

8. What tune commemorates the men who saved Moscow in 1941?

9. How many airports does Moscow have?

10. Why is Moscow so important? (5)

Whither Ukraine.


Every intelligent person knows that Russian troops have been fighting in eastern Ukraine. The Kremlin says that ”maybe” volunteers have gone but these are civilians and not soldiers from the Russian Army. Russian speaking men iin Russian Army uniforms (without the insignia) using Russian Army weapons arrive in the Ukraine and Moscow claims these men are nothing to do with the Russian State. The Kremlin insists that these chaps are civilians who have chosen to join the pro-Russian uprising. Even if that were true Russia would have an obligation to prevent these men going to fight in the Ukraine as it would have an obligation to stop people going to fight in the Syrian Civil War. Apart from the Russians fighting alongside the pro-Russian insurgents there is also the issue of weapons. The pro-Russian militias have heavy weapons. Ukraine borders only one country to the east and that is Russia. Such weapons can therefore only have come by Russian and have been issued by the Russian Government. The Kremlin persists in blatant falsehoods.

This is a totally unnecessary war from Russia’s perspective. It goes against their national interest. It has damaged their image abroad. It has harmed their economy very seriously. It has led to thousands of deaths. That said there were some genuine security concerns about NATO expansion. It is hard to convince Russians that NATO does not want to conquer them. Russians see the liberation of Afghanistan (which they assisted), Libya and Iraq as Western aggression.

What motivates Putin and his camarilla? They want Russia to be mighty/ This means more money, more weapons, more land and more allies. If this policy of war in the Ukraine were seen to militate against those objectives then Russia would changue course. Sanctions have hit the Russian economy hard. There is a double whammy because of low oil prices. BUt luck will turn. One dayy the oil prices will rise again.

What could be done to induce Vladimir Vladimirovich to change his mind? If the Ukrainian Army were amply provided with excellent weapons that would significantly increase casualties for the pro Russian rebels and Russian soldiers in the east of the Ukraine. More sanctions to really damage the economy would make Russia less able to afford to prosecute the war. Dragging the conflict on would cause popular support for Putin”s war to decrease. There is probably a large minority who would support it come what may. If Russia saw that a determined alliance had been built against her then she may be compelled to re-evaluate the wisdom of attacking the Ukraine. If Russia feared losing land then she mayy change tack.

Putin would like to drive a wedge between NATO in Europe and the USA. NATO countries in Europe have been less gung ho than the USA. This shows that Putin’s policy has been partly successful. If NATO were dissolved it would immensely strengthen Russia. If Russia can demonstrate that the USA will abandon her European allies then NATO countries in Europe may leave the alliance and capitulate to Russia.

There is not going to be a Third World War. Even during the Cold War the two sides did not fight directly. Despite what everyone says the situation is much better now than in the 1980s. There is much more interaction and friendship. Many Westerners go to Russia. Many Russians come to the West. Rich Russians do not want to have their property abroad confiscated.

If NATO could persuade CHina to cause a distraction on Russia’s Far Eastern border that might make Russia think again. I am not talking about an attack. Just demonstrations would do.

Russia would have to suffer a lot before PUtin changes his mind. Western countries lack resolve. They may well blink first.

As for the rights and the wrongs of it – it is glib but this situation is not clear cut. There is wrongdoing on the side of the Ukrainian Government. The EU was stupid to try to get the Ukraine to join as was NATO. NATO promised never to make the Ukraine a member. Now some Ukrainians will want NATO membership more than ever. They feel they need protection from their giant neighbour. There are fascists on the Kiev side but very few. There are also fascists on the Russian side. There is the ill-named Liberal Democrat Party. Zhirinovsky’s mob are fascist by any fair definition. The Communist Party in Russia openly calls for the return of an extremely oppressive system. Putin is mild compared to these two lunatics.

There has been foolish talk from Western doyens. Michael Fallon said tha Putin was a s grave a threat to Europe as ISIS. Putin is a graver threat in that he has nukes but he would not use them. However, like under Putin would be immensely preferable to life under ISIS.

Putin;s wish list is the Ukraine under his control but a titular sovereign state. He would like the border redressed in Russia;s favour. He would like Russian troops stationed in the Ukraine. He wishes to see NATO dissolved and Western countries doing his bidding. He wants his economy to boom.

How will it all end? There will not be an outright victory – certainly not for the Ukraine.

Concessions will be made to Russia. She will gain some land in the eastern Ukraine and or Crimea. Crimea is more important to her. This may be de jure but probably de facto. There may be more security guarantees not to let the Ukraine join NATO. Russia will achieve some of her goals. A pro Russian Government may be restored in Kiev. He wants Russian to be a co-official language of the Ukraine. The Ukraine should also join the Eurasian Economic Union and form a defence pact with Russia.

This issue is not vital enough to NATO lands. Plus European NATO countries have cut their militaries savagely. They take US support for granted. For years people have sneered at Uncle Sam. It is about time European NATO nations started appreciating American help.