Daily Archives: February 17, 2015

Activity 7.1. Page 109. Law of Property


a. What were the relevant facts of Ives Investment Ltd v High 1967


High owned a property and was building a house there. Mr Westgate purchaed an adjacent propetty t builf some flats. Mr High noticed that the foundations of the flats trespassed 1 foot onto his property. High spoke to Westgate aboyt it.  They agree that the trespasse would be permitted in return for High having a right of way acrooss the land. High build his house so that the only way in was to drive across westgates’s land.

Westgate then sold the flats to a couple called Wright. The conveyance ddi not say thatthe right of way and it was NOT registered as a land charge

The wrights let High use the right of way for 14 years. High the built a garage on this basis.

The Erights then sold their flat and said that there was a right of way. They mentioned thet right of way

Ives Investment ltd bought the flats and tried to bring an injunction to stop High ysing the right of way. The noted that ot as not regsterd ina ccrdance with the Land Charges Act 1972

Th e court found for High. The right of way was in return for the foundations intruding onto High’s land and the flats would not exist but for that

There was equity in Highs favour. He had been allowed to do this for years and had built on the faith of the primise

Ives Investment had actual notice of this. It would be ounonscionable to drpive Hgh of this right

Inwards v Baker was cited.



b.   Could the decision in this case have been made on other grounds?


I do not see how. Maybe an easemrnt of necessity


c. Would the result have been different in registered land?


The registerd is supposed to a full record of all interests in land but for those deliberately kept off it as in trusts.

The buyer has the right to know of all interesrs. The buyer would be protected as the regsiet gaurantees the rights of those who buy regstered land//. In that case High cold have registsred a land charge and his failure to do so would mean he would get compentsaton orposisble an easement of necessity.

The buyer would  not be equity;s dalring against whom equity has no recourse.  Because they had notice

Page 102. Law of property. quiz


1. Which is the essential for a valid lease?


It is exclusive possession. If th possession is not exclusive it is a licence. Rent is not essential. People whho do not pay rent have been found to have leases. A fixed term is not necessary it could be a pperiodic tenancy.


2. If a lease has an uncertain term but rent it paid regularly will this be a valid lease?


It is still a valid lease as a periodic one. The court mayy fill in the blanks if needs be. They will go by the norm.


3. Considering your answer to question is this a legal lease?


No it is equitable for lack of formality.


4. Which of the leases needs to be substantively registerd to be legal on creation?


A lease of over seven years. Only OVER this time – not xeactly seven years . That is in tje Land Registration Act 2002.


5. What are the requirements of a valid equitaable lease?


It must be specifically enforceable as a contract.

Early Films. Reading Comprehension.



The camera was invented in France in the 1830s. Photographs could then be taken. A photo is a still image. People realised that if you see enough still images in a second it looks like the images are moving. Over 16 still images in a second it looks like movement. Photographers tried to show enough images fast enough to make it look like the images are moving. That would be a film.

In 1895 the Skladanowsky brothers in Germany made a film. Most people think this was the first film of all. Cinemas were founded. There were very few cinemas at first. Films had no sound. The films were in black and white.

Soon there were a few cinemas in Russia, France, Germany and the United States. These would be old theatres. There would be a piano there. The pianist would see the film and play whatever melody he thought suited the film.

Actors and actresses could not speak on film so they had to show emotions with their faces and hand movements. The films also showed subtitles to tell the story and show the words the characters in the film were saying.

By 1914 there were cinemas in Kazakhstan and several other Asian countries. Film producers had started to publish music to go with a film. A pianist in a cinema would play the music that the producer of the film wanted to go with the film.

A film was made of Lenin and it was shown all over the Soviet Union. The Communist Government of the USSR used films to spread its message.

In 1927 the first film with sound was released. It was an American film called ‘The Jazz Singer.’


1. In which country was the camera invented?

2. How many images a second does the eye need to see before it looks like the images are moving.

3. Which brothers made the first film?

4. Was their sound with early films?

5. What tune did pianists play with the first films?

6. Name a famous Soviet leader who appeared on film in the 1920s?

7. How did actors have to show their feelings in silent films?

8. Were the first films in colour?

9. Which was the first film with sound?

10. Do you like films? Explain your attitude. (6)



In the 19th century things called computers existed. They were what we would call calculators. ”To compute” means to find a number, to do a calculation. It is hard to say which thing was the first real computer. Certainly in the Second World War there were computers. Governments used these to break the codes of enemy countries.

Computers in the 1940s were huge and very slow. A computer would take up two whole rooms.

Computers came to be used to write documents and to store information. Computers can figure things out and organise information faster than humans. As technology became better it also became smaller. The US military invented a way of sending messages between their bases around the world. This was called the internet.

To begin with computers were extremely expensive. This is always the way with new technology. A computer in the 1940s would cost millions of dollars in modern money. As more computers were made the price came down. More and more organisations began to use computers. In the 1980s children in school started to have lessons on computers. Until then computers were only for those who were fascinated by Maths and Physics. By the 1980s a rich family could afford a computer.

In the 1990s computers became normal in every office and in most houses. People began to print school work.


1. What did computer originally mean?

2. Which organisation invented the internet?

3. How big were the first computers in the Second World War?

4. Why did so few people own computers in the 1940s?

5. What are computers good at? (3)

6. When did children start to have computer lessons in school?

7. Do you like computers? Explain your ideas. (4)

What is football?



This sport has been around for hundreds of years. In 1863 some men in England founded the Football Association (FA). The FA wrote the rules of football because before that no one was sure what the rules are.

In football there are eleven players on each time. There is also a referee. The referee decides if a rule has been broken. He then gives a throw in, free kick or penalty to the team that did not break the rule. The referee always wears black.Teams can also have reserves. They can take a player off and bring on another player.

The pitch is about 100 m long. There is a half way line. There is a centre point and there is a centre circle around it. There is a penalty area around each goal. Within that is a the 5 m box which goes 5 m in front of the goal and 5  to each side of the posts.

A goal has two upright posts and one cross bar. To score a player must put the ball into the goal. Usually he kicks it but sometimes he headers it. Occasionally he may use another part of his body such as his chest.

One of the most important rules in football is that footballers are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands. There is an exception. The goal keeper is allowed to use his hands but only inside the penalty area.

The International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) brings together FAs from all over the world. FIFA has its headquarters in Zurich, Switzerland. FIFA is the governing committee for the sport. FIFA organises the world cup.

In the United States, Australia and Ireland people say ‘soccer’ when they mean football.


1. What does FA stand for?

2. How many players are on the team?

3. What is a referee?

4. How long is a football pitch?

5. What is FIFA?

6. What do people call football in the United States?

7. What is the box in side the penalty area called?

8. Who is the only player allowed to touch the ball with his hands/

9. What is a header?

10. What colour does the referee wear?